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cranial nervs syndromes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903844/therapeutic-approaches-to-pediatric-pseudotumor-cerebri-new-insights-from-literature-data
#1
Giovanna Vitaliti, Piero Pavone, Nassim Matin, Omidreza Tabatabaie, Salvatore Cocuzza, Michele Vecchio, Luigi Maiolino, Paola Di Mauro, Angelo Conti, Riccardo Lubrano, Agostino Serra, Raffaele Falsaperla
The pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS), also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), is characterized by signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure such as headache and cranial nerve palsies, in the absence of any space-occupying mass. This condition commonly affects overweight women of childbearing age, even if it is also frequent in men and children. Children with PTCS may present with atypical signs and symptoms, with a different prognosis compared to adults. However, the treatment is the same for both children and adults, even if there are no strict treatment guidelines in regards...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891417/a-commonly-missed-well-known-entity-acute-intermittent-porphyria-a-case-report
#2
Smilu Mohanlal, Radha Gulati Ghildiyal, Alpana Kondekar, Poonam Wade, Richa Sinha
Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP) usually presents with abdominal pain, peripheral neuropathy and psychiatric manifestations. Incidence of AIP being 5 in 1,00,000. We present a case of an 11-year-old male child with multiple cranial nerve involvement, quadriparesis, focal convulsions, hypertension, hyponatremia with history of recurrent abdominal pain. His complete haemogram, ultrasonography (USG) abdomen, renal function tests were normal, he was also evaluated for tuberculosis which was negative. On further evaluation Electroencephalography (EEG) was suggestive of a generalised seizure disorder, MRI Brain suggestive of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES), Electromyography revealed a sensory motor axonal polyneuropathy and urine UV fluoresence test was positive for porphobilinogen which clinched the diagnosis of AIP...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890834/eagle-syndrome-presenting-after-blunt-trauma
#3
Ashley Mann, Scott Kujath, Mark L Friedell, Scott Hardouin, Chalmers Wood, Robert Carter, Karl Stark
As classically described, Eagle syndrome is an entity where patients develop pain or neurologic manifestations arising from an elongated styloid process and/or an ossified stylohyoid ligament irritating or compressing adjacent cranial nerves or the carotid arteries. Over the past few years, there have been reports of actual injury to the internal carotid artery with dissection, occlusion and strokes. We present three cases identified after blunt trauma-one due to carotid compression and two due to actual injury to the internal carotid artery...
November 24, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890181/imaging-of-vascular-compression-syndromes
#4
REVIEW
Joseph H Donahue, David A Ornan, Sugoto Mukherjee
Trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, vestibulocochlear neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia represent the most common neurovascular compression syndromes. Repeated vascular pulsations at the vulnerable transitional zone of the individual cranial nerves lead to focal axonal injury and demyelination. High-resolution 3-D T2-weighted MR imaging is essential in detecting and mapping neurovascular compression for directed therapy. Knowledge of the specific nerve root exit, the transitional zones, and the adjacent vasculature is critical in proper management...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858390/eagle-syndrome-presented-with-neurological-symptoms
#5
Elçin Aydin, Hüseyin Quliyev, Celal Çinar, Halil Bozkaya, İsmail Oran
AIM: Eagle syndrome is a rare entity that causes recurrent throat pain, neck pain, dysphagia, or facial pain by elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament. Clinical findings related to the lower cranial nerves compression have also been reported. In some cases it is reported that carotid artery compression or dissection can be seen due to elongated styloid process and it is called carotid artery syndrome. Carotid artery compression causes flow reduction and carotidynia or neurological symptoms can be seen...
October 14, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837354/congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Anupam Singh, P K Pandey, Ajai Agrawal, Sanjeev Kumar Mittal, Kartik Maheshbhai Rana, Chirag Bahuguna
The European Neuromuscular Centre (ENMC) derived the term Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders in 2002 at an international workshop for a group of congenital neuromuscular diseases. CCDDs are congenital, non-progressive ophthalmoplegia with restriction of globe movement in one or more fields of gaze. This group of sporadic and familial strabismus syndromes was initially referred to as the 'congenital fibrosis syndromes' because it was assumed that the primary pathologic process starts in the muscles of eye motility...
November 11, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829262/-upper-airway-stimulation-in-osa
#7
B Bender
Anatomical basis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the collapse of the pharynx during sleep. It is considered as a result of complex interactions of structural and neuromuscular factors. Depth of sleep and body position have modulating effects. Although different areas of obstruction were identified, studies show that the sleep-mediated obstruction frequently occurs in the base of tongue area.Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) since more than 30 years...
