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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183310/animal-models-of-hyperandrogenism-and-ovarian-morphology-changes-as-features-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Larissa Paixão, Ramon B Ramos, Anita Lavarda, Debora M Morsh, Poli Mara Spritzer
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, affecting 9-18% of women in reproductive age that causes hyperandrogenism and infertility due to dysfunctional follicular maturation and anovulation. The etiology of PCOS is still poorly known, and information from experimental animal models may help improve current understanding of the mechanisms of PCOS initiation and development. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of currently available methods for simulation of PCOS in experimental models, focusing on two main endocrine traits: ovarian morphology changes and circulating levels of sex hormones and gonadotropins...
February 10, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161186/a-dairy-herd-level-study-of-postpartum-diseases-and-their-association-with-reproductive-performance-and-culling
#2
J Dubuc, J Denis-Robichaud
The objectives of this study were to quantify the herd-level prevalence of postpartum diseases in a large number of dairy farms, and to identify prevalence alarm levels of these diseases based on association with a low prevalence of success at first service, with a high prevalence of pregnancy loss following pregnancy diagnosis at first service, and with a high prevalence of postpartum culling. A total of 126 commercial dairy herds were enrolled in this cohort study, and the herd was the unit of interest. Twenty cows from every herd were enrolled during the study period (a total of 2,520 lactating cows in the study)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143834/treatment-strategies-for-women-with-who-group-ii-anovulation-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#3
Rui Wang, Bobae V Kim, Madelon van Wely, Neil P Johnson, Michael F Costello, Hanwang Zhang, Ernest Hung Yu Ng, Richard S Legro, Siladitya Bhattacharya, Robert J Norman, Ben Willem J Mol
OBJECTIVE:  To compare the effectiveness of alternative first line treatment options for women with WHO group II anovulation wishing to conceive. DESIGN:  Systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES:  Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase, up to 11 April 2016. STUDY SELECTION:  Randomised controlled trials comparing eight ovulation induction treatments in women with WHO group II anovulation: clomiphene, letrozole, metformin, clomiphene and metformin combined, tamoxifen, gonadotropins, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, and placebo or no treatment...
January 31, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118681/metformin-during-ovulation-induction-with-gonadotrophins-followed-by-timed-intercourse-or-intrauterine-insemination-for-subfertility-associated-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Esmée M Bordewijk, Marleen Nahuis, Michael F Costello, Fulco Van der Veen, Leopoldo O Tso, Ben Willem J Mol, Madelon van Wely
BACKGROUND: Clomiphene citrate (CC) is generally considered first-line treatment in women with anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; gonadotrophins) is second-line treatment for women who do not ovulate or conceive while taking CC. Metformin may increase the effectiveness of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins and may promote safety by preventing multiple pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of metformin co-treatment during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins with respect to rates of live birth and multiple pregnancy in women with PCOS...
January 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111234/transcriptomic-signatures-for-ovulation-in-vertebrates
#5
Dong Teng Liu, Michael S Brewer, Shixi Chen, Wanshu Hong, Yong Zhu
The central roles of luteinizing hormone (LH), progestin and their receptors for initiating ovulation have been well established. However, signaling pathways and downstream targets such as proteases that are essential for the rupture of follicular cells are still unclear. Recently, we found anovulation in nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr) knockout (Pgr-KO) zebrafish, which offers a new model for examining genes and pathways that are important for ovulation and fertility. In this study, we examined expression of all transcripts using RNA-Seq in preovulatory follicular cells collected following the final oocyte maturation, but prior to ovulation, from wild-type (WT) or Pgr-KO fish...
January 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104824/gnrh-mrna-expression-in-the-brain-of-cooperatively-breeding-female-damaraland-mole-rats
#6
Cornelia Voigt, Nc Bennett
The Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis) is a eusocial, subterranean rodent, in which breeding is limited to a single reproductive pair within each colony. Non-reproductive females, while in the confines of the colony, exhibit socially-induced infertility. Anovulation is thought to be caused by a disruption in the normal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus. In order to assess whether social suppression is associated with altered GnRH mRNA expression in the brain we investigated the distribution and gene expression levels by means of in situ hybridization in female breeders and non-breeders from field captured colonies of the Damaraland mole-rat...
January 19, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050960/obesity-and-anovulatory-infertility-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Christiane R Giviziez, Eliane G M Sanchez, Mário S Approbato, Monica C S Maia, Eliamar Aparecida B Fleury, Reinaldo S A Sasaki
This global overweight and obesity epidemics has become one of the largest public health problem worldwide and is increasingly more common among women in reproductive age. Along with the prevalence of overweight women, there is an increase in women with anovulatory infertility. Thus, we carried out a bibliographic research in the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases, using the combinations in Portuguese, Spanish and English of the following descriptors: "Body Mass Index", "obesity", "overweight", "female infertility" and "anovulation"...
