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Insulin and atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822973/pai-1-levels-are-related-to-insulin-resistance-and-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-subjects-with-familial-combined-hyperlipidemia
#1
Arturo Carratala, Sergio Martinez-Hervas, Enrique Rodriguez-Borja, Esther Benito, José T Real, Guillermo T Saez, Rafael Carmena, Juan F Ascaso
Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a primary atherogenic dyslipidemia with insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity are associated with proinflammatory and atherothrombotic risk. Our aim was to study the role played by PAI-1 and MPO activity in the carotid atherosclerosis prevalence in FCH subjects. 36 FCH unrelated subjects (17 women) were matched by age and body weight with 36 healthy normolipidemic subjects (19 female)...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820074/exploring-the-cardio-metabolic-relevance-of-t-cadherin-a-pleiotropic-adiponectin-receptor
#2
Jaime Lynn Clark, Carla Gwen Taylor, Peter Zahradka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: T cadherin is a unique member of the cadherin family and is primarily expressed in the cardiovascular system. T cadherin has not been abundantly studied, but the studies conducted to date have explored the impact of this protein on health and the function of organs involved in metabolic regulation. METHODS: This article examines the recent knowledge of the ligand partners for T cadherin and the potential contribution(s) of T-cadherin to cardio-metabolic function...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814963/effects-of-a-liquid-high-fat-meal-on-postprandial-lipid-metabolism-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-abdominal-obesity
#3
Feng Wang, Huixia Lu, Fukang Liu, Huizhen Cai, Zhixiu Song, Fei Guo, Yulan Xie, Guofang Shu, Guiju Sun
BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipemia and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of accelerated atherosclerosis. This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial lipid metabolism after the ingestion of a liquid high-fat meal in type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity, and determine if the PvuII polymorphisms of LPL influence their postprandial lipid responses. METHODS: Serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured in fasting and postprandial state at 0...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789832/association-of-preterm-birth-and-small-for-gestational-age-with-metabolic-outcomes-in%C3%A2-children-and-adolescents-a-population-based-cohort-study-from-taiwan
#4
Yu-Ting Huang, Hsiang-Yu Lin, Chung-Hsing Wang, Bai-Horng Su, Che-Chen Lin
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified preterm birth and/or small for gestational age (SGA) as risk factors for features of the metabolic syndrome, including high blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and atherosclerosis, occurring later in life, with controversial results. We conducted this population-based cohort study to investigate metabolic outcomes in those with former preterm birth and/or SGA status in Taiwan. METHODS: Data were obtained from Taiwan's universal National Health Insurance Research Database...
July 25, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782494/the-role-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-pcsk9-in-cardiovascular-homeostasis-a-non-systematic-literature-review
#5
Ahmad Hachem, Essa Hariri, Perla Saoud, Christelle Lteif, Louis Lteif, Francine Welty
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been gaining major attention recently after the emergence of data showing the promising role of these proteins in lipid homeostasis and atherosclerosis process, glucose and blood pressure regulation. PubMed, EMBASE, Scholar and Scopus databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials, observational studies, in-vitro trials and reviews about the role of PCSK9 in cardiovascular homeostasis. PCSK9 was found to have major impact on lipid homeostasis and inflammatory process through regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptors...
