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Insulin and atherosclerosis

Maria das Graças Coelho de Souza, Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar, Eliete Bouskela
Obesity is a crescent epidemic in the world, affecting more than half a billion of adults worldwide. Obesity is associated to main cardiovascular risk factors, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The excessive adiposity causes a dysregulation of adipokines secretion by adipose tissue, upregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines and downregulating the anti-inflammatory ones. This scenario contributes for the appearance of atherosclerosis...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Nuria Beneit, Sabela Díaz-Castroverde, Óscar Escribano
This review focuses on the contribution of white, brown, and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic and vascular complications. Weight gain in obesity generates excess of fat, usually visceral fat, and activates the inflammatory response in the adipocytes and then in other tissues such as liver. Therefore, low systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance contributes to atherosclerotic process. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between body mass index and brown adipose tissue activity has been described...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Vanessa Di Cataldo, Alain Géloën, Jean-Baptiste Langlois, Fabien Chauveau, Benoît Thézé, Violaine Hubert, Marlène Wiart, Erica N Chirico, Jennifer Rieusset, Hubert Vidal, Vincent Pialoux, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas
Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE(-/-) mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE(-/-) mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Satoshi Fujii, Tomonori Sugiura, Yasuaki Dohi, Nobuyuki Ohte
Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of death. Data from animal experiments suggest that atherosclerosis involves an inflammatory process of the vascular wall under hyperlipidemia. Atherothrombosis can become a serious complication of atherosclerosis leading to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Clinical applications to use this knowledge remain scarce. The plasma levels of vascular endothelium-enriched microRNA (miRNAs) in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease could serve as a disease marker...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Vani P Sanon, Yehuda Handelsman, Son V Pham, Robert Chilton
IN BRIEF Congenital lipodystrophy is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a near-complete absence of fat cells, hypoleptinemia leading to a voracious appetite, and marked insulin resistance. This article focuses on the known cardiovascular manifestations of patients with congenital lipodystrophy, including cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, and accelerated atherosclerosis arising from a markedly deranged metabolic milieu. Future research that targets leptin deficiency (metreleptin) and apoC3 mRNA (antisense oligonucleotide) could open a window for potential pharmacological treatment of this challenging disorder...
October 2016: Clinical Diabetes: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Catriona Syme, Simon Czajkowski, Jean Shin, Michal Abrahamowicz, Gabriel Leonard, Michel Perron, Louis Richer, Suzanne Veillette, Daniel Gaudet, Lisa Strug, Yun Wang, Hongbin Xu, Graeme Taylor, Tomáš Paus, Steffany Bennett, Zdenka Pausova
BACKGROUND: -Glycerophosphocholine (GPC) metabolites modulate atherosclerosis and thus risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pre-clinical CVD may start during adolescence. Here, we used targeted serum lipidomics to identify a new panel of GPCs, and tested whether any of these GPCs are associated - in adolescence - with classical risk factors of CVD, namely excess visceral fat (VF), elevated BP, insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia. METHODS: -We studied a population-based sample of 990 adolescents (12-18 years, 48% male), as part of the Saguenay Youth Study...
October 18, 2016: Circulation
Seung Won Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yong-Ho Lee, Hansol Choi, Ji Hye Park, Yumie Rhee, Chang Oh Kim
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether HbA1c is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in a community-dwelling elderly Korean population with normal fasting glucose. DESIGN AND METHOD: Using data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly study, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis in 1,133 participants (335 men and 798 women) with mean age 71.8 years. All participants had fasting blood glucose less than 100   mg/dL (5.6mmol/L) and a level of HbA1c below 6.5% (48 mmol/mol)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Farag E Salama, Qasem A Anass, Abdelnaem A Abdelrahman, Elsayed B Saeed
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and arterial stiffness are useful markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and significantly correlate with various metabolic risk factors. Chemerin is one of the adipokines that may represent a link between obesity and inflammation and may be a potential candidate playing a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. Therefore, we studied the relationship of chemerin levels with atherosclerosis as measured by CIMT in diabetic CKD patients, either predialysis or on hemodialysis (HD)...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Esma R Isenovic, Zoran Gluvic, Bozidarka Zaric, Ivana Resanovic, Milan Obradovic, Aleksandar Mitrovic, Djordje Radak
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a leading public health and clinical challenge worldwide. MetS represents a group of interelated risk factors that predict cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Its prevalence ranges between 10 and 84%, depending of the geographic region, urban or rural environment, individual demographic characteristics of the population studied (sex, age, racial and ethnic origin), as well as the criteria used to define MetS. Persons with MetS have higher mortality rate when compared with people without MetS, primarily caused by progressive atherosclerosis, accelerated by pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulation components of MetS...
