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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624501/new-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Sidika E Karakas
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting young women. Even though the definition of PCOS has changed over the years, all diagnostic criteria include two or more of the following: oligomenorrhea/oligoovulation/anovulation, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries (PCO). Traditional method of assessing the ovarian morphology has been transvaginal pelvic ultrasound. Recent studies support that serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels correlate with the number of ovarian follicles and cysts...
June 15, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606381/which-origin-for-polycystic-ovaries-syndrome-genetic-environmental-or-both
#2
Patrick Fenichel, Charlotte Rougier, Sylvie Hieronimus, Nicolas Chevalier
Polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS), the most common female endocrine disorder, affects 7-10% of women of childbearing age. It includes ovarian hyperandrogenism, impaired follicular maturation, anovulation and subfertility. Insulin resistance, although present in most cases, is not necessary for diagnosis. It increases hyperandrogenism and long-term metabolic, cardiovascular and oncological risks. The origin of hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia has a genetic component, as demonstrated by familial aggregation studies and recent identification of associated genomic variants, conferring a particular susceptibility to the syndrome...
June 9, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597496/elevated-anti-mullerian-hormone-in-lean-women-may-not-indicate-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#3
Rachel A Bradbury, Paul Lee, Howard C Smith
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder with clinical features shared with functional hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (FHH). AIM: To investigate the usefulness of an elevated (>40 pmol/L) anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) in identifying PCOS and distinguishing PCOS from FHH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 141 patients with an elevated AMH and body mass index either <20 kg/m(2) (lean) or >30 kg/m(2) (obese) were selected and three subgroups analysed - obese, lean, lean with suspected FHH...
June 9, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593921/hyperandrogenism-in-adolescent-girls-relationship-with-the-somatotrophic-axis
#4
María Isabel Hernandez, Patricia López, Ximena Gaete, Claudio Villarroel, Gabriel Cavada, Alejandra Avila, German Iñiguez, Fernando Cassorla
BACKGROUND: During puberty there is a physiologic increase in adrenal and ovarian androgens. It has been suggested that the somatotrophic axis may be related to the development of hyperandrogenism and anovulation in non-obese adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The objective of the study was to investigate whether ovarian androgen secretion in young postmenarchal girls is related to the function of their somatotropic axis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of adolescent girls...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588183/orlistat-the-lipase-inhibitor-therapy-in-overweight-and-obese-subfertile-women
#5
D Rahman, S M Shahida, T Hussain, A Begum
This experimental study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of orlistat (a pancreatic lipase inhibitor) therapy over lifestyle change on weight reduction and ovulation in overweight and obese subfertile women. It was carried out in Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Dhaka, Bangladesh from August 2015 to January 2016. Subfertile obese and overweight female patients attending the study centre during study period was considered as study population...
April 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584602/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-metabolic-disorder-among-the-different-phenotypes-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#6
Mahnaz Ashrafi, Fatemeh Sheikhan, Arezoo Arabipoor, Nicole Rouhana, Roya Hosseini, Zahra Zolfaghari
OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder related to several metabolic consequences. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the metabolic features of various phenotypes. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and metabolic disorders among the four different phenotypes of PCOS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in Royan Institute including 208 pregnant women with a history of infertility and PCOS...
May 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569793/oocyte-specific-deletion-of-furin-leads-to-female-infertility-by-causing-early-secondary-follicle-arrest-in-mice
#7
Tie-Gang Meng, Meng-Wen Hu, Xue-Shan Ma, Lin Huang, Qiu-Xia Liang, Yue Yuan, Yi Hou, Hongmei Wang, Heide Schatten, Zhen-Bo Wang, Qing-Yuan Sun
The process of follicular development involves communications between oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells. FURIN is a member of the family of proprotein convertases that is involved in the activation of a large number of zymogens and proproteins by cleavage at its recognition motif. To investigate the functions of FURIN in female fertility, furin(flox/flox) (fur(fl/fl)) mice were crossed with Zp3-Cre mice and Gdf9-Cre, respectively, to achieve oocyte-specific disruption of FURIN. Here we report for the first time that FURIN is dispensable for primordial follicle maintenance and activation but important for early secondary follicular development, as ablation of FURIN in oocytes caused failure of follicle development beyond the type 4 and/or 5a follicles in mutant mice, resulting in increased number of early secondary follicles and the severely decreased number of mature follicles, thus anovulation and infertility...
