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Insulin and atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098353/the-role-of-various-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-and-their-ligands-in-clinical-practice
#1
REVIEW
Giuseppe Derosa, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Pamela Maffioli
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors involved in several physiological processes including modulation of cellular differentiation, development, metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to examine how different PPAR ligands act, and discuss their use in clinical practice. PPAR ligands have a lot of effects and applications in clinical practice. Some PPAR ligands such as fibrates (PPAR-α ligands) are currently used for the treatment of dyslipidemia, while pioglitazone and rosiglitazone (PPAR-γ ligands) are anti-diabetic and insulin-sensitizing agents...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068560/effect-of-sarpogrelate-a-selective-5-ht2a-receptor-antagonist-on-characteristics-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#2
Dong-Hwa Lee, Eun Ju Chun, Jee Hye Hur, Se Hee Min, Jie-Eun Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Kyoung Min Kim, Hak Chul Jang, Seung Jin Han, Doo Kyoung Kang, Hae Jin Kim, Soo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sarpogrelate, a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2A antagonist, is a potential antiplatelet agent. We performed a randomized study to evaluate the effect of sarpogrelate on vascular health in Korean patients with diabetes. METHODS: Forty diabetic patients aged 58.6 ± 6.8 years with 10-75% coronary artery stenosis, as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography, were randomly assigned to sarpogrelate 300 mg/day plus aspirin 100 mg/day (SPG + ASA group) or aspirin 100 mg/day alone (ASA group) for 6 months...
December 10, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068281/pathophysiological-role-of-adiponectin-leptin-and-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-in-the-process-of-atherosclerosis
#3
Daniela Iv Koleva, Maria M Orbetzova, Julia G Nikolova, Tanya I Deneva
Adipose tissue is recognized as a rich source of proinflammatory mediators that may directly contribute to vascular injury, insulin resistance, and atherogenesis. Many studies have shown that adiponectin has antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin acts not only as a factor increasing insulin sensitivity, and the protective effect may result from its ability to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines. It negatively regulates the expression of TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue; reduces expression of vascular and intracellular adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1), E-selectin, interleukin-8 (IL-8)...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067407/analysis-of-whole-exome-sequencing-with-cardiometabolic-traits-using-family-based-linkage-and-association-in-the-iras-family-study
#4
Keri L Tabb, Jacklyn N Hellwege, Nicholette D Palmer, Latchezar Dimitrov, Satria Sajuthi, Kent D Taylor, Maggie C Y Ng, Gregory A Hawkins, Yii-der Ida Chen, W Mark Brown, David McWilliams, Adrienne Williams, Carlos Lorenzo, Jill M Norris, Jirong Long, Jerome I Rotter, Joanne E Curran, John Blangero, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Carl D Langefeld, Donald W Bowden
Family-based methods are a potentially powerful tool to identify trait-defining genetic variants in extended families, particularly when used to complement conventional association analysis. We utilized two-point linkage analysis and single variant association analysis to evaluate whole exome sequencing (WES) data from 1205 Hispanic Americans (78 families) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. WES identified 211,612 variants above the minor allele frequency threshold of ≥0.005. These variants were tested for linkage and/or association with 50 cardiometabolic traits after quality control checks...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067320/relationship-between-frequency-of-hypoglycemic-episodes-and-changes-in-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-insulin-treated-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Tomoya Mita, Naoto Katakami, Toshihiko Shiraiwa, Hidenori Yoshii, Nobuichi Kuribayashi, Takeshi Osonoi, Hideaki Kaneto, Keisuke Kosugi, Yutaka Umayahara, Masahiko Gosho, Iichiro Shimomura, Hirotaka Watada
The effect of hypoglycemia on the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains largely unknown. This is a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial to investigate the relationship between hypoglycemic episodes and changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Among 274 study subjects, 104 patients experienced hypoglycemic episodes. Increases in the mean IMT and left maximum IMT of the common carotid arteries (CCA) were significantly greater in patients with hypoglycemia compared to those without hypoglycemia...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062505/cross-sectional-positive-association-of-serum-lipids-and-blood-pressure-with-serum-sodium-within-the-normal-reference-range-of-135-145-mmol-l
#6
Shouguo Gao, Xiangqin Cui, Xujing Wang, Maurice B Burg, Natalia I Dmitrieva
OBJECTIVE: Serum sodium concentration is maintained by osmoregulation within normal range of 135 to 145 mmol/L. Previous analysis of data from the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) showed association of serum sodium with the 10-year risk scores of coronary heart disease and stroke. Current study evaluated the association of within-normal-range serum sodium with cardiovascular risk factors. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Only participants who did not take cholesterol or blood pressure medications and had sodium within normal 135 to 145 mmol/L range were included (n=8615), and the cohort was stratified based on race, sex, and smoking status...