December 1, 2016: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045919/alterations-in-gut-microbiome-composition-and-barrier-function-are-associated-with-reproductive-and-metabolic-defects-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-a-pilot-study
#8
Lisa Lindheim, Mina Bashir, Julia Münzker, Christian Trummer, Verena Zachhuber, Bettina Leber, Angela Horvath, Thomas R Pieber, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrinopathy of unclear origin characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and ovarian cysts. Women with PCOS frequently display overweight, insulin resistance, and systemic low-grade inflammation. We hypothesized that endotoxemia resulting from a leaky gut is associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, fat accumulation, and hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. In this pilot study, we compared the stool microbiome, gut permeability, and inflammatory status of women with PCOS and healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041589/ovarian-aging-in-women-with-diabetes-an-overview
#9
REVIEW
Melissa F Wellons, Juliana J Matthews, Catherine Kim
Type 2 diabetes is a global epidemic, and the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes are increasing. The negative effects of diabetes on kidneys, nerves, and vessels are well established. The effect of diabetes on reproductive function is less well understood, but important to characterize, given the increasing numbers of young women with diabetes. In this review, we summarize the available literature on how women with diabetes experience ovarian aging, from menarche to menopause. We report that women with type 1 diabetes appear more likely to have ovarian dysfunction, manifested by delayed menses, menstrual irregularities, and possibly earlier menopause...
February 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039871/high-salivary-testosterone-to-androstenedione-ratio-and-adverse-metabolic-phenotypes-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#10
J Münzker, L Lindheim, J Adaway, C Trummer, E Lerchbaum, T R Pieber, B Keevil, B Obermayer-Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by a combination of hormonal and metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Clinical phenotypes of PCOS show different patterns of steroid hormones that have been investigated to some extent. This study aimed to establish a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of salivary testosterone and androstenedione and to describe the salivary testosterone-to-androstenedione (T/A4) ratio as a new tool for the assessment of hyperandrogenism and metabolic health...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035585/effect-of-exercise-on-ovulation-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Osnat Hakimi, Luiz-Claudio Cameron
BACKGROUND: Infertility has been described as a devastating life crisis for couples, and has a particularly severe effect on women, in terms of anxiety and depression. Anovulation accounts for around 30% of female infertility, and while lifestyle factors such as physical activity are known to be important, the relationship between exercise and ovulation is multi-factorial and complex, and to date there are no clear recommendations concerning exercise regimes. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to systematically assess the effect of physical activity on ovulation and to discuss the possible mechanisms by which exercise acts to modulate ovulation in reproductive-age women...
December 29, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013526/myeloperoxidase-in-blood-neutrophils-during-normal-and-abnormal-menstrual-cycles-in-women-of-reproductive-age
#12
T Shibata, J Sakamoto, Y Osaka, N Neyatani, S Fujita, Y Oka, H Takagi, H Mori, H Fujita, Y Tanaka, T Sasagawa
INTRODUCTION: We previously reported that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plays a critical role in ovulation, suggesting that neutrophils may maintain ovulation. We assessed myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major and specific enzyme of neutrophils, in women with abnormal and normal menstrual cycles to clarify the relationship between MPO and ovulation. METHODS: We analyzed MPO activity in blood neutrophils of women with abnormal menstrual cycles (indicative of anovulation, n = 12) and age- and body mass index-matched normal menstrual cycles (indicative of ovulation, n = 24) using two parameters as a marker of MPO, Neut X and mean peroxidase index (MPXI)...
December 25, 2016: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008453/association-of-vdbp-and-cyp2r1-gene-polymorphisms-with-vitamin-d-status-in-women-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-a-north-indian-study
#13
Deepa Haldar, Nitin Agrawal, Seema Patel, Pankaj Ramrao Kambale, Kanchan Arora, Aditi Sharma, Manish Tripathi, Aruna Batra, Bhaskar C Kabi
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality among women of reproductive age and is usually associated with oligo-ovulation/anovulation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Hypovitaminosis D may also be a primary factor in the initiation and development of PCOS. However, little is known about the role of genetic variation in vitamin D metabolism in PCOS aetiology. Therefore, we studied the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2R1 and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) in an Indian population...
