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Insulin and atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437024/uric-acid-metabolic-syndrome-and-atherosclerosis-the-chicken-or-the-egg-which-comes-first
#1
Giovanni De Pergola, Francesca Cortese, Gaetano Termine, Giovanni Meliota, Michele Masiello, Anna Maria Cortese, Francesco Silvestris, Domenico Caccavo, Marco Matteo Ciccone
BACKGROUND: A great debate in literature exists nowadays on the role of uric acid as a marker of cardiovascular and metabolic organ damage or a risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disease. METHODS: to determine the relationship among serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis, by mean of carotid intima media-thickness, in a cohort of 811 otherwise healthy overweight/obese subjects, without overt atherosclerosis not using any kind of drug...
February 11, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435395/atherothrombosis-is-a-thrombotic-not-inflammatory-disease
#2
REVIEW
Gregory D Sloop, Joseph J Weidman, John A St Cyr
The authors hypothesize that thrombosis causes both the complications of atherosclerosis as well as the underlying lesion, the atherosclerotic plaque, which develops from the organization of mural thrombi. These form in areas of slow blood flow, which develop because of flow separation created by changing vascular geometry and elevated blood viscosity. Many phenomena typically ascribed to inflammation or "chronic oxidative stress", such as the development of fatty streaks, "endothelial dysfunction," "vulnerable plaques," and the association of mild elevations of C-reactive protein and cytokines with atherothrombosis are better explained by hemorheologic and hemodynamic abnormalities, particularly elevated blood viscosity...
December 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432757/a-novel-nmr-based-assay-to-measure-circulating-concentrations-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-elevation-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-association-with-carotid-intima-media-thickness
#3
Justyna Wolak-Dinsmore, Eke G Gruppen, Irina Shalaurova, Steven P Matyus, Russell P Grant, Ray Gegen, Stephan J L Bakker, James D Otvos, Margery A Connelly, Robin P F Dullaart
OBJECTIVES: Plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, measured on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics research platforms or by mass spectrometry, have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We developed a new test for quantification of BCAA on a clinical NMR analyzer and used this test to determine the clinical correlates of BCAA in 2 independent cohorts. DESIGN AND METHODS: The performance of the NMR-based BCAA assay was evaluated...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431855/metabolic-clusters-and-outcomes-in-older-adults-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#4
Kenneth J Mukamal, David S Siscovick, Ian H de Boer, Joachim H Ix, Jorge R Kizer, Luc Djoussé, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Russell P Tracy, Edward J Boyko, Steven E Kahn, Alice M Arnold
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Few studies have the requisite phenotypic information to define metabolic patterns that may inform our understanding of the pathophysiology and consequences of diabetes in older adults. We sought to characterize clusters of older adults on the basis of shared metabolic features. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: Four U.S. Cardiovascular Health Study field centers. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older taking no glucose-lowering agents (N = 2,231)...
February 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429540/sodium-butyrate-modulates-adipocyte-expansion-adipogenesis-and-insulin-receptor-signaling-by-upregulation-of-ppar-%C3%AE-in-obese-apo-e-knockout-mice
#5
Edenil Costa Aguilar, Josiane Fernandes da Silva, Juliana Maria Navia-Pelaez, Alda Jusceline Leonel, Lorrayne Gonçalves Lopes, Zélia Menezes-Garcia, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira, Luciano Dos Santos Aggum Capettini, Lilian G Teixeira, Virginia Soares Lemos, Jacqueline I Alvarez-Leite
OBJECTIVES: Studies suggest that sodium butyrate reduces obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in in vitro and in vivo models. Apo E -/- mice have high basal oxidative stress and naturally develop dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Because these disorders are present in obesity, the aim of this study was to determine whether Apo E -/- mice could be a more realistic model for studying obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS: We evaluated the action of orally administered sodium butyrate on adipose tissue expansion and insulin resistance using diet-induced obese Apo E -/- mice...
March 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428127/dyslipidemia-steatohepatitis-and-atherogenesis-in-lipodystrophic-apoe-deficient-mice-with-seipin-deletion
#6
Jiawei Liao, Xuejing Liu, Mingming Gao, Mengyu Wang, Yuhui Wang, Feng Wang, Wei Huang, George Liu
SEIPIN is an integral membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum, regulating adipocytes differentiation and lipolysis. Deficiency of Seipin in mice causes severe general lipodystrophy, accompanied by insulin resistance, postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and steatohepatitis. In atherosclerosis-prone Ldlr null (Ldlr -/- ) mice, lipodystrophy caused by Seipin deletion even led to severe hypercholesteremia and accelerated atherogenesis, when challenged with an atherogenic diet. However, whether the phenotypes observed in Seipin -/- Ldlr -/- mice were a common consequence due to lipodystrophy, rather than genetic background restricted or diet dependent, was unknown...
