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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471436/antiandrogen-treatment-ameliorates-reproductive-and-metabolic-phenotypes-in-the-letrozole-induced-mouse-model-of-pcos
#1
Genevieve E Ryan, Shaddy Malik, Pamela L Mellon
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Although its etiology is unknown, excess androgens are thought to be a critical factor driving the pathology of PCOS. We previously demonstrated that continuous exposure to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) in mice produces many hallmarks of PCOS, including elevated testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone (LH), anovulation, and obesity...
February 19, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463075/adverse-effects-of-doping-with-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-aas-in-competitive-athletics-recreational-sports-and-bodybuilding
#2
Elena Vorona, Eberhard Nieschlag
Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462707/the-diagnostic-value-of-anti-mullerian-hormone-in-early-post-menarche-adolescent-girls-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#3
Pınar Kocaay, Zeynep Siklar, Sema Buyukfirat, Merih Berberoglu
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation, which affects 5-10% of reproductive age females. Diagnosis of adult patients with PCOS is made easily with clinical and laboratory methods and the antimullerian hormone (AMH) level are accepted as a good indicator. However, there is still no complete consensus on the diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents. DESIGN: and Settings: Prospective cohort study, December 2013 to November 2014 PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted on adolescent girls with oligomenorrhea, with at least two years since menarche...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435121/lipidomics-reveals-altered-biosynthetic-pathways-of-glycerophospholipids-and-cell-signaling-as-biomarkers-of-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Mariona Jové, Irene Pradas, Alba Naudí, Susana Rovira-Llopis, Celia Bañuls, Milagros Rocha, Manuel Portero-Otin, Antonio Hernández-Mijares, Victor M Victor, Reinald Pamplona
Purpose: In this work, a non-targeted approach was used to unravel changes in the plasma lipidome of PCOS patients. The aim is to offer new insights in PCOS patients strictly selected in order to avoid confounding factors such as dyslipemia, obesity, altered glucose/insulin metabolism, cardiovascular disease, or cancer. Results: Multivariate statistics revealed a specific lipidomic signature for PCOS patients without associated pathologies. This signature implies changes, mainly by down-regulation, in glycerolipid, glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism suggesting an altered biosynthetic pathway of glycerophospholipids and cell signaling as second messengers in women with PCOS...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434814/metformin-and-pioglitazone-combination-therapy-ameliorate-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-through-ampk-pi3k-jnk-pathway
#5
Yuanyuan Wu, Pengfen Li, Dan Zhang, Yingpu Sun
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common gynecological endocrine disorder, which results in health problems such as menstrual disorders, hyperandrogenism and persistent anovulation. Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance are the basic characteristics of PCOS. To investigate the combined effect of metformin and pioglitazone on POCS and the potential mechanisms, a rat model of PCOS was established by intramuscular injection of estradiol valerate (EV). The effect of metformin and pioglitazone monotherapy or combination therapy in control rats and PCOS rats was evaluated, involving the testosterone level, follicular development and insulin resistance...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428315/association-of-testosterone-and-antim%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-with-time-to-pregnancy-and-pregnancy-loss-in-fecund-women-attempting-pregnancy
#6
Lindsey A Sjaarda, Sunni L Mumford, Daniel L Kuhr, Tiffany L Holland, Robert M Silver, Torie C Plowden, Neil J Perkins, Enrique F Schisterman
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether higher T and/or antimüllerian hormone (AMH) was associated with anovulation, time to pregnancy (TTP), or pregnancy loss risk among healthy, fecund women without diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study conducted as a secondary analysis from the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction randomized trial. SETTING: University medical centers. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,198 healthy, eumenorrheic women aged 18-40 years attempting spontaneous pregnancy with one to two prior pregnancy losses were included...
February 7, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426356/the-correlation-between-serum-amh-and-homa-ir-among-pcos-phenotypes
#7
Budi Wiweko, Indra Indra, Cynthia Susanto, Muharam Natadisastra, Andon Hestiantoro
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is known to be one of the most prevalent endocrine disorders affecting reproductive age women. One of the endocrine disorder is hyperinsulinemia, which corresponds with the severity of PCOS. However, the pathogenesis of PCOS is not fully understood, but one theory of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) has been proposed as one of the factor related to the degree of severity of PCOS. However, there are no clear correlation between levels of AMH with the incidence of insulin resistance in PCOS patients especially in Indonesia...
February 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334661/altered-expression-of-il-1%C3%AE-il-1ri-il-1rii-il-1ra-and-il-4-could-contribute-to-anovulation-and-follicular-persistence-in-cattle
#8
A F Stassi, M E Baravalle, E M Belotti, A N Amweg, E Angeli, M M L Velázquez, F Rey, N R Salvetti, H H Ortega
Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle. The main signs of this infertility are ovulation failure and follicular persistence. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-1RA and IL-4 in ovarian follicular structures at different times of persistence in a model of follicular persistence induced by prolonged administration of progesterone in dairy cows. Protein expression of IL-1β, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-1RA and IL-4 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry...
