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Insulin and atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643464/adiponectin-isoform-patterns-in-ethnic-specific-adipoq-mutation-carriers-the-iras-family-study
#1
Keri L Tabb, Chuan Gao, Pamela J Hicks, Gregory A Hawkins, Jerome I Rotter, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Xiuqing Guo, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Barry I Freedman, Donald W Bowden, Nicholette D Palmer
OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin is found in human serum in three groups of multimers (high molecular weight [HMW], medium molecular weight [MMW], and low molecular weight [LMW]). Two ethnic-specific variants in ADIPOQ, G45R (Hispanic-Americans) and R55C (African-Americans), were previously reported. Although carriers of both variants had mean adiponectin levels ≤ 20% of those of noncarriers, they were not clinically different from noncarriers. To compare carriers of both variants and noncarriers, relative quantification of adiponectin isoforms to total adiponectin was performed on serum samples...
June 23, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641818/the-role-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-14-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Wei Xie, Liang Li, Xi-Long Zheng, Wei-Dong Yin, Chao-Ke Tang
The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family, as the SP/XKLF transcription factors, plays important roles in regulating the expression of genes required for the proper execution of important biological and pathological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that KLF14, a member of the KLF family, participates in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). From the molecular function aspect, this review focuses on the impact of KLF14-mediated regulation in major atherosclerosis-related diseases and pathological processes, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, inflammation, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cell proliferation and differentiation...
June 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637825/we-know-more-than-we-can-tell-about-diabetes-and-vascular-disease-the-2016-edwin-bierman-award-lecture
#3
Clay F Semenkovich
The Edwin Bierman Award Lecture is presented in honor of the memory of Edwin L. Bierman, MD, an exemplary scientist, mentor, and leader in the field of diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. The award and lecture recognizes a leading scientist in the field of macrovascular complications and contributing risk factors in diabetes. Clay F. Semenkovich, MD, the Irene E. and Michael M. Karl Professor and Chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research at Washington University School of Medicine in St...
July 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635626/adiponectin-a-therapeutic-target-for-obesity-diabetes-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#4
REVIEW
Arunkumar E Achari, Sushil K Jain
Adiponectin is the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes, whose reduction plays a central role in obesity-related diseases, including insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition to adipocytes, other cell types, such as skeletal and cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells, can also produce this adipocytokine. Adiponectin effects are mediated by adiponectin receptors, which occur as two isoforms (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Adiponectin has direct actions in liver, skeletal muscle, and the vasculature...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634787/insulin-resistance-in-ischemic-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Xiao-Ling Deng, Zhou Liu, Chuanling Wang, Yanfeng Li, Zhiyou Cai
Insulin resistance often refers to a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond to the normal actions of insulin. Increasing literature has noted a critical role of insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke via enhancing advanced changes of atherosclerosis. A variety of literature indicates that insulin resistance enhances platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation which are conducive to the occurrence of ischemic stroke...
June 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625251/-a-novel-protein-peptide-associated-with-ischemic-heart-disease-dermcidin
#6
Hu Xia, Kai Feng
Dermcidin (DCD) was found in isolated human skin sweat glands with antimicrobial effect, and was defined as a kind of new small molecule antimicrobial peptide. It was a part of human sweat glands in the skin as the immune system's innate defense. With the studies of DCD, its extensive biological functions are gradually discovered. Since 2010, a number of studies have shown that DCD may be a new risk factor for atherosclerosis. And the role of DCD in ischemic heart disease has drawn increasing attention in particular its relationship with insulin secretion and glycemic control, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and hypertension, platelet aggregation and acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618757/the-effect-of-acetylsalicylic-acid-on-vasopressin-serum-insulin-levels-insulin-resistance-and-biochemical-parameters-in-rats-induced-with-experimental-diabetes-type-2
#7
Serkan Şen, Sefa Çelik
BACKGROUND/AIM: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment in diabetic patients is very important owing to the increasing hyperactivity of thrombocytes and atherosclerosis. In several investigations, it was reported that diabetes caused increased coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and death. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of ASA on osmoregulation, glycemic control, and some biochemical parameters in rats induced with experimental diabetes type 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomly divided in four groups: control (I), ASA control (II), diabetic (III), and ASA diabetic (IV)...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615149/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-effects-of-metformin-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-removal-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#8
John R Petrie, Nishi Chaturvedi, Ian Ford, Martijn C G J Brouwers, Nicola Greenlaw, Therese Tillin, Irene Hramiak, Alun D Hughes, Alicia J Jenkins, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Teik C Ooi, Peter Rossing, Coen D A Stehouwer, Naveed Sattar, Helen M Colhoun
BACKGROUND: Metformin might reduce insulin requirement and improve glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes, but whether it has cardiovascular benefits is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether metformin treatment (added to titrated insulin therapy) reduced atherosclerosis, as measured by progression of common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), in adults with type 1 diabetes at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: REMOVAL was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial undertaken at 23 hospital diabetes clinics in five countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the UK)...