December 29, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053922/adropin-a-novel-biomarker-of-heart-disease-a-systematic-review-article
#7
REVIEW
Somaye Yosaee, Sepideh Soltani, Eghbal Sekhavati, Shima Jazayeri
BACKGROUND: Heart disease is one of the most common chronic disease and leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adropin, a newly identified protein, is important for energy homeostasis and maintaining insulin sensitivity, and has been referred to as a novel regulator of endothelial cells. Endothelial dysfunction is a key early event in atherogenesis and onset of HD. Therefore, this review gives a systematic overview of studies investigating plasma adropin level in patient with heart disease...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042644/cardiovascular-comorbidities-in-acromegaly-an-update-on-their-diagnosis-and-management
#8
REVIEW
Ana M Ramos-Leví, Mónica Marazuela
Comorbidities related to the cardiovascular system are one of the most prevalent in patients with acromegaly, and contribute to an increased risk of morbidity and all-cause mortality. Specifically, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, heart valve disease, arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiac dysfunction may be frequent findings. Although the underlying physiopathology for each comorbidity may not be fully elucidated, uncontrolled growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 excess, age, prolonged disease duration, and coexistence of other cardio-vascular risk factors are significant influencing variables...
January 2, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038989/increased-plasma-rbp4-concentration-in-older-hypertensives-is-related-to-the-decreased-kidney-function-and-the-number-of-antihypertensive-drugs-results-from-the-polsenior-substudy
#9
Marcin Majerczyk, Piotr Choręza, Maria Bożentowicz-Wikarek, Aniceta Brzozowska, Habibullah Arabzada, Aleksander Owczarek, Małgorzata Mossakowska, Tomasz Grodzicki, Tomasz Zdrojewski, Andrzej Więcek, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Jerzy Chudek
Increased plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a novel adipokine, has been associated in previous studies with obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension (HT), atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between HT occurrence and its treatment, and plasma RBP4 concentrations in the older polish population. The study sample consisted of 1728 (890 men and 838 women) PolSenior study participants aged 65 years and older with available plasma samples and NT-proBNP values below 2000 pg/mL...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036158/premature-atherosclerosis-in-systemic-sclerosis-patients-its-relation-to-disease-parameters-and-to-traditional-risk-factors
#10
Manal M Sedky Abdou, Soha M El Desouky, Khaled M Helmy El Kaffas, Abeer M Ahmed Hassan
AIM: To detect premature atherosclerosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and its relation to disease parameters and traditional risk factors. METHOD: This study included 40 SSc patients and 40 healthy age and sex matched controls. All patients were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, relevant laboratory and radiological investigations. Doppler ultrasonography (US) of the common carotid was performed to measure intima-media thickness (ccIMT) and Doppler US of the brachial artery was performed to measure flow mediated dilatation (FMD)...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034290/marine-algae-as-a-prospective-source-for-antidiabetic-compounds-a-brief-review
#11
S P Unnikrishnan, A M Jayasri
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, which is attributed by several life threatening complications including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The current therapies available for the management of DM mainly include oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin injections. However, continuous use of synthetic drugs provides lower healing with many side effects. Therefore, there is an urge for safe and efficient antidiabetic drugs for the management of DM...
December 29, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031420/novel-protein-glycan-derived-markers-of-systemic-inflammation-and-c-reactive-protein-in-relation-to-glycemia-insulin-resistance-and-insulin-secretion
#12
Carlos Lorenzo, Andreas Festa, Anthony J Hanley, Marian J Rewers, Agustin Escalante, Steven M Haffner
OBJECTIVE: N-acetylglucosamine/galactosamine (GlycA) and sialic acid (GlycB) moieties of glycosylated serum proteins are nonspecific measures of inflammation, but conclusive data on their relationship with insulin resistance or insulin secretion are missing. Therefore, we aimed to examine the relation of GlycA, GlycB, and C-reactive protein (CRP) to direct measures of insulin sensitivity (insulin sensitivity index [SI]) and insulin secretion (acute insulin response [AIR]). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study used cross-sectional analyses and included 1,225 participants with and without type 2 diabetes in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS)...
