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Insulin and atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915101/proteomic-architecture-of-human-coronary-and-aortic-atherosclerosis
#1
David M Herrington, Chunhong Mao, Sarah J Parker, Zongming Fu, Guoqiang Yu, Lulu Chen, Vidya Venkatraman, Yi Fu, Yizhi Wang, Timothy D Howard, Goo Jun, Caroline F Zhao, Yongmei Liu, Georgia Saylor, Weston R Spivia, Grace B Athas, Dana Troxclair, James E Hixson, Richard S Vander Heide, Yue Wang, Jennifer E Van Eyk
BACKGOUND: The inability to detect premature atherosclerosis significantly hinders implementation of personalized therapy to prevent coronary heart disease. A comprehensive understanding of arterial protein networks and how they change in early atherosclerosis could identify new biomarkers for disease detection and improved therapeutic targets. METHODS: Here we describe the human arterial proteome and proteomic features strongly associated with early atherosclerosis based on mass spectrometry analysis of coronary artery and aortic specimens from 100 autopsied young adults (200 arterial specimens)...
June 19, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914093/the-role-of-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-1-in-lipid-metabolism-glucose-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Virginia Actis Dato, Gustavo Alberto Chiabrando
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent disorder which can be used to identify individuals with a higher risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. This metabolic syndrome is characterized by a combination of physiological, metabolic, and molecular alterations such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and central obesity. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1—A member of the LDL receptor family) is an endocytic and signaling receptor that is expressed in several tissues...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901625/high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-functionality-and-metabolic-syndrome-protocol-for-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Leonardo Roever, Elmiro Santos Resende, Angélica Lemos Debs Diniz, Nilson Penha-Silva, João Lucas O'Connell, Paulo Fernando Silva Gomes, Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Anaisa Silva Roerver-Borges, Fernando César Veloso, Fernanda Rodrigues de Souza, Poliana Rodrigues Alves Duarte, Thiago Montes Fidale, Antonio Casella-Filho, Paulo Magno Martins Dourado, Antonio Carlos Palandri Chagas, Sadeq Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis, Rogério de Melo Costa Pinto, Gustavo B F Oliveira, Álvaro Avezum, Mansueto Neto, André Rodrigues Durães, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva, Antonio José Grande, Celise Denardi, Renato Delascio Lopes, Nitesh Nerlekar, Shahab Alizadeh, Adrian V Hernandez, Maria Inês da Rosa, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS-related stroke is set to increase dramatically in coming decades. MetS is a complex disease that includes endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, ectopic obesity, and dyslipidaemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. One function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) is the cholesterol-efflux pathway, which is the pathway where cholesterol is removed from macrophages within the arterial walls back into the bloodstream and out to the liver...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899519/genetic-inactivation-of-angptl4-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-is-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-diabetes
#4
Viktoria Gusarova, Colm O'Dushlaine, Tanya M Teslovich, Peter N Benotti, Tooraj Mirshahi, Omri Gottesman, Cristopher V Van Hout, Michael F Murray, Anubha Mahajan, Jonas B Nielsen, Lars Fritsche, Anders Berg Wulff, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Marketa Sjögren, Connor A Emdin, Robert A Scott, Wen-Jane Lee, Aeron Small, Lydia C Kwee, Om Prakash Dwivedi, Rashmi B Prasad, Shannon Bruse, Alexander E Lopez, John Penn, Anthony Marcketta, Joseph B Leader, Christopher D Still, H Lester Kirchner, Uyenlinh L Mirshahi, Amr H Wardeh, Cassandra M Hartle, Lukas Habegger, Samantha N Fetterolf, Teresa Tusie-Luna, Andrew P Morris, Hilma Holm, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Patrick Sulem, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Jerome I Rotter, Lee-Ming Chuang, Scott Damrauer, David Birtwell, Chad M Brummett, Amit V Khera, Pradeep Natarajan, Marju Orho-Melander, Jason Flannick, Luca A Lotta, Cristen J Willer, Oddgeir L Holmen, Marylyn D Ritchie, David H Ledbetter, Andrew J Murphy, Ingrid B Borecki, Jeffrey G Reid, John D Overton, Ola Hansson, Leif Groop, Svati H Shah, William E Kraus, Daniel J Rader, Yii-Der I Chen, Kristian Hveem, Nicholas J Wareham, Sekar Kathiresan, Olle Melander, Kari Stefansson, Børge G Nordestgaard, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen, Goncalo R Abecasis, David Altshuler, Jose C Florez, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, George D Yancopoulos, David J Carey, Alan R Shuldiner, Aris Baras, Frederick E Dewey, Jesper Gromada
Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is an endogenous inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase that modulates lipid levels, coronary atherosclerosis risk, and nutrient partitioning. We hypothesize that loss of ANGPTL4 function might improve glucose homeostasis and decrease risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigate protein-altering variants in ANGPTL4 among 58,124 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study, with follow-up studies in 82,766 T2D cases and 498,761 controls. Carriers of p.E40K, a variant that abolishes ANGPTL4 ability to inhibit lipoprotein lipase, have lower odds of T2D (odds ratio 0...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896420/serum-zonulin-and-endotoxin-levels-in-exceptional-longevity-versus-precocious-myocardial-infarction
#5
Pedro Carrera-Bastos, Óscar Picazo, Maelán Fontes-Villalba, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Staffan Lindeberg, Manuel Martínez-Selles, Alejandro Lucia, Enzo Emanuele
Endotoxemia-induced inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, ultimately increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. Increased intestinal permeability is an important event leading to endotoxemia. This study aims to elucidate the possible association between endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) and zonulin (a biomarker of intestinal permeability) levels and the risk of coronary heart disease, and thus healthy aging. Serum levels of zonulin, lipopolysaccharide and soluble CD14 (a protein that binds lipopolysaccharide) were measured in disease-free centenarians, young healthy controls and patients with precocious acute myocardial infarction...
April 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896299/flow-dependent-epigenetic-regulation-of-igfbp5-expression-by-h3k27me3-contributes-to-endothelial-anti-inflammatory-effects
#6
Suowen Xu, Yanni Xu, Meimei Yin, Shuya Zhang, Peng Liu, Marina Koroleva, Shuyi Si, Peter J Little, Jaroslav Pelisek, Zheng Gen Jin
Rationale : Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory and epigenetic disease that is influenced by different patterns of blood flow. However, the epigenetic mechanism whereby atheroprotective flow controls endothelial gene programming remains elusive. Here, we investigated the possibility that flow alters endothelial gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. Methods : E n face staining and western blot were used to detect protein expression. Real-time PCR was used to determine relative gene expression...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896258/resveratrol-provides-benefits-in-mice-with-type-ii-diabetes-induced-chronic-renal-failure-through-ampk-signaling-pathway
#7
Haiyan Guo, Linyun Zhang
Type II diabetes-induced ischemic injuries are known to lead to the rapid degeneration of the kidneys as a result of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a condition, which typically manifests with symptoms including cardiovascular system and left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerosis as well as arterial and aortic stiffness. Resveratrol is a multifunctional compound that has been reported to produce beneficial outcomes for patients with type-II diabetes due to prevention of oxidative stress and apoptosis...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893901/dietary-patterns-among-asian-indians-living-in-the-united-states-have-distinct-metabolomic-profiles-that-are-associated-with-cardiometabolic-risk
#8
Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Meghana D Gadgil, Christopher B Newgard, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Olga R Ilkayeva, Denise M Scholtens, Frank B Hu, Alka M Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula
Background: Recent studies, primarily in non-Hispanic whites, suggest that dietary patterns have distinct metabolomic signatures that may influence disease risk. However, evidence in South Asians, a group with unique dietary patterns and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk, is lacking. Objective: We investigated the metabolomic profiles associated with 2 distinct dietary patterns among a sample of Asian Indians living in the United States. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between metabolomic profiles and cardiometabolic risk markers...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891806/anti-atherogenic-effects-of-vaspin-on-human-aortic-smooth-muscle-cell-macrophage-responses-and-hyperlipidemic-mouse-plaque-phenotype