November 2016: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822198/looks-like-tuberculous-meningitis-but-not-a-case-of-rhinocerebral-mucormycosis-with-garcin-syndrome
#8
HongNa Yang, CuiLan Wang
Rhinocerebral mucomycosis (RCM) as an emerging opportunistic, angioinvasive, and devastating fungi infection with high mortality is difficult to be diagnosed early because of the lack of specific clinical features or manifestations. Garcin syndrome is more often caused by skull base and rhinopharyngeal tumors or metastases, and basal meningitis. We reported that an aged diabetic man, involved nearly all cranial nerves (Garcin syndrome), who was at first suspected to be suffered from tuberculous meningitis, ultimately developed typically progressing RCM...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811127/collet-sicard-syndrome-a-rare-but-important-presentation-of-internal-jugular-vein-thrombosis
#9
Shermyn Neo, Kim En Lee
We describe a rare neurological presentation of internal jugular vein thrombosis induced by central venous catheter placement in a patient with cancer. A 71-year-old man gave a 3-week history of dysphagia and dysarthria with left-sided neck pain and headache. He was receiving chemotherapy for appendiceal adenocarcinoma. On examination, he had left 9th-12th cranial neuropathies, manifesting as voice hoarseness, decreased palatal movement, absent gag reflex, weakness of scapular elevation and left-sided tongue wasting...
November 3, 2016: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810194/-ectopic-craniopharyngioma-and-gardner-s-syndrome-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Juan Antonio Álvarez Salgado, Francisco González-Llanos Fernández de Mesa, Jorge Javier Villaseñor Ledezma, Maria de Los Angeles Cañizares Méndez, Igor Paredes Sansinenea, Angel Rodríguez de Lope-Llorca, Manuela Mollejo Villanueva
INTRODUCTION: Craniopharyngioma accounts for around 3% of all primary tumours of the central nervous system. It is usually located in the suprasellar region, although it may also have an ectopic location. CASE REPORT: The case is presented on 29 year-old male who underwent surgery for a jaw osteoma when he was 19 years old and was subsequently diagnosed with Gardner's syndrome. He was admitted in our Hospital with right facial paresis and diplopia of one day onset...
October 31, 2016: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803855/fgfr2-mutation-in-a-chinese-family-with-unusual-crouzon-syndrome
#11
Zi-Li Li, Xue Chen, Wen-Juan Zhuang, Wei Zhao, Ya-Ni Liu, Fang-Xia Zhang, Ruo-Shui Ha, Jin-Hua Wu, Chen Zhao, Xun-Lun Sheng
AIM: To describe the clinical characteristics with genetic lesions in a Chinese family with Crouzon syndrome. METHODS: All five patients from this family were included and received comprehensive ophthalmic and systemic examinations. Direct sequencing of the FGFR2 gene was employed for mutation identification. Crystal structure analysis was applied to analyze the structural changes associated with the substitution. RESULTS: All patients presented typical Crouzon features, including short stature, craniosynostosis, mandibular prognathism, shallow orbits with proptosis, and exotropia...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802176/complex-effects-of-apoplexy-secondary-to-pituitary-adenoma
#12
Rui-Cheng Zhang, Ying-Feng Mu, Jing Dong, Xiao-Qian Lin, De-Qin Geng
Pituitary adenoma apoplexy is a well-known clinical syndrome induced by insulin infusion, cardiac surgery, trauma, and hypothalamic releasing factors. Pituitary apoplexy can cause secondary cerebral infarct and internal carotid artery occlusion. With blockade of tumor perfusion, apoplexy triggers a sudden onset of headache, visual impairment, cranial nerve palsy, disturbances of consciousness, eyelid ptosis, and hemiparesis. However, pituitary adenoma cells with high metabolic demand cannot survive with deficient blood supply and glucose concentrations...
October 29, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801772/cranial-nerve-vi-palsy-as-the-main-clinical-manifestation-of-neurosarcoidosis
#13
Zaid A Al-Qudah, Hussam A Yacoub, Nizar Souayah
INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder that is characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. Patients may present with cranial nerve palsy, paresthesia, paresis, pyramidal signs, progressive cognitive decline, urinary retention, seizures, or hypothalamic-pituitary syndrome. Although the diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis can be challenging, neurological manifestations of sarcoidosis occur more frequently than previously described. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old African American man presented to our emergency department with diplopia, which was worsened on left horizontal gaze...
