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Insulin and atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674996/association-between-thyroid-hormones-thyroid-antibodies-and-cardiometabolic-factors-in-non-obese-individuals-with-normal-thyroid-function
#1
Jia Liu, Yan Duan, Jing Fu, Guang Wang
Background: Hypothyroidism is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is the leading cause of hypothyroidism. Recent studies showed that even AIT patients with euthyroidism still had an increased number of early atherosclerotic lesions. However, the precise mechanism is not yet known. This study aimed to investigate the association of thyroid function, thyroid autoimmunity, and cardiometabolic risk factors in non-obese AIT patients with euthyroidism...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663892/complement-components-c3-and-c4-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Melanie Copenhaver, Chack-Yung Yu, Robert P Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Increased systemic inflammation is engaged likely plays a significant role in the development of adult cardiometabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. The complement system is part of the innate immune system and plays a key role in in regulation inflammation. Of particular importance is the activation of complement components C3 and C4. C3 is produced primarily by the liver but is also produced in adipocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells, all of which are present in adipose tissue...
April 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661746/effects-of-oral-vitamin-d-3-supplementation-in-stage-3-chronic-kidney-disease-subjects-insulin-resistance-syndrome-and-hormonal-disturb-interactions
#3
Amina Tahar, Faiza Zerdoumi, Messaoud Saidani, Lakhdar Griene, Elhadj-Ahmed Koceir
The 1-25-hydroxyvitamine D (1-25OHD) or calcitriol deficiency in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients was associated with increases vascular calcification risk, nephrons reduction, bone deficit and cardiovascular mortality by atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 200.000 IU (D200 group) every 3 months versus 30.000 IU (D30 group) every month dose vitamin D supplementation in stage 3 CKD patients. A cohort of 132 adult subjects was randomized into 2 groups according to dose vitamin D supplementation in deficient subjects (25OHD <50 nmol/L or <20 ng/mL)...
April 16, 2018: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659887/homeostasis-model-assessment-of-insulin-resistance-and-survival-in-patients-with-diabetes-and-acute-coronary-syndrome
#4
Barbara E Stähli, Anna Nozza, Ilse C Schrieks, John B Buse, Klas Malmberg, Linda Mellbin, Bruce Neal, Stephen J Nicholls, Lars Rydén, Anders Svensson, Hans Wedel, Arlette Weichert, A Michael Lincoff, Diederick E Grobbee, Jean-Claude Tardif, Gregory G Schwartz
Purpose: Insulin resistance has been linked to development and progression of atherosclerosis and is present in most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether the degree of insulin resistance predicts adverse outcomes in patients with T2D and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is uncertain. Methods: The AleCardio trial compared the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α/γ agonist aleglitazar with placebo in patients with T2D and recent ACS. In participants not treated with insulin, we determined whether baseline homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, n=4303) or the change in HOMA-IR on assigned study treatment (n=3568) was related to the risk of death or major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) in unadjusted and adjusted models...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658290/dietary-restriction-slightly-affects-glucose-homeostasis-and-delays-plasma-cholesterol-removal-in-rabbits-with-dietary-lipid-lowering
#5
Qi Yu, Ruihan Liu, Lijuan Han, Guangwei Zhang, Hua Guan, Qi Pan, Siwang Wang, Enqi Liu
Dietary restriction (DR) has been reported to promote the beneficial effects on atherosclerotic progression, lipid and glucose metabolism, but little is known about these effects can be enhanced or weakened by dietary lipid lowering. After 12 weeks of the high-cholesterol diet (HCD) feeding, hypercholesterolemic rabbits were fed with either a chow diet ad libitum (AL) or a chow diet with DR for 16 weeks of dietary lipid lowering. Here, we found the DR group exhibited a loss in body weight, small internal organs and the reduced fat mass, but the AL group accumulated more subcutaneous fat than the baseline group...
April 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644507/the-impact-of-obesity-on-breast-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Daniel F Argolo, Clifford A Hudis, Neil M Iyengar
The rates of obesity are increasing worldwide and this condition is now recognized as a leading preventable cause of cancer. Several diseases are directly related to obesity, including diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, musculoskeletal disorders, and a diverse range of malignances-such as breast cancer. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and worse cancer-related outcomes for all breast tumor subtypes. Several mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the obesity-cancer link, including high levels of circulating and local estrogens, altered amounts of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), disrupted insulin/IGF signaling, modifications within the microbiome, and local and systemic effects of inflammation...
April 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629297/influences-of-pinpoint-plantar-long-wavelength-infrared-light-irradiation-stress-free-therapy-on-chorioretinal-hemodynamics-atherosclerosis-factors-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#7
Keisou Ishimaru, Takuma Nakajima, Yoshihisa Namiki, Kenji Ryotokuji
Background: We previously reported that pinpoint plantar long-wavelength infrared light irradiation (stress-free therapy; SFT) is useful for alleviating insulin resistance and improving intracranial blood flow in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influences of SFT on chorioretinal hemodynamics (retinal artery and vein blood flows) as well as atherosclerosis-related factors (TG, LDL-C) and VEGF in patients with dyslipidemia. Methods: Four patients with dyslipidemia received 15-minute irradiation with a stress-free apparatus (far-infrared wavelength, 30 mW)...