#9
Kengo Sato, Remina Shirai, Maho Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Koichiro Shibata, Taisuke Okano, Yusaku Mori, Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Tsutomu Hirano, Takuya Watanabe
Vaspin (visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor) was recently identified as a novel adipocytokine with insulin-sensitizing effects. Serum vaspin levels are reported either increased or decreased in patients with coronary artery disease. Our translational research was performed to evaluate the expression of vaspin in human coronary atherosclerotic lesions, and its effects on atherogenic responses in human macrophages and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC), as well as aortic atherosclerotic lesion development in spontaneously hyperlipidemic Apoe −/− mice, an animal model of atherosclerosis...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891771/role-of-magnesium-deficiency-in-promoting-atherosclerosis-endothelial-dysfunction-and-arterial-stiffening-as-risk-factors-for-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Krasimir Kostov, Lyudmila Halacheva
Arterial hypertension is a disease with a complex pathogenesis. Despite considerable knowledge about this socially significant disease, the role of magnesium deficiency (MgD) as a risk factor is not fully understood. Magnesium is a natural calcium antagonist. It potentiates the production of local vasodilator mediators (prostacyclin and nitric oxide) and alters vascular responses to a variety of vasoactive substances (endothelin-1, angiotensin II, and catecholamines). MgD stimulates the production of aldosterone and potentiates vascular inflammatory response, while expression/activity of various antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) and the levels of important antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium) are decreased...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891593/human-aldose-reductase-expression-prevents-atherosclerosis-regression-in-diabetic-mice
#11
Chujun Yuan, Jiyuan Hu, Saj Parathath, Lisa Grauer, Courtney Blachford Cassella, Svetlana Bagdasarov, Ira J Goldberg, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Edward A Fisher
Guidelines to reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetes include aggressive LDL lowering, but benefits are attenuated compared to those in patients without diabetes. Consistent with this, we have reported in mice that hyperglycemia impaired atherosclerosis regression. Aldose reductase (AR) is thought to contribute to clinical complications of diabetes by directing glucose into pathways producing inflammatory metabolites. Mice have low levels of AR, thus, raising them to human levels would be a more clinically relevant model to study changes in diabetes under atherosclerosis regression conditions...
June 11, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884547/the-incretin-hormone-gip-is-upregulated-in-patients-with-atherosclerosis-and-stabilizes-plaques-in-apoe-mice-by-blocking-monocyte-macrophage-activation
#12
Florian Kahles, Ana Liberman, Constantin Halim, Matthias Rau, Julia Möllmann, Robert Werner Mertens, Marcia Rückbeil, Irmgard Diepolder, Benedikt Walla, Sebastian Diebold, Mathias Burgmaier, Corinna Lebherz, Nikolaus Marx, Michael Lehrke
OBJECTIVE: The incretin hormones GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) and GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) are secreted by the gut after food intake leading to pancreatic insulin secretion and glucose lowering. Beyond its role in glucose control, GLP-1 was found in mice and men to beneficially modulate the process of atherosclerosis, which has been linked to improved cardiovascular outcome of patients with diabetes at high cardiovascular risk treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883529/the-protective-activities-of-dietary-sea-cucumber-cerebrosides-against-atherosclerosis-through-regulating-inflammation-and-cholesterol-metabolism-in-male-mice
#13
Lingyu Zhang, Tiantian Zhang, Lin Ding, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Yaoguang Chang, Yuming Wang
SCOPE: Cerebroside is an active component extracted from sea cucumber (SCC), which is a traditional tonic food in China. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of SCC on atherogenesis and determined the possible underlying mechanism. METHOD AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6J obese mice were firstly used to explore the impact of SCC at different doses on alleviating lipid disorders and insulin sensitivity. Then ApoE-/- mice were used to evaluate the protective activities of SCC on atherosclerosis...
