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Ago protein

Aleksandar Jovanović
A few decades ago, cardiac muscle was discovered to possess signalling pathways that, when activated, protect the myocardium against the damage induced by ischaemia-reperfusion. The ability of cardiac muscle to protect itself against injury has been termed 'cardioprotection'. Many compounds and procedures can trigger cardioprotection including conditionings (exposure to brief episodes of ischaemia-reperfusion to protect against sustained ischaemia-reperfusion), hypoxia, adenosine, acetylcholine, adrenomedullin, angiotensin, bradykinin, catecholamines, endothelin, estrogens, phenylephrine, opioids, testosterone, and many more...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Masatsune Kainosho, Yohei Miyanoiri, Tsutomu Terauchi, Mitsuhiro Takeda
In this perspective, we describe our efforts to innovate the current isotope-aided NMR methodology to investigate biologically important large proteins and protein complexes, for which only limited structural information could be obtained by conventional NMR approaches. At the present time, it is widely believed that only backbone amide and methyl signals are amenable for investigating such difficult targets. Therefore, our primary mission is to disseminate our novel knowledge within the biological NMR community; specifically, that any type of NMR signals other than methyl and amide groups can be obtained, even for quite large proteins, by optimizing the transverse relaxation properties by isotope labeling methods...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Gautam Sethi, Muthu K Shanmugam, Frank Arfuso, Alan Prem Kumar
Evolving strategies to counter cancer initiation and progression rely on the identification of novel therapeutic targets that exploit the aberrant genetic changes driving oncogenesis. Several chromatin associated enzymes have been shown to influence post-translational modification on DNA, histones, and non-histone proteins. Any deregulation of this core group of enzymes often leads to cancer development. Ubiquitylation of histone H2B in mammalian cells was identified over three decades ago. An exciting really interesting new gene (RING) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, known as RNF20 and RNF40, monoubiquitinates histone H2A at K119 or H2B at K120 and is known to function in transcription elongation, DNA double strand break repair processes, maintenance of chromatin differentiation, and exerting tumor suppressor activity...
June 22, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Chen Ling, Yuanhui Zhang, Jun Li, Wenli Chen, Changquan Ling
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been practiced in China for thousands of years. As a complementary and alternative treatment, herbal medicines that are frequently used in the TCM are the most accepted in the Western world. However, animal materials, which are equally important in the TCM practice, are not well-known in other countries. On the other hand, the Chinese doctors had documented the toxic profiles of hundreds of animals and plants thousand years ago. Furthermore, they saw the potential benefits of these materials and used their toxic properties to treat a wide variety of diseases, such as heavy pain and cancer...
June 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Luís A B Novo, Eduardo F Silva, Andrea Pereira, Alba Casanova, Luís González
Rhenium (Re) is one of Earth's scarcest and more largely scattered elements, with an estimate concentration of 0.4-0.6 μg kg-1 in the upper crust. Still, considerable concentrations of bioavailable ReO4 - ions are often found, particularly in copper-molybdenum mines, where their uptake by plants of these regions has been reported. Yet, the impact of Re on plants remains a question mark, as the only available knowledge derives from a limited investigation carried out over 60 years ago. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ecophysiological response of Brassica juncea, a species known to endure and accumulate various metals, to a broad range of Re concentrations...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ai-Xiang Dong, Hai-Bo Xin, Zi-Jing Li, Hui Liu, Yan-Qiang Sun, Shuai Nie, Zheng-Nan Zhao, Rong-Feng Cui, Ren-Gang Zhang, Quan-Zheng Yun, Xin-Ning Wang, Fatemeh Maghuly, Ilga Porth, Ri-Chen Cong, Jian-Feng Mao
Background: Salvia splendens Ker-Gawler, scarlet or tropical sage, is a tender herbaceous perennial widely introduced and seen in public gardens all over the world. With few molecular resources, breeding is still restricted to traditional phenotypic selection, and the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation still remain unknown. Hence, a high quality reference genome will be very valuable for marker assisted breeding, genome editing or molecular genetics. Findings: We generated 66 gigabases (Gb) and 37 Gb of raw DNA sequences, respectively, from whole-genome sequencing of a largely homozygous scarlet sage inbred line using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) and Illumina HiSeq sequencing platforms...