March 2018: Integrative Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628274/macrophage-targeted-therapeutics-for-metabolic-disease
#8
REVIEW
Kristin R Peterson, Matthew A Cottam, Arion J Kennedy, Alyssa H Hasty
Macrophages are cells of the innate immune system that are resident in all tissues, including metabolic organs such as the liver and adipose tissue (AT). Because of their phenotypic flexibility, they play beneficial roles in tissue homeostasis, but they also contribute to the progression of metabolic disease. Thus, they are ideal therapeutic targets for diseases such as insulin resistance (IR), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and atherosclerosis. Recently, discoveries in the area of drug delivery have facilitated phenotype-specific targeting of macrophages...
April 5, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625946/homeostasis-model-assessment-of-insulin-resistance-in-non-diabetic-heart-failure-patients-a-case-control-investigation-at-tertiary-care-hospitals-of-karachi
#9
Muhammad Ahsan, Muhammad Bilal Azmi, Syed Danish Haseen Ahmed, Sadia Ikhlaque Sheikh, Hina Akram Mudassir, Tehseen Iqbal, Fauzia Imtiaz
eart failure is a progressive, chronic disorder. Insulin resistance (IR) has been more and more involved as a preliminary metabolic perturbance predisposing to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis with others heart diseases. To investigate the relation of insulin resistance (IR) in non-diabetic heart failure patients this case-control study was carried out to ascertain the presence of IR with the aid of Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic heart failure patients (NDHF patients) compared with healthy controls...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624500/homocysteine-is-the-confounding-factor-of-metabolic-syndrome-confirmed-by-sims-score
#10
Branko Srećković, Ivan Soldatovic, Emina Colak, Igor Mrdovic, Mirjana Sumarac-Dumanovic, Hristina Janeski, Nenad Janeski, Jasna Gacic, Vesna Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic
BACKGROUND: Abdominal adiposity has a central role in developing insulin resistance (IR) by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) have higher values of homocysteine. Hyperhomocysteinemia correlates with IR, increasing the oxidative stress. Oxidative stress causes endothelial dysfunction, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The objective of the study was to examine the correlation of homocysteine with siMS score and siMS risk score and with other MS co-founding factors...
April 6, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618726/exome-sequencing-identifies-genetic-variants-associated-with-circulating-lipid-levels-in-mexican-americans-the-insulin-resistance-atherosclerosis-family-study-irasfs
#11
Chuan Gao, Keri L Tabb, Latchezar M Dimitrov, Kent D Taylor, Nan Wang, Xiuqing Guo, Jirong Long, Jerome I Rotter, Richard M Watanabe, Joanne E Curran, John Blangero, Carl D Langefeld, Donald W Bowden, Nicholette D Palmer
Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous variants associated with lipid levels; yet, the majority are located in non-coding regions with unclear mechanisms. In the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS), heritability estimates suggest a strong genetic basis: low-density lipoprotein (LDL, h2  = 0.50), high-density lipoprotein (HDL, h2  = 0.57), total cholesterol (TC, h2  = 0.53), and triglyceride (TG, h2  = 0.42) levels. Exome sequencing of 1,205 Mexican Americans (90 pedigrees) from the IRASFS identified 548,889 variants and association and linkage analyses with lipid levels were performed...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618016/short-term-repeatability-of-insulin-resistance-indexes-in-older-adults-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#12
Anna K Poon, Michelle L Meyer, Gerald Reaven, Joshua W Knowles, Elizabeth Selvin, James S Pankow, David Couper, Laura Loehr, Gerardo Heiss
Context: The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) are insulin resistance indexes routinely used in clinical and population-based studies, but their short-term repeatability are not well characterized. Objective: To quantify the short-term repeatability of insulin resistances indexes and their analytes, consisting of fasting glucose and insulin for HOMA-IR, and triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) for TG/HDL-C...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615924/protective-role-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-in-endothelial-dysfunction-and-insulin-induced-vasodilatation-of-hypercholesterolemic-ldl-receptor-deficient-mice
#13
Natali Baltieri, Daniele M Guizoni, Jamaira A Victorio, Ana P Davel
Background: Endothelial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Vascular insulin resistance might contribute to a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, leading to impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in cardiometabolic diseases. Because perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) controls endothelial function and NO bioavailability, we hypothesized a role for this fat deposit in the vascular complications associated with the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated the potential involvement of PVAT in the early endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr-KO)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607946/clinical-characteristics-phenotype-of-lipodystrophy-and-a-genetic-analysis-of-six-diabetic-japanese-women-with-familial-partial-lipodystrophy-in-a-diabetic-outpatient-clinic
#14
Masanori Iwanishi, Jun Ito-Kobayashi, Miki Washiyama, Toru Kusakabe, Ken Ebihara
Objective Our aim was to examine the clinical characteristics and phenotype of lipodystrophy of six diabetic Japanese women with partial lipodystrophy (PL) who received a genetic analysis at a diabetic outpatient clinic. Methods We screened for PL using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among patients who had a reduced peripheral skinfold thickness at the diabetic outpatient clinic of Kusatsu General Hospital between August 2003 and August 2013. We performed a mutation analysis of candidate genes, including LMNA and PPARG, in two patients with PL and whole-exome sequencing in four patients with PL...