October 7, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
L Ozcan, I Tabas
The burden of type 2 diabetes and its major complication cardiovascular disease is rapidly increasing worldwide. Understanding the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of these diseases is crucial to develop novel therapeutics. Recent work using genetic and biochemical methods in mouse models and human samples have identified disturbed calcium signalling and endoplasmic reticulum stress as emerging factors involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases. In this review, we will highlight the specific roles of calcium signalling and endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Sandra Azevedo Antunes, Maria Eugênia Fernandes Canziani
Anemia is a common complication and its impact on morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known. The discovery of hepcidin and its functions has contributed to a better understanding of iron metabolism disorders in CKD anemia. Hepcidin is a peptide mainly produced by hepatocytes and, through a connection with ferroportin, it regulates iron absorption in the duodenum and its release of stock cells. High hepcidin concentrations described in patients with CKD, especially in more advanced stages are attributed to decreased renal excretion and increased production...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Islam Osman, Ninu Poulose, Vadivel Ganapathy, Lakshman Segar
Insulin resistance is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Although high fructose is known to induce insulin resistance, it remains unclear as to how fructose regulates insulin receptor signaling and proliferative phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which play a major role in atherosclerosis. Using human aortic VSMCs, we investigated the effects of high fructose treatment on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation, insulin versus platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phosphorylation of Akt, S6 ribosomal protein, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cell cycle proteins...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ismael González-García, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Miguel López
Hypothalamic lipid metabolism plays a major role in the physiological regulation of energy balance. Modulation of several enzymatic activities that control lipid biosynthesis, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), impacts both feeding and energy expenditure. However, lipids can also cause pathological alterations in the hypothalamus. Lipotoxicity is promoted by excess lipids in tissues non suitable for their storage. A large amount of evidence has demonstrated that lipotoxicity is a pathophysiological mechanism leading to metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis and steatohepatitis...
October 11, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Dragana Nikolic, Giuseppa Castellino, Maciej Banach, Peter P Toth, Ekaterina Ivanova, Alexander N Orekhov, Giuseppe Montalto, Manfredi Rizzo
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are implicated in the pathology of several metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. PPAR agonists exert multiple lipid modifying actions which are beneficial to the prevention of atherosclerosis. Such benefits in lipid lowering actions include improvements in atherogenic dyslipidemia that seems to be particularly expressed in individuals at higher cardiovascular (CV) risk. In addition, the favorable effects of PPAR agonists on different cardio-metabolic parameters are established in several metabolic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and heightened systemic inflammation...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jing Leng, Mei-Hong Chen, Zhi-Hui Zhou, Ya-Wen Lu, Xiao-Dong Wen, Jie Yang
Adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage polarization are tightly associated with the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Our previous studies have demonstrated the triterpenoids-enriched extract from the aerial parts of Salvia miltiorrhiza (TTE) could significantly improve atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) mice. However, its molecular mechanisms of TTE ameliorating insulin resistance remain unclear. In the present study, obesity model with insulin resistance induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD) was established...
October 6, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Belinda Spoto, Anna Pisano, Carmine Zoccali
Insulin resistance (IR) is an early metabolic alteration in CKD patients, being apparent when the glomerular filtration rate is still within the normal range and becoming almost universal in those who reach the ESKF. The skeletal muscle represents the primary site of IR in CKD and post-receptor alterations are recognized as the main defect underlying IR in this condition. Estimates of IR based on fasting insulin concentration are easier but may not be adequate in CKD patients because renal insufficiency reduces insulin catabolism...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Xavier Deplanque, Delphine Muscente-Paque, Eric Chappuis
BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE) standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Biswanath Dinda, Anthony M Kyriakopoulos, Subhajit Dinda, Vassilis Zoumpourlis, Nikolaos S Thomaidis, Aristea Velegraki, Charlambos Markopoulos, Manikarna Dinda
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry) fruits have been used for centuries as traditional cuisine and folk medicine in various countries of Europe and Asia. In folk medicines, the fruits and other parts of the plant have been used for prevention and treatment of a wide range of diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, fevers, rheumatic pain, skin and urinary tract infections, kidney and liver diseases, sunstroke, among others. This review provides a systematic and constructive overview of ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of this plant as well as future research need for its commercial utilization as nutraceutical food supplement and medicine...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Li Chen, Yipeng Zhang, Ou Sha, Wei Xu, Shujun Wang
Therapeutic drugs must be developed to treat hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia, which are major risk factors for developing coronary artery diseases and atherosclerosis. Pleurotus eryngii is a well-known food resource with functional properties in China. In this study, P. eryngii polysaccharide (PEP) was extracted with hot water, and its hypolipidaemic and hypoglycaemic activities were investigated. KKAy mice were divided into control and PEP groups, which were fed with high fat and PEP+high fat, respectively, for 6 weeks...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hongxi Sun, Yu Li, Bei Sun, Ningning Hou, Juhong Yang, Miaoyan Zheng, Jie Xu, Jingyu Wang, Yi Zhang, Xianwei Zeng, Chunyan Shan, Bai Chang, Liming Chen, Baocheng Chang
BACKROUND: Type 2 diabetes has become a global epidemic disease. Atorvastatin has become a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. However, increasing evidence showed that statins can dose-dependently increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. The mechanism is not clear. OBJECTIVE: The Ras complex pathway (Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]/cAMP response element-binding protein [CREB]) is the major pathway that regulates the gene transcription...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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