June 9, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611056/igf1-potentiates-the-pro-inflammatory-response-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-via-mapk
#9
Thalijn Liliana Catharina Wolters, Mihai Gheorghe Netea, Ad R Hermus, Jan Wa Smit, Romana T Netea-Maier
Introduction: Acromegaly is characterized by growth hormone (GH) and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) excess and is accompanied by an increased cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk. As innate immune responses are crucial in CVD development, and IGF1 is linked to subclinical inflammation, we hypothesized that GH/IGF1 excess contributes to CVD development via potentiating systemic inflammation. We aimed to assess the effects of GH/IGF1 on inflammatory cytokine production. Methods: Whole blood from acromegaly patients and healthy volunteers, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy volunteers were stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, with or without adding GH or IGF1 (in PBMC)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611026/map4k4-impairs-energy-metabolism-in-endothelial-cells-and-promotes-insulin-resistance-in-obesity
#10
Rachel J Roth Flach, Marina T DiStefano, Laura V Danai, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Joseph C Yawe, Mark Kelly, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Michael P Czech
The blood vasculature responds to insulin, influencing hemodynamic changes in the periphery, which promotes tissue nutrient and oxygen delivery and thus metabolic function. The lymphatic vasculature regulates fluid and lipid homeostasis, and impaired lymphatic function can contribute to atherosclerosis and obesity. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as atherosclerosis...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609823/association-of-directly-measured-plasma-free-25-oh-d-with-insulin-sensitivity-and-secretion-%C3%A2-the-iras-family-study
#11
C. Christine Lee, Kendra A. Young, Jill M. Norris, Jerome I. Rotter, Yeheng Liu, Carlos Lorenzo, Lynne E. Wagenknecht, David E. Cole, Steven M. Haffner, Yii-Der I. Chen, Anthony J. Hanley
Objectives: We aimed to compare the associations of directly measured plasma free 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and total 25(OH)D concentrations with insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in non-diabetic Hispanics and African-Americans. We hypothesized that directly measured free 25(OH)D would be more strongly associated with these measures of glucose homeostasis and that associations would differ by race. Methods: We studied 1,189 non-diabetic participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study, using data from baseline examinations in 2000–2002...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609552/thyrotropin-levels-and-coronary-artery-calcification-cross-sectional-results-of-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#12
Érique José F Peixoto de Miranda, Márcio Sommer Bittencourt, Henrique Lane Staniak, Alexandre C Pereira, Murilo Foppa, Itamar S Santos, Paulo A Lotufo, Isabela M Bensenor
BACKGROUND: There is little information about the association between thyrotropin (TSH) levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to analyze the association between TSH quintiles and subclinical atherosclerosis measured by CAC, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function and who self-reported cardiovascular disease...
June 13, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608285/the-glp-1-analogue-lixisenatide-decreases-atherosclerosis-in-insulin-resistant-mice-by-modulating-macrophage-phenotype
#13
Ángela Vinué, Jorge Navarro, Andrea Herrero-Cervera, Marta García-Cubas, Irene Andrés-Blasco, Sergio Martínez-Hervás, José T Real, Juan F Ascaso, Herminia González-Navarro
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent clinical studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues prevent acute cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus but their mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, the impact of GLP-1 analogues and their potential underlying molecular mechanisms in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis are investigated. METHODS: Atherosclerosis development was evaluated in Apoe (-/-) Irs2 (+/-) mice, a mouse model of insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis, treated with the GLP-1 analogues lixisenatide or liraglutide...