March 30, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599631/the-effect-of-amygdalin-on-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice
#15
Azam Moslehi, Mohsen Farahabadi, Sayyed Abdollah Chavoshzadeh, Akram Barati, Shima Ababzadeh, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi
Background: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress creates abnormalities in the insulin action, inflammatory responses, lipoprotein B100 degradation, and hepatic lipogenesis. Hepatic steatosis leads to a broad spectrum of hepatic disorders such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and NASH. Amygdalin has beneficial effects on asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. We designed this study to evaluate the effect of amygdalin on the ER stress induced hepatic steatosis. Methods: Inbred mice received saline, DMSO and amygdalin, as control groups...
February 2018: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587266/overexpression-of-ptpn2-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-ameliorated-atherosclerosis-via-t-cells-polarization-shift-in-diabetic-apoe-mice
#16
Ya Li, Huimin Zhou, Feng Wang, Lu Han, Minghao Liu, Yihui Li, Zhihao Wang, Mengxiong Tang, Wei Zhang, Ming Zhong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysregulated inflammation in adipose tissue, marked by increased pro-inflammatory T-cell accumulation and reduced regulatory T cells (Treg), contributes to diabetes-associated insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying T-cell-mediated inflammation in adipose tissue remain largely unknown. METHODS: Sixty apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) mice were randomly divided into chow and diabetes groups. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin...
March 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584810/identification-of-mir-9-5p-as-direct-regulator-of-abca1-and-hdl-driven-reverse-cholesterol-transport-in-circulating-cd14-cells-of-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Simona D'Amore, Jennifer Härdfeldt, Marica Cariello, Giusi Graziano, Massimiliano Copetti, Giuseppe Di Tullio, Marilidia Piglionica, Natasha Scialpi, Carlo Sabbà, Giuseppe Palasciano, Michele Vacca, Antonio Moschetta
Aims & Methods: metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors associated to atherosclerosis and low-grade inflammation. Using unbiased expression screenings in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we depict here a novel expression chart of 678 genes and 84 miRNAs controlling inflammatory, immune and metabolic responses. In order to further elucidate the link between inflammation and the HDL cholesterol pathway in metabolic syndrome (MS), we focused on the regulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key player in cholesterol efflux...
March 23, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581366/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-heterogeneity-of-obesity-clinical-challenges-and-implications-for-management
#18
REVIEW
Ian J Neeland, Paul Poirier, Jean-Pierre Després
The prevalence of obesity has increased globally over the last 2 decades. Although the body mass index has been a convenient and simple index of obesity at the population level, studies have shown that obesity defined by body mass index alone is a remarkably heterogeneous condition with varying cardiovascular and metabolic manifestations across individuals. Adipose tissue is an exquisitely active metabolic organ engaged in cross-talk between various systems; perturbation of adipose tissue results in a pathological response to positive caloric balance in susceptible individuals that directly and indirectly contributes to cardiovascular and metabolic disease...
March 27, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568273/regular-aerobic-resistance-and-cross-training-exercise-prevents-reduced-vascular-function-following-a-high-sugar-or-high-fat-mixed-meal-in-young-healthy-adults
#19
Emon K Das, Pui Y Lai, Austin T Robinson, Joan Pleuss, Mohamed M Ali, Jacob M Haus, David D Gutterman, Shane A Phillips
The postprandial state can negatively influence flow mediated dilation (FMD), a predictor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. This investigation was designed to determine the effect of regular aerobic and/or resistance exercise on postprandial FMD after a high sugar or high fat mixed meal. Forty-five healthy participants were recruited from one of four groups: lean sedentary (SED), runners, weight lifters, and cross-trainers. Participants were randomly crossed over to a high sugar meal (HSM) and a high fat mixed meal (HFMM; both fat and carbohydrate)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563332/absence-of-angptl4-in-adipose-tissue-improves-glucose-tolerance-and-attenuates-atherogenesis
#20
Binod Aryal, Abhishek K Singh, Xinbo Zhang, Luis Varela, Noemi Rotllan, Leigh Goedeke, Balkrishna Chaube, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Daniel F Vatner, Tamas L Horvath, Gerald I Shulman, Yajaira Suárez, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
Alterations in ectopic lipid deposition and circulating lipids are major risk factors for developing cardiometabolic diseases. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4), a protein that inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL), controls fatty acid (FA) uptake in adipose and oxidative tissues and regulates circulating triacylglycerol-rich (TAG-rich) lipoproteins. Unfortunately, global depletion of ANGPTL4 results in severe metabolic abnormalities, inflammation, and fibrosis when mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD), limiting our understanding of the contribution of ANGPTL4 in metabolic disorders...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
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