November 2016: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767394/resolution-of-intractable-retching-following-mobilization-of-a-dolichoectatic-vertebral-artery-case-report-of-a-unique-brainstem-cranial-nerve-compression-syndrome
#14
Scott Seaman, Paul Nelson, Jacob Alexander, Andrew Swift, James Fick
The authors present the case of a 53-year-old man who was referred with disabling retching provoked by left arm abduction. At the time of his initial evaluation, a cervical MRI study was available for review and revealed an anatomical variation of the ipsilateral juxtamedullary vertebrobasilar junction. After brain imaging revealed contact of the medulla by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery at the dorsal root entry zone of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, the patient was successfully treated by microvascular decompression of the brainstem and cranial nerves...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742375/combined-isolated-trigeminal-and-facial-neuropathies-from-perineural-invasion-by-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Pierre R Bourque, Gabrielle Bourque, William Miller, John Woulfe, Jodi Warman Chardon
Perineural invasion is a targeted cellular proliferation guided by neurotrophins, rather than a simple diffusion of tumor in a path of least resistance. Invasion of cranial nerves by squamous cell carcinoma can represent an important diagnostic dilemma. It commonly presents as a distinct clinical neurological syndrome of combined isolated trigeminal and facial neuropathies. The focal cancer source may have been overlooked or remain occult. This case series illustrates diverse clinical presentations and neuroimaging challenges in four patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cranial nerves...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738402/a-pediatric-case-of-pituitary-macroadenoma-presenting-with-pituitary-apoplexy-and-cranial-nerve-involvement-case-report
#16
Mustafa Özçetin, Mehmet Karacı, Ertuğ Toroslu, Nurullah Edebali
Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735149/clinical-and-aetiological-spectrum-of-hypokalemic-flaccid-paralysis-in-western-odisha
#17
Biranchi Narayan Mohapatra, Sujit Kumar Lenka, Manoranjan Acharya, Chakradhar Majhi, Gouri Oram, Khetra Mohan Tudu
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) and to evaluate its causes. METHODS: Fifty cases of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) admitted between November 2012 to October 2014 were taken up in the study. Serum potassium level < 3.5 mmol/ltr has been taken as hypokalemia. All cases were studied for spot and/or 24 hour urinary sodium / potassium, serum potassium / calcium / magnesium. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) were diagnosed if there was spot/24 hour urine potassium excretion < 20mmol/ltr in presence of hypokalemia and flaccid weakness without other causes...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729154/enhancing-surgical-outcomes-the-effects-of-speech-therapy-on-a-school-aged-girl-with-moebius-syndrome
#18
Elizabeth Fairgray, Anna Miles
PURPOSE: Moebius Syndrome is a rare congenital neurological condition often characterized by multiple cranial nerve involvement. This case study presents an eight-year old girl with Moebius Syndrome (MC) who received 30 sessions of speech therapy. This occurred after presenting to clinic 11 months after left facial reanimation with gracilis thigh muscle transfer surgery. On examination, only flickers of left facial movement were observed. There was no movement on the right side of the face...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717035/palatal-botulinum-toxin-as-a-novel-therapy-for-objective-tinnitus-in-forced-eyelid-closure-syndrome
#19
Thomas M Kaffenberger, Rajarsi Mandal, Barry M Schaitkin, Barry E Hirsch
Objective tinnitus associated with eyelid closure is a rare clinical entity with only a few reported cases. This association previously was identified as forced eyelid closure syndrome (FECS) and involves an aberrant neural reflex between cranial nerve VII (activating the orbicularis oculi muscle) and cranial nerve V (activating the tensor tympani muscle). We present a 52-year-old Caucasian female with a 2-month history of FECS who was successfully treated with intrapalatal botulinum toxin, with full resolution of her objective tinnitus symptoms...
September 26, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699055/a-rare-presentation-of-spontaneous-internal-carotid-artery-dissection-with-horner-s-syndrome-viith-xth-and-xiith-nerve-palsies
#20
Azer Majeed, Nuno Pedro Lobato Ribeiro, Asem Ali, Mohsen Hijazi, Hina Farook
Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection (sICAD) is an uncommon cause of isolated cranial nerve palsies. Commonly patients present with stroke, headache, facial pain and Horner's syndrome, with upto 16% having cranial nerve palsies. We present the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with hoarseness, dysphagia and tongue swelling, mimicking a tongue base tumor. He was found to have unilateral VIIth, Xth and XIIth nerve palsies with Horner's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal changes and loss of signal void in right internal carotid artery, later confirmed by Angiography as a dissection with pseudo-aneurysm...
October 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
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