January 3, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317123/c-reactive-protein-in-relation-to-fecundability-and-anovulation-among-eumenorrheic-women
#9
Rose G Radin, Lindsey A Sjaarda, Robert M Silver, Carrie J Nobles, Sunni L Mumford, Neil J Perkins, Brian D Wilcox, Anna Z Pollack, Karen C Schliep, Torie C Plowden, Enrique F Schisterman
OBJECTIVE: To assess systemic inflammation in relation to fecundability and anovulation. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study among participants in the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial who were assigned to the placebo. SETTING: Academic medical centers. PATIENT(S): Healthy eumenorrheic women (n = 572), 18-40 years of age, with one or two pregnancy losses, attempting spontaneous pregnancy. INTERVENTION(S): Baseline serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) values <10 mg/L were categorized into tertiles...
January 6, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300908/sex-and-age-specific-impact-of-erk-loss-within-the-pituitary-gonadotrope-in-mice
#10
Jessica L Brown, Jianjun Xie, Miguel Brieno Enriquez, Jennifer Sones, Cynthia N Angulo, Ulrich Boehm, Andrew Miller, Chirine Toufaily, Ying Wang, Daniel J Bernard, Mark S Roberson
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling regulates hormone action in the reproductive axis, but specific mechanisms have yet to be completely elucidated. In the present study, ERK1 null and ERK2 floxed mice were combined with a gonadotrope-specific Cre (GRIC) driver. Female ERK double knockout (ERKdko) animals were hypogonadotropic, resulting in anovulation and complete infertility. Transcript levels of four gonadotrope-specific genes (GnRHR and the three gonadotropin subunits) were reduced in pituitaries at estrus in ERKdko females and the post-castration response to endogenous GnRH hyper-stimulation was blunted...
January 3, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289990/prevalence-clinical-characteristics-and-reproductive-outcomes-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-older-women-referred-for-tertiary-fertility-care
#11
Samer Tannus, Justin Tan, Weon-Young Son, Michael-Haim Dahan
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women. The clinical symptoms of PCOS vary with female age, as older women tend to have lower hyperandrogenic symptoms and many regain regular cycles. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PCOS among older women referred for fertility care, describe their clinical characteristics, and compare their reproductive outcomes to those of matched control group. METHODS: A retrospective study conducted at a single reproductive center...
December 30, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273245/gonadotrophins-versus-clomifene-citrate-with-or-without-intrauterine-insemination-in-women-with-normogonadotropic-anovulation-and-clomifene-failure-m-ovin-a-randomised-two-by-two-factorial-trial
#12
Nienke S Weiss, Marleen J Nahuis, Esmee Bordewijk, Jurjen E Oosterhuis, Jesper Mj Smeenk, Annemieke Hoek, Frank Jm Broekmans, Kathrin Fleischer, Jan Peter de Bruin, Eugenie M Kaaijk, Joop Se Laven, Dave J Hendriks, Marie H Gerards, Ilse Aj van Rooij, Petra Bourdrez, Judith Gianotten, Carolien Koks, Cornelis B Lambalk, Peter G Hompes, Fulco van der Veen, Ben Willem J Mol, Madelon van Wely
BACKGROUND: In many countries, clomifene citrate is the treatment of first choice in women with normogonadotropic anovulation (ie, absent or irregular ovulation). If these women ovulate but do not conceive after several cycles with clomifene citrate, medication is usually switched to gonadotrophins, with or without intrauterine insemination. We aimed to assess whether switching to gonadotrophins is more effective than continuing clomifene citrate, and whether intrauterine insemination is more effective than intercourse...
December 19, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259450/phase-iii-trial-comparing-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-recombinant-or-urine-derived-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-for-ovulation-triggering-in-japanese-women-diagnosed-with-anovulation-or-oligo-ovulation-and-undergoing-ovulation-induction-with-follitropin-alfa
#13
Hideyuki Ikenaga, Yudai Tanaka, Masahide Shiotani, Daniela Rogoff, Shin Shimizu, Osamu Ishihara, Yoshiaki Sato, Yoshiharu Morimoto, Aisaku Fukuda, Kohzo Aisaka, Koji Yoshida, Naoki Hayashi, Hirotsugu Oku, Yuji Abe, Atsushi Haruki, Motoharu Ishikawa, Takeshi Kuramoto
Aim: Outside of Japan, recombinant-human chorionic gonadotropin (r-hCG) is widely used for the induction of final follicular maturation and early luteinization in women undergoing ovulation induction; whereas in Japan, urine-derived hCG (u-hCG) is predominantly used. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of r-hCG to u-hCG for ovulation induction, as assessed by the ovulation rate. Methods: This was an open-label, parallel-group, randomized, multicenter, phase III trial in Japanese women with anovulation or oligo-ovulation secondary to hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction or polycystic ovary syndrome, undergoing ovulation induction with recombinant-human follicle-stimulating hormone...