June 8, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883404/the-cd36-ppar%C3%AE-pathway-in-metabolic-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Loïze Maréchal, Maximilien Laviolette, Amélie Rodrigue-Way, Baly Sow, Michèle Brochu, Véronique Caron, André Tremblay
Uncovering the biological role of nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has greatly advanced our knowledge of the transcriptional control of glucose and energy metabolism. As such, pharmacological activation of PPARγ has emerged as an efficient approach for treating metabolic disorders with the current use of thiazolidinediones to improve insulin resistance in diabetic patients. The recent identification of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) as potent inducers of PPARγ through activation of the scavenger receptor CD36 has defined a novel alternative to regulate essential aspects of lipid and energy metabolism...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881872/metabolically-healthy-obesity-and-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Eun Sun Yoon, Kevin S Heffernan, Sae Young Jae, Hyun Jeong Kim, Kanokwan Bunsawat, Bo Fernhall
OBJECTIVE: Despite preserved metabolic function, metabolically healthy obesity may increase the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis. Given the high prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases in individuals with spinal cord injury, the aim of this study was to investigate the association of insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation, and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis with metabolically healthy obesity in individuals with spinal cord injury. METHODS: Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, carotid artery intima-media thickness and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were measured in individuals with spinal cord injury classified with metabolically healthy obesity (n = 12), metabolically unhealthy obesity (n = 8), or metabolically healthy normal-weight (n = 18)...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877321/leptin-cardiovascular-diseases-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
REVIEW
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
Leptin, an adipokine that is implicated in the control of food intake via appetite suppression, may also stimulate oxidative stress, inflammation, thrombosis, arterial stiffness, angiogenesis and atherogenesis. These leptin-induced effects may predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. In the present review we discuss the evidence linking leptin levels with the presence, severity and/or prognosis of both coronary artery disease and non-cardiac vascular diseases such as stroke, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) as well as with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
June 7, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874587/obesity-and-insulin-resistance-promote-atherosclerosis-through-an-ifn%C3%AE-regulated-macrophage-protein-network
#17
Catherine A Reardon, Amulya Lingaraju, Kelly Q Schoenfelt, Guolin Zhou, Chang Cui, Hannah Jacobs-El, Ilona Babenko, Andrew Hoofnagle, Daniel Czyz, Howard Shuman, Tomas Vaisar, Lev Becker
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. Macrophages, which are activated in T2D and causatively linked to atherogenesis, are an attractive mechanistic link. Here, we use proteomics to show that diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance (obesity/IR) modulate a pro-atherogenic "macrophage-sterol-responsive-network" (MSRN), which, in turn, predisposes macrophages to cholesterol accumulation...
June 5, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870498/cardiovascular-disease-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-an-update
#18
Yudong Liu, Mariana J Kaplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The mechanisms leading to the development of premature atherosclerosis and vascular injury in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain to be fully elucidated. This is a comprehensive review of recent research developments related to the understanding of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in lupus. RECENT FINDINGS: SLE patients with lupus nephritis display significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction and CVD mortality than SLE patients without lupus nephritis...
June 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858907/impact-of-a-group-based-treatment-program-on-adipocytokines-oxidative-status-inflammatory-cytokines-and-arterial-stiffness-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#19
Jeerunda Santiprabhob, Kawewan Limprayoon, Prapun Aanpreung, Ratiya Charoensakdi, Ruchaneekorn W Kalpravidh, Benjaluck Phonrat, Rungsunn Tungtrongchitr
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of adipocytokines, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are associated with the pathogenesis of obesity-related complications. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a group-based lifestyle modification program on adipocytokines, inflammatory cytokines, oxidative status and arterial stiffness in obese youth. METHODS: A 1-year weight-reduction program was conducted. The program consisted of initial hospitalization and five outpatient group-based sessions held at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 months...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858211/diabetes-and-trajectories-of-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-a-prospective-cohort-analysis-of-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#20
Bethany Warren, Casey M Rebholz, Yingying Sang, Alexandra K Lee, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin, Morgan E Grams
OBJECTIVE: Long-term kidney disease trajectories in persons with and without diabetes in a general population are largely uncharacterized. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We classified 15,517 participants in the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study by diabetes status at baseline (1987-1989; no diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diagnosed diabetes). We used linear mixed models with random intercepts and slopes to quantify estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) trajectories at four visits over 26 years...
June 1, 2018: Diabetes Care
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