August 4, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777829/identification-of-an-early-transcriptomic-signature-of-insulin-resistance-and-related-diseases-in-lymphomonocytes-of-healthy-subjects
#6
Alice Matone, Eleonora Derlindati, Luca Marchetti, Valentina Spigoni, Alessandra Dei Cas, Barbara Montanini, Diego Ardigò, Ivana Zavaroni, Corrado Priami, Riccardo C Bonadonna
Insulin resistance is considered to be a pathogenetic mechanism in several and diverse diseases (e.g. type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis) often antedating them in apparently healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate with a microarray based approach whether IR per se is characterized by a specific pattern of gene expression. For this purpose we analyzed the transcriptomic profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in two groups (10 subjects each) of healthy individuals, with extreme insulin resistance or sensitivity, matched for BMI, age and gender, selected within the MultiKnowledge Study cohort (n = 148)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770327/a-new-perspective-on-metformin-therapy-in-type-1-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Rachel Livingstone, James G Boyle, John R Petrie
Metformin is quite frequently used off-label in type 1 diabetes to limit insulin dose requirement. Guidelines recommend that it can improve glucose control in those who are overweight and obese but evidence in support of this is limited. Recently-published findings from the REducing with MetfOrmin Vascular Adverse Lesions (REMOVAL) trial suggest that metformin therapy in type 1 diabetes can reduce atherosclerosis progression, weight and LDL-cholesterol levels. This provides a new perspective on metformin therapy in type 1 diabetes and suggests a potential role for reducing the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768281/%C3%AE-sarcoglycan-deficiency-reduces-atherosclerotic-plaque-development-in-apoe-null-mice
#8
Vignesh Murugesan, Eva Degerman, Ann-Kristin Holmen-Pålbrink, Pontus Duner, Anki Knutsson, Anna Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Uwe Rauch
BACKGROUND: Smooth muscle cells are important for atherosclerotic plaque stability. Their proper ability to communicate with the extracellular matrix is crucial for maintaining the correct tissue integrity. In this study, we have investigated the role of β-sarcoglycan within the matrix-binding dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in the development of atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Atherosclerotic plaque development was significantly reduced in ApoE-deficient mice lacking β-sarcoglycan, and their plaques contained an increase in differentiated smooth muscle cells...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761576/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-on-atherosclerosis-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-glycemic-control-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-who-are-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-or-poorly-responsive-to-antidiabetes-agents-a-multicenter
#9
Yuya Tsurutani, Masao Omura, Yoko Matsuzawa, Jun Saito, Mariko Higa, Matsuo Taniyama, Tetsuo Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, is widely used in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the pleiotropic effects of sitagliptin is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical efficacy and safety of sitagliptin on atherosclerosis, β-cell function, and glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A prospective observational study of 270 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was carried out...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752048/myeloid-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-ptp1b-deficiency-protects-against-atherosclerotic-plaque-formation-in-the-apoe-mouse-model-of-atherosclerosis-with-alterations-in-il10-ampk%C3%AE-pathway
#10
D Thompson, N Morrice, L Grant, S Le Sommer, K Ziegler, P Whitfield, N Mody, H M Wilson, M Delibegović
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent cause of mortality among patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Recent evidence suggests a strong link between atherosclerosis and insulin resistance due to impaired insulin receptor (IR) signaling. Moreover, inflammatory cells, in particular macrophages, play a key role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance in humans. We hypothesized that inhibiting the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), the major negative regulator of the IR, specifically in macrophages, would have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects and lead to protection against atherosclerosis and CVD...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750629/role-of-free-fatty-acids-in-endothelial-dysfunction
#11
REVIEW
Arijit Ghosh, Lei Gao, Abhimanyu Thakur, Parco M Siu, Christopher W K Lai
Plasma free fatty acids levels are increased in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes, playing detrimental roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Increasing evidence showing that dysfunction of the vascular endothelium, the inner lining of the blood vessels, is the key player in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this review, we aimed to summarize the roles and the underlying mechanisms using the evidence collected from clinical and experimental studies about free fatty acid-mediated endothelial dysfunction...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743062/peripheral-leucocytes-and-tissue-gene-expression-of-granzyme-b-perforin-system-and-serpinb9-impact-on-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-coronary-atherosclerosis
#12
Eman F Sanad, Nadia M Hamdy, Adel K El-Etriby, Samer A Sebak, Hala O El-Mesallamy
AIM: The imbalance between proapoptotic granzyme B (GZB)/perforin (PRF) system and proteinase inhibitor-9 (PI-9; serpinB9); the only known inhibitor of human GZB, has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis. However, their role in atherosclerosis with the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) as well as their contribution to hallmarks of atherosclerosis is not clear. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: ELISA for serum insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and GZB levels in atherosclerotic coronary artery diseases (CAD) patients were estimated in comparison to apparently healthy controls, while GZB, PRF and PI-9 mRNA expression levels were quantified by Taqman RT-PCR in both peripheral leucocytes and atherosclerotic tissues...
July 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739173/lipid-droplet-proteins-and-metabolic-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Shimeng Xu, Xuelin Zhang, Pingsheng Liu
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous cellular organelles for lipid storage which are composed of a neutral lipid core bounded by a protein decorated phospholipid monolayer. Although lipid storage is their most obvious function, LDs are far from inert as they participate in maintaining lipid homeostasis through lipid synthesis, metabolism, and transportation. Furthermore, they are involved in cell signaling and other molecular events closely associated with human disease such as dyslipidemia, obesity, lipodystrophy, diabetes, fatty liver, atherosclerosis, and others...