January 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259447/equilibrium-between-anti-oxidants-and-reactive-oxygen-species-a-requisite-for-oocyte-development-and-maturation
#14
REVIEW
Manika Kala, Muhammad Vaseem Shaikh, Manish Nivsarkar
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required for cellular functioning and are controlled by anti-oxidants. The ROS influence the follicles, oocytes, endometrium, and their environment. The luteinizing hormone surge initiates a massive recruitment of ROS that modulates major reproductive functions namely, oocyte maturation, ovarian steroidogenesis, corpus luteal function, and luteolysis. The anti-oxidant system balances ROS generation and maintains the cellular functions. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants namely, vitamins and minerals are present in the follicles and protect the oocytes from the damaging effects of ROS...
January 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248225/reproductive-performance-and-herd-exit-dynamics-of-lactating-dairy-cows-managed-for-first-service-with-the-presynch-ovsynch-or-double-ovsynch-protocol-and-different-duration-of-the-voluntary-waiting-period
#15
M L Stangaferro, R Wijma, M Masello, J O Giordano
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the reproductive performance and herd exit dynamics of dairy cows managed for first service with programs varying in method of submission for insemination and voluntary waiting period (VWP) duration. Holstein cows from a commercial farm in New York were randomly allocated to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) after the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 3 d later GnRH, 7 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI) at 60 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) (DO60 = 458), TAI after Double-Ovsynch at 88 ± 3 DIM (DO88 = 462), or a combination of AI at detected estrus (starting at 50 ± 3 d in milk) and TAI with the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (PGF2α, 14 d later PGF2α, 12 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI; PSOv = 450)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211888/combined-oral-contraception-and-bicalutamide-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-severe-hirsutism-a-double-blind-rtc
#16
Costanzo Moretti, Laura Guccione, Paola Di Giacinto, Ilaria Simonelli, Caterina Exacoustos, Vincenzo Toscano, Cecilia Motta, Vincenzo De Leo, Felice Petraglia, Andrea Lenzi
Background: Hirsutism is frequently expressed in women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The efficacy of oral contraceptive pill (OC) plus anti-androgens in the treatment of its severe expression is controversial due to the lack of randomized double-blind long-term studies. Aim: The primary outcome was the reduction of hirsutism in PCOS women objectively measured by videodermoscopy (VD) on the androgen-sensitive skin areas assessed by the modified Ferriman&Gallwey (mF&G) total score, after 12 months of therapy with OC+Bicalutamide (BC) versus OC plus placebo (P)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201422/demographic-analysis-of-a-low-resource-socioculturally-diverse-urban-community-presenting-for-infertility-care-in-a-united-states-public-hospital
#17
Jacqueline R Ho, Jacquelyn R Hoffman, Lusine Aghajanova, James F Smith, Marisela Cardenas, Christopher N Herndon
Background: Infertility is a prevalent disease of reproductive health that exerts an impact on an estimated 80 million people worldwide. For many, involuntary childlessness becomes a central and preoccupying issue in their lives, the impact of which is exacerbated by lack of access to basic care and treatment. These effects maybe further magnified among immigrant communities, a growing but highly marginalized population that has been shown in other areas of reproductive health to experience worse health outcomes and delays in access to care...
2017: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196492/high-fat-diet-exposure-from-pre-pubertal-age-induces-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-in-rats
#18
Roshni Patel, Gaurang Shah
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, polycystic ovaries and metabolic syndrome. Many researchers reported that PCOS often starts with menarche in adolescents. Presently available animal model focuses on ovarian but not metabolic features of PCOS. Therefore, we hypothesized that high-fat diet feeding to pre-pubertal female rats results in both reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS. Pre-pubertal female rats were divided into two groups: group I received normal pellet diet and group II received high-fat diet (HFD)...
February 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193229/identification-of-micrornas-and-genes-associated-with-hyperandrogenism-in-the-follicular-fluid-of-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#19
Yunping Xue, Juan Lv, Pengfei Xu, Lin Gu, Jian Cao, Lingling Xu, Kai Xue, Qian Li
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease, which is characterized by hyperandrogenism (HA), chronic anovulation, polycystic ovaries, insulin resistance and obesity. At present, the mechanism by which PCOS/HA occurs has not been fully elucidated, thus, the mechanisms behind and interventions for HA in PCOS are current hot topics in research. MiRNAs have recently been shown to serve as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in patients with cancer...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183107/insulin-sensitising-drugs-metformin-rosiglitazone-pioglitazone-d-chiro-inositol-for-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-oligo-amenorrhoea-and-subfertility
#20
REVIEW
Lara C Morley, Thomas Tang, Ephia Yasmin, Robert J Norman, Adam H Balen
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterised by infrequent or absent ovulation, and high levels of androgens and insulin (hyperinsulinaemia). Hyperinsulinaemia occurs secondary to insulin resistance and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Insulin-sensitising agents such as metformin may be effective in treating PCOS-related anovulation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of insulin-sensitising drugs in improving reproductive and metabolic outcomes for women with PCOS undergoing ovulation induction...
November 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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