March 30, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424780/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-inversely-relates-to-monocyte-macrophage-activation-markers-in-hiv
#7
Lindsay T Fourman, Natalia Czerwonka, Sofia D Shaikh, Takara L Stanley, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Kathleen V Fitch, Janet Lo, Steven K Grinspoon
OBJECTIVE: Monocyte/macrophage activation is increased among people with HIV, and may contribute to the heightened risk of atherosclerosis and neurocognitive dysfunction in this population. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to attenuate the innate immune response in animal models of atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated for the first time, relationships of circulating IGF-1 with monocyte/macrophage-specific indices among HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419749/deficiency-of-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-does-not-protect-against-obesity-but-exacerbates-atherosclerosis-in-ldlr-mice
#8
Savitha Subramanian, Leela Goodspeed, Shari Wang, Yilei Ding, Kevin D O'Brien, Godfrey S Getz, Alan Chait, Catherine A Reardon
Obesity is a chronic inflammatory state characterized by altered levels of adipose tissue immune cell populations. Natural killer T (NKT) cells are CD1d restricted lymphocyte subsets that recognize lipid antigens whose level decreases in obese adipose tissue. However, studies in mice with deficiency or increased levels of NKT cells have yielded contradictory results, so the exact role of these cells in obesity and adipose tissue inflammation is not yet established. We previously showed that Ldlr-/- mice with excess invariant NKT (iNKT) cells demonstrate significant weight gain, adiposity, metabolic abnormalities, and atherosclerosis...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416584/the-current-conditions-and-lifestyles-of-obese-university-students
#9
Natsumi Morito, Yasunori Suematsu, Rie Koyoshi, Yuhei Shiga, Takashi Kuwano, Atsushi Iwata, Kanta Fujimi, Akira Kawamura, Shin-Ichiro Miura
Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Japan remains high, and the onset becomes early. Studies on the current conditions and lifestyles of obese university students may support early interventions to achieve lifestyle modification. Methods and Results: The results of periodic health examinations in 32,262 first-year university students revealed that 2,036 (6.3%) were obese. We performed a more detailed examination in 221 of these obese students (165 males and 56 females, age 19 ± 1 years) with study agreement from 2014 to 2016...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412763/association-between-carotid-intima-media-thickness-age-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
Vasu D Gooty, Alan R Sinaiko, Justin R Ryder, Donald R Dengel, David R Jacobs, Julia Steinberger
BACKGROUND: Measures of carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in adults are correlated with adiposity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and predict cardiovascular (CV) events. Relations in children are not as well studied. Our objective was to determine the relations of cIMT with body mass index (BMI) and CV risk score in children. METHODS: The study included 291 children (158 M/133 F) 6-18 years of age (140 aged 6-11/151 aged 12-18) with measurements of height, weight, waist circumference; fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and cIMT...
February 7, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412116/prevention-of-vascular-complications-in-diabetes-mellitus-patients-focus-on-the-arterial-wall
#11
Mojca Lunder, Miodrag Janic, Miso Sabovic
In diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance progressively lead to both microvascular and macrovascular complications. Whereas the incidence of microvascular complications is closely related to tight glycaemic control, this does not apply to macrovascular complications. Hyperglycaemia influences many interweaving molecular pathways that initially lead to increased oxidative stress, increased inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The latter represents the initial in both types of vascular complications; it represents the "obligatory damage" in microvascular complications development and only "introductory damage" in macrovascular complications development...
February 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410350/novel-phytopeptide-osmotin-mimics-preventive-effects-of-adiponectin-on-vascular-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis
#12
Yui Takahashi, Rena Watanabe, Yuki Sato, Nana Ozawa, Miho Kojima, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Remina Shirai, Kengo Sato, Tsutomu Hirano, Takuya Watanabe
INTRODUCTION: The novel phytohormone, osmotin, has been reported to act like mammalian adiponectin through PHO36/AdipoR1 in various in vitro and in vivo models. However, there have been no reports regarding the precise effects of osmotin on atherosclerosis. METHODS: We assessed the atheroprotective effects of osmotin on inflammatory molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), human leukemic monocyte (THP-1) adhesion, inflammatory responses, and foam cell formation in THP-1-derived macrophages, and the migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs)...
