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cranial nervs syndromes

Pierre R Bourque, Gabrielle Bourque, William Miller, John Woulfe, Jodi Warman Chardon
Perineural invasion is a targeted cellular proliferation guided by neurotrophins, rather than a simple diffusion of tumor in a path of least resistance. Invasion of cranial nerves by squamous cell carcinoma can represent an important diagnostic dilemma. It commonly presents as a distinct clinical neurological syndrome of combined isolated trigeminal and facial neuropathies. The focal cancer source may have been overlooked or remain occult. This case series illustrates diverse clinical presentations and neuroimaging challenges in four patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cranial nerves...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Mustafa Özçetin, Mehmet Karacı, Ertuğ Toroslu, Nurullah Edebali
Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Biranchi Narayan Mohapatra, Sujit Kumar Lenka, Manoranjan Acharya, Chakradhar Majhi, Gouri Oram, Khetra Mohan Tudu
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) and to evaluate its causes. METHODS: Fifty cases of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) admitted between November 2012 to October 2014 were taken up in the study. Serum potassium level < 3.5 mmol/ltr has been taken as hypokalemia. All cases were studied for spot and/or 24 hour urinary sodium / potassium, serum potassium / calcium / magnesium. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) were diagnosed if there was spot/24 hour urine potassium excretion < 20mmol/ltr in presence of hypokalemia and flaccid weakness without other causes...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Elizabeth Fairgray, Anna Miles
PURPOSE: Moebius Syndrome is a rare congenital neurological condition often characterized by multiple cranial nerve involvement. This case study presents an eight-year old girl with Moebius Syndrome (MC) who received 30 sessions of speech therapy. This occurred after presenting to clinic 11 months after left facial reanimation with gracilis thigh muscle transfer surgery. On examination, only flickers of left facial movement were observed. There was no movement on the right side of the face...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Thomas M Kaffenberger, Rajarsi Mandal, Barry M Schaitkin, Barry E Hirsch
Objective tinnitus associated with eyelid closure is a rare clinical entity with only a few reported cases. This association previously was identified as forced eyelid closure syndrome (FECS) and involves an aberrant neural reflex between cranial nerve VII (activating the orbicularis oculi muscle) and cranial nerve V (activating the tensor tympani muscle). We present a 52-year-old Caucasian female with a 2-month history of FECS who was successfully treated with intrapalatal botulinum toxin, with full resolution of her objective tinnitus symptoms...
September 26, 2016: Laryngoscope
Azer Majeed, Nuno Pedro Lobato Ribeiro, Asem Ali, Mohsen Hijazi, Hina Farook
Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection (sICAD) is an uncommon cause of isolated cranial nerve palsies. Commonly patients present with stroke, headache, facial pain and Horner's syndrome, with upto 16% having cranial nerve palsies. We present the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with hoarseness, dysphagia and tongue swelling, mimicking a tongue base tumor. He was found to have unilateral VIIth, Xth and XIIth nerve palsies with Horner's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal changes and loss of signal void in right internal carotid artery, later confirmed by Angiography as a dissection with pseudo-aneurysm...
October 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Vikram A Londhey
SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology which can present with myriad clinical presentation. The neurological manifestations of SLE consist of central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system manifestations (PNS). The CNS manifestations are aseptic meningitis, cerebrovascular accidents (stroke), demyelinating disorders, headache, involuntary movements like chorea, myelopathy, acute confusional states, cognitive dysfunction, mood disorder, seizures, psychosis and cranial nerve palsies...
December 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Erika M Ellis, Michael Kinori, Shira L Robbins, David B Granet
BACKGROUND: Pulled-in-two syndrome (PITS) is a serious complication of strabismus surgery that occurs when an extraocular muscle ruptures under tension. The purpose of this study was to establish a database of PITS patients to identify risk factors and management of PITS. METHODS: Strabismus surgeons from around the world contributed cases of PITS through an online survey. Risk factors, management, and outcomes were identified. RESULTS: A total of 40 cases of PITS from 29 physicians in 6 countries were collected...
September 16, 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Mateus Santana do Rosário, Pedro Antonio Pereira de Jesus, Nikos Vasilakis, Daniel Santana Farias, Marco Antônio Caires Novaes, Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues, Lívia Caricio Martins, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Albert Icksang Ko, Luiz Carlos Junior Alcântara, Isadora Cristina Siqueira
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus, which has caused a widespread outbreak in the Americas. Shortly after its introduction in 2015, a cluster of cases with Guillain-Barré syndrome was detected in Brazil. Herein, we describe two cases from the city of Salvador, who developed ascending paresis after an acute exanthematous illness. The patients were admitted to the intensive care unit with tetraparesis and cranial nerve palsy, which resolved after intravenous administration of human immunoglobulin. Serological evaluation detected IgM-specific ZIKV antibodies...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Antoine Chevalier, Kelly Armstrong, C Norwood-Williams, Raman Gokal
Introduction: This case study offers a detailed comparative analysis of the effects of direct-current electroacupuncture (DC-EA) on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), when DC-EA was applied to the cranial sutures and scars of a patient with a history of ischemic stroke and postconcussion syndrome (PCS) pain. Case: A 56-year-old female suffering from severe tremors and debilitating headaches requested acupuncture after conventional biomedicines failed to relieve her symptoms. Evaluations were performed to check the status of 27 ANS functions...
August 1, 2016: Medical Acupuncture
Sonali Sihindi Chapa Gunatilake, Rohitha Gamlath, Harith Wimalaratna
BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome is an acquired polyradiculo-neuropathy, often preceded by an antecedent event. It is a monophasic disease but a recurrence rate of 1-6 % is documented in a subset group of patients. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome show cerebrospinal fluid albuminocytologic dissociation. Normal cerebrospinal fluid protein levels during both initial and recurrent episodes of Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare occurrence and has not been described earlier in the literature...