June 1, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569589/cytokine-signal-suppressor-socs-1-1478-ca-del-gene-polymorphism-in-turkish-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#8
Ozen Oz Gul, Soner Cander, Cuma Bulent Gul, Ferah Budak, Barbaros Oral, Canan Ersoy
Eighty-four subjects, premenopausal female patients (n = 42, mean (SD) age: 26.4 (4.2) years) diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and age-matched healthy volunteers (n = 42, mean (SD) age: 27.6(3.4) years), were included in this study. Data on physical examination, anthropometric measurements and blood biochemistry analysis were recorded for each subject along with analysis for SOCS1-1478 CA/del polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The relation of SOCS1-1478 CA/del polymorphism to PCOS status and insulin resistance was analysed via logistic regression analysis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560298/successful-treatment-of-low-grade-endometrial-cancer-in-premenopausal-women-with-an-aromatase-inhibitor-after-failure-with-oral-or-intrauterine-progesterone
#9
Alli Straubhar, Andrew P Soisson, Mark Dodson, Elise Simons
INTRODUCTION: Young women with endometrial intraepithelial hyperplasia or low-grade endometrial carcinoma are potential candidates for conservative fertility sparing therapy utilizing progesterone rather than hysterectomy. High-dose progesterone treatment is associated with 55-80% initial response but high relapse rates. Using aromatase inhibitors in conjunction with high-dose progesterone has largely been unstudied. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: Three obese premenopausal women with endometrial cancer failed to respond to oral or intrauterine progesterone as first line therapy...
August 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544572/inositol-treatment-of-anovulation-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#10
Jyotsna Pundir, Dimitrios Psaroudakis, Prakash Savnur, Priya Bhide, Luca Sabatini, Helena Teede, Arri Coomarasamy, Shakila Thangaratinam
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common cause of anovulation and infertility, and a risk factor for development of metabolic syndrome and endometrial cancer. OBJECTIVES: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effects of inositol as an ovulation-induction agent. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and ISI conference proceedings, Register and Meta-register for RCTs and WHO trials' search portal...
May 24, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543550/polycystic-ovary-morphology-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#11
So-Hyeon Hong, Yeon-Ah Sung, Young Sun Hong, Kyungah Jeong, Hyewon Chung, Hyejin Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterised by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenenism, polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM), and metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although insulin resistance could be associated with PCOM, recent studies have shown controversial results. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PCOM and insulin resistance. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This was a cross-sectional clinical study...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531286/is-foetal-hyperexposure-to-androgens-a-cause-of-pcos
#12
Panagiota Filippou, Roy Homburg
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone during pregnancy have been shown to influence behaviour during childhood, the prevalence of autism disorders and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in adolescence...
May 20, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521878/combining-a-nontargeted-and-targeted-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-metabolic-pathways-significantly-altered-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#13
Alice Y Chang, Antigoni Z Lalia, Gregory D Jenkins, Tumpa Dutta, Rickey E Carter, Ravinder J Singh, K Sreekumaran Nair
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition of androgen excess and chronic anovulation frequently associated with insulin resistance. We combined a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify pathways and metabolites that distinguished PCOS from metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Twenty obese women with PCOS were compared with 18 obese women without PCOS. Both groups met criteria for MetS but could not have diabetes mellitus or take medications that treat PCOS or affect lipids or insulin sensitivity...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501702/brown-adipose-tissue-activation-by-rutin-ameliorates-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-rat
#14
Tao Hu, Xiaoxue Yuan, Rongcai Ye, Huiqiao Zhou, Jun Lin, Chuanhai Zhang, Hanlin Zhang, Gang Wei, Meng Dong, Yuanyuan Huang, Wonchung Lim, Qingsong Liu, Hyuek Jong Lee, Wanzhu Jin
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrinopathy that is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary. However, there is a lack of effective treatment for PCOS at present because the pathologic cause of PCOS has not been elucidated. Although it has been known that brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates PCOS by activating endogenous BAT, BAT transplantation is not applicable in clinic. Therefore, BAT activation with natural compound could be an effective treatment strategy for PCOS patients...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490208/plasma-kisspeptin-levels-in-lactational-amenorrhea
#15
Masato Kotani, Fumihiko Katagiri, Tsuyoshi Hirai, Jiro Kagawa, Issei Tanaka
The kisspeptin is a neuropeptide to play physiological roles in regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in the hypothalamus. In human plasma, the kisspeptin concentration is measured, but gonadotropin-releasing hormone is not. This study aims to understand the physiological roles of the circulating kisspeptin in lactational amenorrhea in humans because prolactin reduces the kisspeptin expression and luteinizing hormone secretion resulting in anovulations in rodent brains. Plasma kisspeptin levels were measured in 11 subjects in lactational amenorrhea and in four cases with pathological amenorrhea by different etiologies for comparison using the enzyme immunoassay specific for human kisspeptin...