February 1, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398050/lipid-profiles-inflammatory-markers-and-insulin-therapy-in-youth-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Lorraine E Levitt Katz, Fida Bacha, Samuel S Gidding, Ruth S Weinstock, Laure El Ghormli, Ingrid Libman, Kristen J Nadeau, Kristin Porter, Santica Marcovina
OBJECTIVES: Data regarding atherogenic dyslipidemia and the inflammation profile in youth with type 2 diabetes is limited and the effect of insulin therapy on these variables has not previously been studied in youth. We determined the impact of insulin therapy on lipid and inflammatory markers in youth with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: In the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) multicenter trial, 285 participants failed to sustain glycemic control on randomized treatment (primary outcome, glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] at ≥8% for 6 months); 363 maintained glycemic control (never reached primary outcome)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395842/heterogeneity-in-effects-of-genetically-determined-adiposity-on-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#14
Tingting Liu, Changwei Li, Luqi Shen, Ye Shen, Weibo Mao, Shengxu Li
BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study has identified 12 genetic variants robustly associated with body fat percentage (BF%) with diverse cardiometabolic consequences. We developed three genetic risk scores (GRSs) according to the associations of the 12 individual variants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and test the GRSs' associations with insulin resistance and T2D in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. METHODS: In 6895 European-American participants, we calculated GRS-I as the number of BF%-increasing alleles from variants associated with increased risk of T2D, GRS-D from variants associated with decreased risk of T2D, and GRS-ALL from all 12 variants...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386132/delta-like-ligand-4-notch-signaling-inhibition-regulates-pancreatic-islet-function-and-insulin-secretion
#15
Fabienne Billiard, Sevasti Karaliota, Bei Wang, Dimitrios Stellas, Ioannis Serafimidis, Antigoni Manousopoulou, Yiassemi Koutmani, Elpiniki Ninou, Jacquelynn Golubov, Amanda DaNave, Panagiotis Tsakanikas, Yurong Xin, Wen Zhang, Matthew Sleeman, George D Yancopoulos, Andrew J Murphy, Spiros D Garbis, Katia Karalis, Dimitris Skokos
Although Notch signaling has been proposed as a therapeutic target for type-2 diabetes, liver steatosis, and atherosclerosis, its direct effect on pancreatic islets remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated a function of Dll4-Notch signaling inhibition on the biology of insulin-producing cells. We confirmed enhanced expression of key Notch signaling genes in purified pancreatic islets from diabetic NOD mice and showed that treatment with anti-Dll4 antibody specifically abolished Notch signaling pathway activation...
January 23, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373734/long-term-testosterone-administration-on-insulin-sensitivity-in-older-men-with-low-or-low-normal-testosterone-levels
#16
Grace Huang, Karol M Pencina, Zhuoying Li, Shehzad Basaria, Shalender Bhasin, Thomas G Travison, Thomas W Storer, S Mitchell Harman, Panayiotis Tsitouras
Background: Serum testosterone levels and insulin sensitivity both decrease with age. Severe testosterone deficiency is associated with the development of insulin resistance. However, the effects of long-term testosterone administration on insulin sensitivity in older men with low or low-normal testosterone levels remain unknown. Methods: The Testosterone Effects on Atherosclerosis in Aging Men Trial was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial. The participants were 308 community-dwelling men, >60-years, with total testosterone 100-400ng/dL or free testosterone<50pg/mL...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366145/preclinical-atherosclerosis-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-type-1-diabetes-women
#17
Pavlina Pithova, Jan Pitha, Katerina Stechova, Milan Kvapil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365965/insulin-resistance-and-low-serum-adiponectin-level-as-a-risk-factors-of-atherosclerosis-and-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Ekaterina Polyakova, Olga Belyaeva, Elena Bazhenova, Olga Berkovich, Aelita Berezina, Valery Ionin, Anna Bakulina, Elena Baranova, Eugenie Shlyakhto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351856/high-density-lipoprotein-with-apolipoprotein-c-iii-is-associated-with-carotid-intima-media-thickness-among-generally-healthy-individuals
#19
Rain Yamamoto, Frank M Sacks, Frank B Hu, Bernard Rosner, Jeremy D Furtado, Sarah A Aroner, Ele Ferrannini, Simona Baldi, Michaela Kozakova, Beverley Balkau, Andrea Natali, Majken K Jensen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: About 6-7% of high density lipoprotein (HDL) has a protein called apolipoprotein (apo) C-III that regulates lipoprotein metabolism and can provoke an inflammatory response. HDL without apoC-III is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), whereas HDL with apoC-III is directly associated with CHD. We investigated how the presence of apoC-III affects the association between HDL and early stages of atherosclerosis measured as carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)...
January 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341349/peroxiredoxin-4-prdx4-its-critical-in-vivo-roles-in-animal-models-of-metabolic-syndrome-ranging-from-atherosclerosis-to-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Sohsuke Yamada, Xin Guo
The peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family, a new family of proteins with a pivotal antioxidative function, is ubiquitously synthesized and abundantly identified in various organisms. In contrast to the intracellular localization of other family members (PRDX1/2/3/5/6), PRDX4 is the only known secretory form and protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species in both the intracellular (especially the endoplasmic reticulum) compartments and the extracellular space. We generated unique human PRDX4 (hPRDX4) transgenic (Tg) mice on a C57BL/6J background and investigated the critical and diverse protective roles of PRDX4 against diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as evaluated its role in the intestinal function in various animal models...
January 17, 2018: Pathology International
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