December 28, 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030919/cardiovascular-system-diseases-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-the-role-of-inflammation-process-in-this-pathology-and-possibility-of-early-diagnosis-and-prevention
#13
REVIEW
Aleksandra Marciniak, Jolanta Nawrocka Rutkowska, Agnieszka Brodowska, Berenika Wiśniewska, Andrzej Starczewski
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder which affects 5-10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders and infertility. The most common clinical symptoms are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients often suffer from metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, leading to atherosclerosis and others irregularities of the metabolic syndrome. Patients are in the high risk group for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development because of the metabolic abnormalities...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030403/ce-triglycerides-do-they-matter
#14
Kristine Scordo, Kim Anne Pickett
: Since the introduction of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, as an adjunct to diet in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the greater emphasis placed on reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), there has been less focus on the value of lowering serum triglyceride levels. Many patients are aware of their "good" and "bad" cholesterol levels, but they may not be aware of their triglyceride level or of the association between high triglycerides and the development of CVD...
January 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030378/does-lifestyle-contribute-to-disease-severity-in-patients-with-inherited-lipid-disorders
#15
Benoit J Arsenault, Nicolas Perrot, Patrick Couture
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia and hyperlipoprotein(a) are at high cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence suggest that lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, and poor diet quality could influence cardiovascular risk in these patients. Our objective is to review the evidence that supports the role of lifestyle-related factors in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in patients with inherited lipid disorders...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029409/serum-concentrations-and-gene-expression-of-sirtuin-1-in-healthy-and-slightly-overweight-subjects-after-caloric-restriction-or-resveratrol-supplementation-a-randomized-trial
#16
Antonio P Mansur, Alessandra Roggerio, Marisa F S Goes, Solange D Avakian, Dalila P Leal, Raul C Maranhão, Célia M C Strunz
BACKGROUND: Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in vascular biology, and influences aspects of age-dependent atherosclerosis. In animals, the sirtuin system is strongly influenced by resveratrol and caloric restriction, but its expression in humans is controversial. This study investigated the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on Sirt1 serum concentrations and vascular biomarkers in a healthy human population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight healthy participants (24 women) aged 55-65years were randomized to either 30days of resveratrol administration (500mg/day) or caloric restriction (1000cal/day)...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027788/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-subclinical-atherosclerosis-a-comparison-of-metabolically-versus-genetically-driven-excess-fat-hepatic-storage
#17
Alessia Di Costanzo, Laura D'Erasmo, Licia Polimeni, Francesco Baratta, Paola Coletta, Michele Di Martino, Lorenzo Loffredo, Ludovica Perri, Fabrizio Ceci, Anna Montali, Gabriella Girelli, Bruna De Masi, Antonio Angeloni, Carlo Catalano, Marianna Maranghi, Maria Del Ben, Francesco Angelico, Marcello Arca
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequently associated with atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether this association is related to excess fat liver storage per se or to metabolic abnormalities that typically accompany NAFLD. To investigate this, we compared individuals with hepatic steatosis driven by metabolic disturbances to those with hepatic steatosis associated with the rs738409 GG genotype in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene (PNPLA3)...
December 21, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027627/association-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-children-implications-for-the-asia-pacific-region
#18
Indah K Murni, Dian C Sulistyoningrum, Vicka Oktaria
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency significantly affects cardiovascular disease risk. Cardiovascular disease is epidemic in nature. Because the prevalence of cardiovascular disease has been increasing in children, it has been changing from an adulthood disease to a childhood disease. Therefore, formulating an effective prevention strategy against cardiovascular disease development in children is crucial. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: From PubMed, we identified and reviewed studies evaluating the association of vitamin D deficiency with cardiovascular disease risk in children...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026829/retinol-binding-protein-4-rbp4-as-the-causative-factor-and-marker-of-vascular-injury-related-to-insulin-resistance
#19
Marcin Majerczyk, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Monika Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Jerzy Chudek
One of adipokines involved in the development of insulin resistance is retinol-binding protein 4(RBP4). The physiological role of RBP4 is transport of retinol from the liver to peripheral tissues. One of the first events related to the excessive visceral fat accumulation is the development of inflammation followed by hormonal adipose tissue dysfunction, including excessive RBP4 production. Reduced density of the membrane-type glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is considered as a direct cause for the stimulation of RBP4 release to the circulation by adipocytes...
December 21, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017965/exercise-adipokines-and-pediatric-obesity-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
REVIEW
A García-Hermoso, R J M Ceballos-Ceballos, C E Poblete-Aro, A C Hackney, J Mota, R Ramírez-Vélez
Background/ObjectiveAdipokines are involved in the etiology of diabetes, insulin resistance, and the development of atherosclerosis and other latent-onset complications. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on adipokines in pediatric obesity.Subjects/MethodA computerized search was made using three databases. The analysis was restricted to studies that examined the effect of exercise interventions on adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin) in pediatric obesity (6-18 years old)...
December 26, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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