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Rose G Radin, Lindsey A Sjaarda, Neil J Perkins, Robert M Silver, Zhen Chen, Laurie L Lesher, Noya Galai, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Sunni L Mumford, Enrique F Schisterman
CONTEXT: Among women with a single, recent pregnancy loss, daily preconception low-dose aspirin (LDA) increased the live birth rate with no effect on pregnancy loss. The mechanism underlying this effect is unclear, but it may work through ovulation. OBJECTIVE: We estimated the effect of LDA on the per-cycle risk of anovulation among eumenorrheic women. DESIGN: The Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial, a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of daily LDA on reproductive outcomes...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Muren, Satoshi Kusuda, Osamu Doi, Hitomi Naito, Hisashi Hashikawa
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproductive status and clarify the reproductive physiology of captive Sichuan golden monkeys. The concentrations of urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide (E2G) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) or fecal estradiol-17β (E2) and PdG in two females, and fecal testosterone concentrations in a male, were measured continuously using enzyme immunoassays. On the basis of these hormone profiles, the follicular phase, luteal phase, and ovarian cycle were calculated to be 14.7 ± 4...
September 8, 2016: Theriogenology
Sarina Schrager
Infertility is common in the United States, with up to 15% of heterosexual couples experiencing difficulty in achieving conception. Family physicians often are the first physicians to evaluate couples attempting to conceive. Evaluation begins with assessment of ovulation, evaluation of anatomic abnormalities, and semen analysis. Many etiologies of anovulation can be managed by family physicians, and clinicians can offer counseling on timing of intercourse and assist patients with lifestyle changes to promote fertility...
October 2016: FP Essentials
Jenny Brouwer, Rosalie Fleurbaaij, Johanna M W Hazes, Radboud J E M Dolhain, Joop S E Laven
Objective - Subfertility is frequently encountered amongst female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and has been associated with disease activity and anti-rheumatic drugs. However, little is known about the results of the fertility work-up in these women. Our aim was to study the outcome of fertility assessments in subfertile women with RA. Methods - A cross-sectional study was performed in a nationwide cohort of female RA patients who were pregnant or were trying to conceive between 2002 and 2010 (PARA study)...
October 9, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
F Acıbucu, D O Acıbucu, Ö B Akkar, H S Dokmetas
Introduction: Radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation treatment is used for patients diagnosed with well-differentiated thyroid cancer in order to reduce the risk of recurrence. RAI ablation treatment can adversely affect gonads in males and females. In this study, we aimed to determine ovary damage and infertility risk due to RAI, using serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level, in females who received RAI ablation treatment. Materials and Methods: 45 female patients who have not gone through the menopause and had received RAI ablation treatment for well-differentiated thyroid cancer in premenopausal period, and 40 healthy females as control groups were included in this study...
October 6, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Deyra A Ramírez, Elizabeth Vieyra, Aldo I González, Carolina Morán, Roberto Domínguez, Leticia Morales-Ledesma
The aims of the present study were to analyze if the superior ovarian nerve (SON) plays a role in the neural signals from suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that lead to ovulation and ovarian steroids secretion on proestrus day. Rats on proestrus day were treated at 11.00 to 11.30 or 17.00 to 17.30 hours with 1 of the 3 experimental procedures (1) unilateral or bilateral SON sectioning, (2) unilateral or bilateral injury to the SCN, or (3) unilateral injury to the SCN followed by unilateral sectioning of the SON ipsilateral to the treated SCN...
September 29, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Gurkan Bozdag, Sezcan Mumusoglu, Dila Zengin, Erdem Karabulut, Bulent Okan Yildiz
STUDY QUESTION: What is the reported overall prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to the criteria of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rotterdam or the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AE-PCOS Society)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The reported overall prevalence of PCOS (95% CI) according to diagnostic criteria of the NIH, Rotterdam and the AE-PCOS Society is 6% (5-8%, n = 18 trials), 10% (8-13%, n = 15 trials) and 10% (7-13%, n = 10 trials), respectively...
September 22, 2016: Human Reproduction
Sareh Dashti, Latiffah A Latiff, Habibah Abdul Hamid, Suriani Mohamad Sani, Mehrnoosh Akhtari-Zavare, Azrin Shah Abu Bakar, Nur Amirah Inani Binti Sabri, Maimunah Ismail, Ali Jafarzadeh Esfehani
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a combination of chronic anovulation, obesity, and hyperandrogenism and can affect sexual function in women of reproductive age. It is also associated with endometrial cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency and predisposing factors of sexual dysfunction in PCOS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 16 married women with a definite diagnosis of PCOS were recruited. Sexual function was assessed in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain using the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Agnieszka Adamska, Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska, Agnieszka Lebkowska, Robert Milewski, Maria Górska, Elzbieta Otziomek, Agnieszka Nikolajuk, Slawomir Wolczynski, Irina Kowalska
Irisin is an adipokine/myokine which could be connected with insulin sensitivity. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by oligo- or anovulation, polycystic ovary, hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between serum irisin concentration and insulin sensitivity (Mffm) as well as the effect of insulin infusion on circulating irisin levels in PCOS women as compared with healthy controls. Seventy seven women were enrolled in the study - 57 with PCOS and 20 healthy controls matched for BMI and age...