May 11, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467764/anovulatory-patients-demonstrate-a-sharp-decline-in-lh-levels-upon-gnrh-antagonist-administration-during-ivf-cycles
#16
Linoy Segal, Ofer Fainaru, Shahar Kol
To evaluate the decrease in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist administration in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, data were retrospectively collected from 305 consecutive IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles of patients who underwent ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins and were treated with GnRH antagonist for the prevention of premature luteinization. We compared the percent change in LH concentration from stimulation start to that observed before ovulation triggering in patients with or without anovulation...
April 28, 2017: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454499/phenotypic-variation-in-anti-mullerian-hormone-amh-production-per-follicle-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-and-isolated-polycystic-ovarian-morphology-pcom-an-observational-cross-sectional-study
#17
Priya Bhide, Abhijit Kulkarni, Merve Dilgil, Puja Dhir, Amit Shah, Anil Gudi, Roy Homburg
This observational study compares the ratio of serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) to the total antral follicle count (AFC) (as a marker of AMH production per follicle) in the various phenotypes of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM). Two hundred and sixty-two women were recruited. Women with PCOS were divided into four phenotypes based on the diagnostic inclusion criteria of oligo-anovulation (OA), hyperandrogenism (HA) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM)...
April 28, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453773/increased-cerebrospinal-fluid-levels-of-gaba-testosterone-and-estradiol-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#18
Jennifer F Kawwass, Kristen M Sanders, Tammy L Loucks, Lisa Cencia Rohan, Sarah L Berga
STUDY QUESTION: Do cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) differ in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as compared to eumenorrheic, ovulatory women (EW)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with PCOS displayed higher CSF levels of GABA and E2, and possibly T, than EW. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The chronic anovulation characteristic of PCOS has been attributed to increased central GnRH drive and resulting gonadotropin aberrations...
April 27, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447864/the-use-of-cyproterone-acetate-ethinyl-estradiol-in-hyperandrogenic-skin-symptoms-a-review
#19
J Bitzer, T Römer, A Lopes da Silva Filho
INTRODUCTION: Hyperandrogenism affects approximately 10-20% of women of reproductive age. Hyperandrogenic skin symptoms such as hirsutism, acne, seborrhea and alopecia are associated with significant quality of life and psychological impairment. Women with abnormalities in androgen metabolism may have accompanying anovulation and/or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), both of which have reproductive and metabolic implications if left untreated. Cyproterone acetate (CPA), combined with ethinylestradiol (EE), is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe acne related to androgen-sensitivity (with or without seborrhea) and/or hirsutism, in women of reproductive age...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437631/age-independent-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-standard-deviation-scores-to-estimate-ovarian-function
#20
Josef van Helden, Ralf Weiskirchen
OBJECTIVIES: To determine single year age-specific anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) standard deviation scores (SDS) for women associated to normal ovarian function and different ovarian disorders resulting in sub- or infertility. DESIGN AND METHODS: Determination of particular year median and mean AMH values with standard deviations (SD), calculation of age-independent cut off SDS for the discrimination between normal ovarian function and ovarian disorders. RESULTS: Single-year-specific median, mean, and SD values have been evaluated for the Beckman Access AMH immunoassay...
June 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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