July 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729885/cd36-overexpression-a-possible-etiopathogenic-mechanism-of-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-prediabetes-and-diabetes
#14
M D Lopez-Carmona, M C Plaza-Seron, A Vargas-Candela, F J Tinahones, R Gomez-Huelgas, M R Bernal-Lopez
RATIONALE: CD36 is a scavenger receptor located on monocytes which is involved in foam cell transformation. AIM: To evaluate CD36 expression under different glycemic states in both healthy subjects and in atherosclerotic patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In order to evaluate the possible effects of hyperglycemia on CD36 expression in healthy subjects, an in vitro experiment was carried out using monocyte in three different conditions: extreme hyperglycemia (HG), euglycemia (EG) and in the absence of glucose...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722106/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-exercise-role-in-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#15
REVIEW
Bente Klarlund Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIMS: The aim of this review was to provide the reader with an update of the mechanisms whereby exercise-induced cytokines may impact cardiometabolic diseases. RESULTS: Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in pancreatic β-cell damage, whereas TNF-α is a key molecule in peripheral insulin resistance...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721155/clinical-importance-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#16
Eszter Nagy, Adam L Jermendy, Bela Merkely, Pal Maurovich-Horvat
Different visceral fat compartments have several systemic effects and may play a role in the development of both insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. In the last couple of years special attention has been paid to the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), which can be quantified by non-invasive cardiac imaging techniques. The epicardial fat is a unique fat compartment between the myocardium and the visceral pericardium sharing a common embryologic origin with the visceral fat depot. Epicardial adipose tissue has several specific roles, and its local effects on cardiac function are incorporated in the complex pathomechanism of coronary artery disease...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721154/obesity-and-inflammation-the-linking-mechanism-and-the-complications
#17
Mohammed S Ellulu, Ismail Patimah, Huzwah Khaza'ai, Asmah Rahmat, Yehia Abed
Obesity is the accumulation of abnormal or excessive fat that may interfere with the maintenance of an optimal state of health. The excess of macronutrients in the adipose tissues stimulates them to release inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, and reduces production of adiponectin, predisposing to a pro-inflammatory state and oxidative stress. The increased level of interleukin 6 stimulates the liver to synthesize and secrete C-reactive protein. As a risk factor, inflammation is an imbedded mechanism of developed cardiovascular diseases including coagulation, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718838/phyllanthus-niruri-standardized-extract-alleviates-the-progression-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-decreases-atherosclerotic-risk-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#18
Raghdaa Hamdan Al Zarzour, Mariam Ahmad, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Gurjeet Kaur, Mohammed Ali Ahmed Saeed, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Nasiba Salisu Usman, Dhamraa W Al-Dulaimi, Mun Fei Yam
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri). NAFLD was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using a special high-fat diet (HFD). A 50% methanolic extract (50% ME) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against NAFLD progression. It significantly reduced hepatomegaly (16%) and visceral fat weight (22%), decreased NAFLD score, prevented fibrosis, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) (48%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (65%), free fatty acids (FFAs) (25%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (45%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (38%), insulin concentration (67%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (73%), serum atherogenic ratios TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (29%), LDL/HDL (66%) and (TC-HDL)/HDL (64%), hepatic content of cholesterol (43%), triglyceride (29%) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (40%) compared to a non-treated HFD group...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718186/intrauterine-growth-restriction-iugr-induces-signs-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-6-year-old-infants-despite-absence-of-excessive-growth
#19
Anja Tzschoppe, Rüdiger von Kries, Ellen Struwe, Wolfgang Rascher, Helmuth-Guenther Dörr, Jörg Jüngert, Manfred Rauh, Matthias Beckmann, Ralf Schild, Tamme W Goecke, Jörg Dötsch
Background Postnatal catch-up growth and rapid weight gain after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) seem to increase the risk for later disease. This study aimed to compare features of the metabolic syndrome early in life between IUGR and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. Patients Data for 9 infants with IUGR defined by a birth weight<10(th) percentile and ultrasound-proven placental insufficiency and 11 AGA children were available. Method Postnatal growth, auxological, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters up to a chronological age of 6 years were assessed: Fasting serum concentrations of LDL-cholesterol, insulin, leptin, IGF-I, DHEAS, skinfold thicknesses, blood pressure, and mean carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)...
July 2017: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712518/subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-youth-relation-to-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#20
Brenda Mendizábal, Elaine M Urbina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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