June 12, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606474/regulation-of-intracellular-trafficking-and-secretion-of-adiponectin-by-myosin-ii
#14
Deepa Bedi, John C Dennis, Edward E Morrison, Tim D Braden, Robert L Judd
Adiponectin is a protein secreted by white adipocytes that plays an important role in insulin action, energy homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis. The intracellular localization and trafficking of GLUT4 and leptin in adipocytes has been well studied, but little is known regarding the intracellular trafficking of adiponectin. Recent studies have demonstrated that constitutive adiponectin secretion is dependent on PIP2 levels and the integrity of cortical F-actin. Non-muscle myosin II is an actin-based motor that is associated with membrane vesicles and participates in vesicular trafficking in mammalian cells...
June 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603501/cardiac-remodeling-from-middle-age-to-senescence
#15
Mikko J Möttönen, Olavi Ukkola, Jarmo Lumme, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Heikki V Huikuri, Juha S Perkiömäki
Background: The data on cardiac remodeling outside the scope of myocardial infarction and heart failure are limited. Methods: A cohort of middle-aged hypertensive subjects with age- and gender-matched control subjects without hypertension (n = 1,045, aged 51 ± 6 years) were randomly selected for the OPERA study (Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis study). The majority of those who were still alive after more than 20 years of follow-up underwent thorough re-examinations. Results: Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) increased significantly from 106...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601234/comparison-of-echocardiographic-findings-in-patients-with-nonfunctioning-adrenal-incidentalomas
#16
Narin Nasıroglu Imga, Ozgul Ucar Elalmıs, Mazhar Muslum Tuna, Bercem Aycıcek Dogan, Deniz Sahın, Tugba Gursoy, Yavuz Yalcın, Dilek Berker, Serdar Guler
Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are usually discovered incidentally after imaging unrelated to adrenal glands. We aimed to evaluate standard risk factors for systemic atherosclerosis and echocardiographic changes in patients with nonfunctioning AIs and compare them with normal subjects. We evaluated 70 patients diagnosed with AIs and 51 healthy controls. Mean levels were determined for HbA1c, LDL, uric acid, fasting plasma insulin, HOMA, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and these values were found to be significantly higher in the patients than the controls...
June 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599248/the-multifaceted-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-metabolic-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Prasanna K Santhekadur, Divya P Kumar, Mulugeta Seneshaw, Faridoddin Mirshahi, Arun J Sanyal
Due to globalization and sophisticated western and sedentary lifestyle, metabolic syndrome has emerged as a serious public health challenge. Obesity is significantly increasing worldwide because of increased high calorie food intake and decreased physical activity leading to hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and insulin resistance. Thus, metabolic syndrome constitutes cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and recently some cancers are also considered to be associated with this syndrome...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596451/serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-the-risk-of-ischemic-stroke-the-framingham-study
#18
Hamidreza Saber, Jayandra J Himali, Alexa S Beiser, Ashkan Shoamanesh, Aleksandra Pikula, Ronenn Roubenoff, Jose R Romero, Carlos S Kase, Ramachandran S Vasan, Sudha Seshadri
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF1) has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and atrial fibrillation in crosssectional studies. Yet, prospective data linking IGF1 levels to the development of ischemic stroke remain inconclusive. We examined prospectively the association between serum IGF-1 levels and incident ischemic stroke. METHODS: We measured serum IGF-1 levels in 757 elderly individuals (mean age 79±5, 62% women), free of prevalent stroke, from the Framingham original cohort participants at the 22nd examination cycle (1990-1994) and were followed up for the development of ischemic stroke...
June 8, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592194/2-3-4-4-5-pentachlorobiphenyl-impairs-insulin-induced-no-production-partly-through-excessive-ros-production-in-endothelial-cells
#19
Yang Long, Can Huang, Jian Wu, Jin-Nan Cheng, Guan-Nan Liang, Chun-Xia Jiang, Qin Wan
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported to be associated with increased risk to hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, et al. 2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl, known as PCB118, is a member of coplanar PCBs which renders their structure similar to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and has dioxin-like activity. In our current study, we investigated the effect of PCB118 exposure on nitric oxide (NO) production and the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Exposure of PCB 118 impaired insulin-induced NO production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with no significant effect on cell viability...
June 7, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591087/hyperhomocysteinemia-as-a-metabolic-risk-factor-for-glucose-intolerance-among-high-risk-groups-of-chinese-adults
#20
Xiaomeng Feng, Yuan Xu
BACKGROUND Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is characterized by insulin resistance and causes atherosclerosis. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with insulin resistance and predicts cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we assessed the possible association between homocysteine and IGT. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional study of 118 consecutive subjects with IGT (IGT group) and 128 consecutive subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT group). Homocysteine and clinical characteristics were measured...
June 7, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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