June 19, 2018: GigaScience
Agata Witkowska, Lukasz Jablonski, Reinhard Jahn
Reconstitution of membrane proteins in artificial membranes is an essential prerequisite for functional studies that depend on the context of an intact membrane. While straight-forward protocols for reconstituting proteins in small unilamellar vesicles were developed many years ago, it is much more difficult to prepare large membranes containing membrane proteins at biologically relevant concentrations. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) represent a model system that is characterised by low curvature, controllable tension, and large surface that can be easily visualised with microscopy, but protein insertion is notoriously difficult...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniil A Korenkov, Karen L Laurie, Patrick C Reading, Louise A Carolan, Kok Fei Chan, Irina I Isakova-Sivak, Tatiana A Smolonogina, Kanta Subbarao, Ian G Barr, Julie Villanueva, Svetlana Shcherbik, Tatiana Bousse, Larisa G Rudenko
Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are promising tools for the induction of broad protection from influenza due to their ability to stimulate cross-reactive T cells against influenza pathogens. One of the major targets for cytotoxic T-cell immunity is viral nucleoprotein (NP), which is relatively conserved among antigenically distant influenza viruses. Nevertheless, a diversity of epitope composition has been found in the NP protein of different lineages of influenza A viruses. The H2N2 master donor virus which is currently used as a backbone for the LAIV and donor of the six genomic segments encoding the internal proteins, A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (MDV Len/17), was isolated 60 years ago...
June 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Antti P Aalto, Ian A Nicastro, James P Broughton, Laura B Chipman, William P Schreiner, Jerry S Chen, Amy E Pasquinelli
Argonaute (AGO) proteins partner with microRNAs (miRNAs) to target specific genes for post-transcriptional regulation. During larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans, Argonaute-Like Gene 1 (ALG-1) is the primary mediator of the miRNA pathway, while the related ALG-2 protein is largely dispensable. Here we show that in adult C. elegans these AGOs are differentially expressed and, surprisingly, work in opposition to each other; alg-1 promotes longevity, whereas alg-2 restricts lifespan. Transcriptional profiling of adult animals revealed that distinct miRNAs and largely non-overlapping sets of protein-coding genes are misregulated in alg-1 and alg-2 mutants...
June 2018: PLoS Genetics
Jana Frydlova, Daniel W Rogalsky, Jaroslav Truksa, Lisa Traeger, Andrea U Steinbicker, Martin Vokurka, Jan Krijt
Although the relationship between hereditary hemochromatosis and mutations in the HFE gene was discovered more than 20 years ago, information on the in vivo regulation of HFE protein expression is still limited. The purpose of the study was to determine the response of liver HFE protein content to iron deficiency in mice and rats by immunoblotting. Attempts to visualize the HFE protein in whole liver homogenates were unsuccessful; however, HFE could be detected in liver microsomes or in plasma membrane-enriched fractions...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Carlo Maria Di Liegro, Gabriella Schiera, Italia Di Liegro
H1 linker histones are a class of DNA-binding proteins involved in the formation of supra-nucleosomal chromatin higher order structures. Eleven non-allelic subtypes of H1 are known in mammals, seven of which are expressed in somatic cells, while four are germ cell-specific. Besides having a general structural role, H1 histones also have additional epigenetic functions related to DNA replication and repair, genome stability, and gene-specific expression regulation. Synthesis of the H1 subtypes is differentially regulated both in development and adult cells, thus suggesting that each protein has a more or less specific function...
June 20, 2018: Genes
R A Squires
Bacteriophages (or phages) are naturally-occurring viruses that can infect and kill bacteria. They are remarkably diverse, numerous and widespread. Each phage has a narrow host range yet a large majority of bacteria studied so far play host to bacteriophages, hence the remarkable phage diversity. Phages were discovered just over 100 years ago and they have been used for treatment of bacterial infections in humans and other animals since the 1920s. They have also been studied intensively and this has led to, and continues to lead to, major insights in the fields of molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology, including that DNA is the genetic material, nucleotides are arranged in triplets to make codons, and messenger RNA is needed for protein synthesis...
June 20, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Mylène Tajan, Romain Paccoud, Sophie Branka, Thomas Edouard, Armelle Yart
Noonan syndrome (NS; Mendelian Inheritance in Men (MIM) ♯163950) and related syndromes (Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML, formerly called LEOPARD syndrome; MIM ♯151100), Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS-LAH; MIM ♯607721), Costello syndrome (CS; MIM ♯218040), Cardio-Facio-Cutaneous syndrome (CFCS; MIM ♯115150), type I Neurofibromatosis (NF1; MIM ♯162200), and Legius syndrome (LS; MIM ♯611431)) are a group of related genetic disorders, associating distinctive facial features, cardiopathies, growth and skeletal abnormalities, developmental delay/mental retardation, and tumor predisposition...