September 5, 2016: BMC Neurology
Theresia Monica Rahardjo, Tinni Trihartini Maskoen, Ike Sri Redjeki
BACKGROUND: Recovery from cytomegalovirus meningoencephalitis with brain stem death in an immunocompetent patient is almost impossible. We present a remarkable recovery from a possible cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent man who had severe neurological syndromes, suggesting brain stem death complicated by pneumonia and pleural effusion. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year-old Asian man presented at our hospital's emergency department with reduced consciousness and seizures following high fever, headache, confusion, and vomitus within a week before arrival...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Misako Kaido, Yoshihito Yuasa, Tameyoshi Yamamoto, Satoru Munakata, Naohiro Tagawa, Keiko Tanaka
We report the case of a patient who had developed multiple cranial nerve palsies in the course of possible paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) associated with gallbladder cancer. Twelve days prior to visiting our hospital, a 69-year-old man began experiencing neurological symptoms, beginning with diplopia and progressing to ptosis of the left palpebra and subsequent complete closure of the eye within 8 days. Results of the initial medical examination indicated paresis of left oculomotor (III) and abducens (VI) nerves...
September 29, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Jenna Rebelo, Smriti Nayan, Karen Choong, Martha Fulford, Anthony Chan, Doron D Sommer
OBJECTIVE: To review the thrombotic complications of head and neck infections, including Lemierre's syndrome, and their management. METHODS: A retrospective review of pediatric patients presenting to McMaster Children's Hospital from 2009 to 2013 was undertaken. The literature was reviewed for evidence regarding the use of anticoagulation therapy in this population. RESULTS: Eleven cases (6 males, 5 females) were identified. The median age was 10...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Patrick M Meyer Sauteur, Ruth Huizinga, Anne P Tio-Gillen, Joyce Roodbol, Theo Hoogenboezem, Enno Jacobs, Monique van Rijn, Annemiek A van der Eijk, Cornelis Vink, Marie-Claire Y de Wit, Annemarie M C van Rossum, Bart C Jacobs
OBJECTIVE: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute postinfectious immune-mediated polyneuropathy. Although preceding respiratory tract infections with Mycoplasma pneumoniae have been reported in some cases, the role of M. pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of GBS remains unclear. We here cultured, for the first time, M. pneumoniae from a GBS patient with antibodies against galactocerebroside (GalC), which cross-reacted with the isolate. This case prompted us to unravel the role of M. pneumoniae in GBS in a case-control study...
October 2016: Annals of Neurology
E A Kovrazhkina, N V Starikova, A G Nadtochy, L V Gubsky, V O Panov, K N Volkova
AIM: Neurological symptoms of genetic syndromes, including congenital cleft lip and palate (CLP) are well-studied while neurological characteristics of patients with non-syndromal CLP are not described. The authors studied neurological disturbances in CLP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with CLP, mean age 12.0±4.7 years (the main group) were compared to healthy people (the control group). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Elements of bulbar syndrome (atrophy and deviation of the tongue, sagging of the soft palate, specific speech disturbances) and mimic innervation abnormalities (hypomimia or hypermimia, face asymmetry), microfocal neurological symptoms occurred significantly more frequently (p<0...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Bernhard F Décard, Jan Thöne, Aiden Haghikia, Christian Börnke, Agnes Anders, Carsten Lukas, Ralf Gold
BACKGROUND: Listeriosis caused by listeria monocytogenes (LM) is a potentially lethal foodborne infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and the third most common cause of bacterial meningitis. Foods most commonly implicated are soft cheeses, raw or ready-to-eat meat and pre-processed foods. The incubation time is between 11 and 70 days. Rarely LM rhombencephalitis (RE) can occur, which typically has a biphasic course with non- specific prodromal symptoms like fever, malaise, fatigue, headache, nausea and vomiting followed by cranial nerve palsies, ataxia and hemi- or tetraparesis...
July 18, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Lewis D Hahn, Robert Fulbright, Joachim M Baehring
Hypertrophic Pachymeningitis (HP) denotes inflammation and thickening of the dura mater that can be idiopathic or secondary to a wide variety of conditions. Clinically, HP can present as debilitating headaches and cranial nerve defects but in other cases may be completely asymptomatic. We aimed to determine the relative incidence of different etiologies of HP and compare their associated imaging findings. Additionally, we sought to compare the clinical features of the underlying syndromes. We retrospectively examined twenty-two consecutive cases of HP seen in a single practitioner neurology practice over a ten-year time period...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Takeshi Kimachi, Nobuhiro Yuki, Norito Kokubun, Shuhei Yamaguchi, Benjamin R Wakerley
INTRODUCTION: Paraparetic Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare subtype of GBS characterized by leg weakness and areflexia in the absence of neurological involvement of the arms, cranial nerves, or respiratory muscles. Onset is characterized by lower back, buttock, or leg pain, followed by development of symmetric flaccid limb weakness in the absence of sensory disturbance. METHODS: We describe an elderly woman who developed post-infectious symmetric flaccid leg weakness in the absence of sensory disturbance...
July 11, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Christopher R Honey, Peter Gooderham, Murray Morrison, Zurab Ivanishvili
The authors describe a novel cranial neuropathy manifesting with life-threatening episodic hemilaryngopharyngeal spasm (HELPS). A 50-year-old woman presented with a 4-year history of intermittent throat contractions, escalating to life-threatening respiratory distress. Botulinum toxin injections into her right vocal cord reduced the severity of her spasms, but the episodes continued to occur. MRI demonstrated a possible neurovascular conflict involving the cranial nerve IX-X complex and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
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