December 23, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004236/ghrelin-is-independently-associated-with-anti-mullerian-hormone-levels-in-obese-but-not-non-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#14
Margaret C Garin, Samantha F Butts, David B Sarwer, Kelly C Allison, Suneeta Senapati, Anuja Dokras
Ghrelin is an endogenous appetite stimulant that may have a role in ovarian function. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have anovulation and frequently weight management issues; however the associations between ghrelin and hormonal markers in polycystic ovary syndrome have not been well studied. In order to characterize the association between total ghrelin levels and ovarian function and the possible modification of this relationship by obesity, we examined total ghrelin levels and anti-mullerian hormone, total testosterone, and insulin in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome...
December 21, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001262/current-aspects-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-literature-review
#15
Victor Hugo Lopes DE Andrade, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira DA Mata, Rafael Soares Borges, Danylo Rafhael Costa-Silva, Luana Mota Martins, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, Lívio César Cunha-Nunes, Benedito Borges DA Silva
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with variable prevalence, affecting about one in every 15 women worldwide. The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome requires at least two of the following criteria: oligoovulation and/or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and morphology of polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this article was to present a review of the literature by searching the databases Pubmed and Scielo, focusing on publications related to polycystic ovaries, including its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic aspects, as well as its association with cardiovascular and arterial hypertensive disorders...
December 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999413/neuroprotection-via-reduction-in-stress-altered-menstrual-patterns-as-a-marker-for-stress-and-implications-for-long-term-neurologic-health-in-women
#16
REVIEW
David Prokai, Sarah L Berga
Individuals under chronic psychological stress can be difficult to identify clinically. There is often no outwardly visible phenotype. Chronic stress of sufficient magnitude not only impacts reproductive function, but also concomitantly elicits a constellation of neuroendocrine changes that may accelerate aging in general and brain aging in particular. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a phenotypically recognizable form of stress, is due to stress-induced suppression of endogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997272/progesterone-receptors-and-proliferation-of-the-endometrium-in-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-lifestyle-intervention-study
#17
M Paulson, L Sahlin, A L Hirschberg
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer. This is usually explained by chronic anovulation and deficient progesterone activity. However, the role of progesterone receptors (PRs) in endometrial proliferation is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate PRs in relation to endometrial proliferation in women with PCOS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study and lifestyle intervention. SETTINGS: Clinical and laboratory research unit at a university hospital...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993999/natural-conception-repeated-predictions-over-time
#18
R van Eekelen, I Scholten, R I Tjon-Kon-Fat, J W van der Steeg, P Steures, P Hompes, M van Wely, F van der Veen, B W Mol, M J Eijkemans, E R Te Velde, N van Geloven
STUDY QUESTION: How can we predict chances of natural conception at various time points in couples diagnosed with unexplained subfertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: We developed a dynamic prediction model that can make repeated predictions over time for couples with unexplained subfertility that underwent a fertility workup at a fertility clinic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The most frequently used prediction model for natural conception (the 'Hunault model') estimates the probability of natural conception only once per couple, that is, after completion of the fertility workup...
December 18, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988272/the-impact-of-postnatal-leuprolide-acetate-treatment-on-reproductive-characteristics-in-a-rodent-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#19
Lady Katerine Serrano Mujica, Kalyne Bertolin, Alessandra Bridi, Werner Giehl Glanzner, Vitor Braga Rissi, Flávia de Los Santos de Camargo, Renato Zanella, Osmar Damian Prestes, Rafael Noal Moresco, Alfredo Quites Antoniazzi, Paulo Bayard Dias Gonçalves, Melissa Orlandin Premaor, Fabio Vasconcellos Comim
In this study, a GnRH agonist, leuprolide acetate (LA), was given as a single depot injection before 48 h of life to Wistar female rats allotted to prenatal (E16-18) and postnatal androgenization (day 5 of life) by the use of testosterone propionate, looking for reproductive endpoints. Remarkably, a single injection of LA increased the estrus cycles in the postnatal group (PostN) from 0% to 25% of the estrus cycles in the postnatal LA treated group (PostN L). LA also reduced the serum testosterone levels and cysts and atretic follicles in PostN L in contrast with rats (>100 days) from the PostN group (p = 0...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976369/clomiphene-and-other-antioestrogens-for-ovulation-induction-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Cindy Farquhar
BACKGROUND: Subfertility due to anovulation is a common problem in women. First-line oral treatment is with antioestrogens such as clomiphene citrate, but resistance may be apparent with clomiphene. Alternative and adjunctive treatments have been used including tamoxifen, dexamethasone, and bromocriptine. The effectiveness of these is to be determined. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relative effectiveness of antioestrogen agents including clomiphene alone or in combination with other medical therapies in women with subfertility associated with anovulation, possibly caused by polycystic ovarian syndrome...
15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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