September 8, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Antonio Simone Laganà, Paola Rossetti, Massimo Buscema, Sandro La Vignera, Rosita Angela Condorelli, Giuseppe Gullo, Roberta Granese, Onofrio Triolo
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronical anovulation and hyperandrogenism which may be present in a different degree of severity. Insulin-resistance and hyperinsulinemia are the main physiopathological basis of this syndrome and the failure of inositol-mediated signaling may concur to them. Myo (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), the most studied inositol isoforms, are classified as insulin sensitizers. In form of glycans, DCI-phosphoglycan and MI-phosphoglycan control key enzymes were involved in glucose and lipid metabolism...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Francesco Orio, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Cinar Nese, Stefano Palomba, Silvia Savastano, Domenico Tafuri, Giorgio Colarieti, Giovanbattista La Sala, Annamaria Colao, Bulent O Yildiz
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women and is characterized by two of the following three features: oligoovulation or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, or polycystic ovaries. SUMMARY: It has been demonstrated that PCOS includes a complex number of systemic symptoms in addition to symptoms related to the reproductive apparatus. It has been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease...
August 12, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Evgenia Gourgari, Elias Spanakis, Adrian Sandra Dobs
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR), obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a descriptive review of several mechanisms that can explain the IR among women with PCOS, other risk factors for the development of diabetes, and the screening methods used for the detection of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS. Few mechanisms can explain IR in women with PCOS such as obesity, insulin receptor signaling defects, and inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Didier Dewailly, Geoffroy Robin, Maëliss Peigne, Christine Decanter, Pascal Pigny, Sophie Catteau-Jonard
BACKGROUND: Androgens, FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol (E2) are essential in human ovarian folliculogenesis. However, the interactions between these four players is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES AND RATIONALE: The purpose of this review is to highlight the chronological sequence of the appearance and function of androgens, FSH, AMH and E2 and to discuss controversies in the relationship between FSH and AMH. A better understanding of this interaction could supplement our current knowledge about the pathophysiology of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
August 27, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Liesbeth J Meylaerts, Leen Wijnen, Willem Ombelet, Marc Bazot, Marjan Vandersteen
PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate and compare the junctional zone (JZ) and outer myometrial thickness in infertile and healthy nulliparous women at different locations in the uterine wall during the menstrual cycle by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed pelvic 1.5T MRI (T2 -weighted turbo spin echo sequences) on 28 infertile women: 5 with infertility of unknown origin, 12 anovulating, and 11 on ovarian stimulation therapy (mean age 28...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Daria Lizneva, Richard Kirubakaran, Kateryna Mykhalchenko, Larisa Suturina, Galina Chernukha, Michael P Diamond, Ricardo Azziz
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes and obesity among patients detected in referral versus unselected populations. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Thirteen thousand seven hundred ninety-six reproductive-age patients with PCOS, as defined by the extended Rotterdam 2003 criteria. INTERVENTION(S): Review of PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, 2003-2016...
August 13, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Konstantinos Tziomalos
BACKGROUND: The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and shows substantial phenotypic variability. According to the presence of the three diagnostic criteria of PCOS, i.e. oligo- and/or anovulation, hyperandrogenemia and/or clinical signs of high androgen levels, and polycystic ovaries, four different phenotypes of PCOS are identified. It appears that these phenotypes differ in the prevalence of several established and emerging cardiovascular risk factors...
July 20, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Stefano Palomba, Antonio Simone Laganà, Francesco Orio
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome characterized by reproductive and metabolic implications. Lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, are considered first-line treatment for women affected by PCOS. Pharmacologic treatments target the hormonal and metabolic dysregulations associated to the disease such as insulin resistance, anovulation, hirsutism and menstrual irregularities. OBJECTIVE: To focus on the role of inositol isoforms, as well as Mediterranean and ketogenic diets, as possible therapeutic strategies in PCOS women...
July 20, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
John G Love, John S McKenzie, Efsevia A Nikokavoura, John Broom, Catherine Rolland, Kelly L Johnston
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is variously reported to affect between 5% and 26% of reproductive age women in the UK and accounts for up to 75% of women attending fertility clinics due to anovulation. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions. However, optimal dietary guidelines are missing, with very little research having been done in this area. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study (using semistructured interviews) of ten obese women who had PCOS and who had used LighterLife Total (LLT), a commercial weight loss program which utilizes a very low-calorie diet in conjunction with behavioral change therapy underpinned by group support...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Elena Benelli, Scilla Del Ghianda, Caterina Di Cosmo, Massimo Tonacchera
Introduction. We evaluated the effects of a therapy that combines myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI) in young overweight women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by oligo- or anovulation and hyperandrogenism, correlated to insulin resistance. Methods. We enrolled 46 patients affected by PCOS and, randomly, we assigned them to two groups, A and B, treated, respectively, with the association of MI plus DCI, in a 40 : 1 ratio, or with placebo (folic acid) for six months. Thus, we analyzed pretreatment and posttreatment FSH, LH, 17-beta-Estradiol, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenedione, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, HOMA index, and fasting glucose and insulin...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Georgios K Dimitriadis, Ioannis Kyrou, Harpal S Randeva
BACKGROUND: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex heterogeneous disorder and the most common endocrinopathy amongst women of reproductive age. It is characterized by androgen excess, chronic anovulation and an altered cardiometabolic profile. PCOS is linked to impaired adipose tissue (AT) physiology and women with this disorder present with greater risk for insulin resistance (IR), hyperinsulinemia, central adiposity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than matched for age and body mass index (BMI) women without PCOS...
July 26, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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