June 18, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Kai-Chuang Yang, Tejashwi Shrestha, Manish Kolakshyapati, Ling-Fei Shi, Zheng Wang, Min Li, Lin Lou, Jia Zhou
RATIONALE: Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia), primarily a hospital-acquired pathogen, can cause a variety of deep-seated infections with significant morbidities. However, in the current scenario of global rise in antibiotic abuse, unexpected infection could be caused by K. pneumoniae. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 56-year-old male who presented with intermittent headache and low fever was admitted, he had transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma 3 years ago. Routine laboratory tests revealed an elevated WBC count of 10...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Claire E Martin, Nina Jones
Podocytes are a major component of the glomerular blood filtration barrier, and alterations to the morphology of their unique actin-based foot processes (FP) are a common feature of kidney disease. Adjacent FP are connected by a specialized intercellular junction known as the slit diaphragm (SD), which serves as the ultimate barrier to regulate passage of macromolecules from the blood. While the link between SD dysfunction and reduced filtration selectivity has been recognized for nearly 50 years, our understanding of the underlying molecular circuitry began only 20 years ago, sparked by the identification of NPHS1 , encoding the transmembrane protein nephrin...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Kyle T Amber, Manuel Valdebran, Sergei A Grando
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially life-threatening mucocutaneous autoimmune blistering disease. Patients develop non-healing erosions and blisters due to cell-cell detachment of keratinocytes (acantholysis), with subsequent suprabasal intraepidermal splitting. Identified almost 30 years ago, desmoglein-3 (Dsg3), a Ca2+ -dependent cell adhesion molecule belonging to the cadherin family, has been considered the "primary" autoantigen in PV. Proteomic studies have identified numerous autoantibodies in patients with PV that have known roles in the physiology and cell adhesion of keratinocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Demián Cazalla
Viruses masterfully regulate host gene expression during infection. Many do so, in part, by expressing non-coding RNAs. Recent work has shown that HSUR 2, a viral non-coding RNA expressed by the oncogenic Herpesvirus saimiri, regulates mRNA expression through a novel mechanism. HSUR 2 base pairs with both target mRNAs and host miRNAs in infected cells. This results in HSUR 2-dependent recruitment of host miRNAs and associated Ago proteins to target mRNAs, and the subsequent destabilization of target mRNAs. Using this mechanism, this virus regulates key cellular pathways during viral infection...
June 12, 2018: RNA Biology
Bertram Daum, Vicki Gold
Bacteria and archaea are evolutionarily distinct prokaryotes that diverged from a common ancestor billions of years ago. However, both bacteria and archaea assemble long, helical protein filaments on their surface through a machinery that is conserved at its core. In both domains of life, the filaments are required for a diverse array of important cellular processes including cell motility, adhesion, communication and biofilm formation. In this review, we highlight the recent structures of both the type IV pilus machinery and the archaellum determined in situ...
June 27, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Mian Xia, Xue Han, Hang He, Renbo Yu, Gang Zhen, Xiping Jia, Beijiu Cheng, Xing Wang Deng
Background: Luo-han-guo (Siraitia grosvenorii), also called monk fruit, is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family. Monk fruit has become an important area for research because of the pharmacological and economic potential of its non-caloric, extremely sweet components (mogrosides). It is also commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of lung congestion, sore throat and constipation. Recently, a single reference genome became available for monk fruit, assembled from 36...
June 8, 2018: GigaScience
Yukio Ago, Atsuko Hayata, Hitoshi Hashimoto
The advent of the genomic era has led to the discovery of linkages of several genes and pathways to schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that may serve as new biomarkers or therapeutic targets for these diseases. Two large-scale genetic studies published early in 2011 provided evidence that functional microduplications at 7q36.3, containing VIPR2, are a risk factor for schizophrenia. 7q36.3 microduplications were also reported to be significantly increased in ASD. VIPR2 encodes VPAC2, a seven transmembrane heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptor that binds two homologous neuropeptides with high affinity, PACAP and VIP...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
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