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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217778/a-critical-insight-into-the-development-pipeline-of-microfluidic-immunoassay-devices-for-the-sensitive-quantitation-of-protein-biomarkers-at-the-point-of-care
#1
REVIEW
Ana I Barbosa, Nuno M Reis
The latest clinical procedures for the timely and cost-effective diagnosis of chronic and acute clinical conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes or sepsis (i.e. the biggest causes of death worldwide), involve the quantitation of specific protein biomarkers released into the blood stream or other physiological fluids (e.g. urine or saliva). The clinical thresholds are usually in the femtomolar to picolomar range, and consequently the measurement of these protein biomarkers heavily relies on highly sophisticated, bulky and automated equipment in centralised pathology laboratories...
February 20, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215228/hmgb1-protein-a-therapeutic-target-inside-and-outside-the-cell
#2
I Ugrinova, E Pasheva
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a nonhistone chromosomal protein discovered more than 30 years ago. It is an abundant nuclear protein that has a dual function-in the nucleus, it binds DNA and participates in practically all DNA-dependent processes serving as an architectural factor. Outside the cell, HMGB1 plays a different role-it acts as an alarmine that activates a large number of HMGB1-"competent" cells and mediates a broad range of physiological and pathological responses. This universality makes it an attractive target for innovative therapeutic strategies in the treatment of various diseases...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212523/redox-regulation-in-metabolic-programming-and-inflammation
#3
REVIEW
Helen R Griffiths, Dan Gao, Chathyan Pararasa
Energy metabolism and redox state are intrinsically linked. In order to mount an adequate immune response, cells must have an adequate and rapidly available energy resource to migrate to the inflammatory site, to generate reactive oxygen species using NADPH as a cofactor and to engulf bacteria or damaged tissue. The first responder cells of the innate immune response, neutrophils, are largely dependent on glycolysis. Neutrophils are relatively short-lived, dying via apoptosis in the process of bacterial killing through production of hypochlorous acid and release of extracellular NETs...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211464/molecular-basis-of-abhd5-lipolysis-activation
#4
Matthew A Sanders, Huamei Zhang, Ljiljana Mladenovic, Yan Yuan Tseng, James G Granneman
Alpha-beta hydrolase domain-containing 5 (ABHD5), the defective gene in human Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, is a highly conserved regulator of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-mediated lipolysis that plays important roles in metabolism, tumor progression, viral replication, and skin barrier formation. The structural determinants of ABHD5 lipolysis activation, however, are unknown. We performed comparative evolutionary analysis and structural modeling of ABHD5 and ABHD4, a functionally distinct paralog that diverged from ABHD5 ~500 million years ago, to identify determinants of ABHD5 lipolysis activation...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209761/genetic-adaptation-of-the-schizothoracine-fishes-to-the-phased-uplifting-of-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#5
Dongsheng Zhang, Mengchao Yu, Peng Hu, Sihua Peng, Yimeng Liu, Weiwen Li, Congcong Wang, Shunping He, Wanying Zhai, Qianghua Xu, Liangbiao Chen
Many species of Schizothoracine, a sub-family of Cyprinidae, are highly endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). To characterize the adaptive changes associated with the Schizothoracine expansion in high-altitudes, we sequenced tissue transcriptomes of two highland and two sub-highland Schizothoracines, and analyzed gene evolution patterns by comparing to lowland cyprinids. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction and divergence time estimation indicated that the common ancestor of Schizothoracine fishes lived around 32...
February 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208000/two-cases-of-plug-or-stone-in-remnant-intrapancreatic-choledochal-cysts-treated-with-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography
#6
Eunbee Kim, Min Ho Kang, Jisun Lee, Hanlim Choi, Jae-Woon Choi, Joung-Ho Han, Seon Mee Park
Incomplete resection of choledochal cysts (CCs) that extend deep into the pancreas can lead to protein plug or stone formation, pancreatitis, and cholangiocarcinoma. We encountered two cases of choledocholithiasis in remnant intrapancreatic CCs (IPCCs), in which the patients exhibited symptoms after 3 and 21 years of cyst excision. A 21-year-old woman who had undergone excision of a CC, as a neonate, presented with epigastric pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed stones inside the remnant pancreatic cyst, which were removed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and her symptoms improved...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202679/from-molecular-chaperones-to-membrane-motors-through-the-lens-of-a-mass-spectrometrist
#7
REVIEW
Carol V Robinson
Twenty-five years ago, we obtained our first mass spectra of molecular chaperones in complex with protein ligands and entered a new field of gas-phase structural biology. It is perhaps now time to pause and reflect, and to ask how many of our initial structure predictions and models derived from mass spectrometry (MS) datasets were correct. With recent advances in structure determination, many of the most challenging complexes that we studied over the years have become tractable by other structural biology approaches enabling such comparisons to be made...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202670/mechanisms-of-lrrk2-dependent-neurodegeneration-role-of-enzymatic-activity-and-protein-aggregation
#8
REVIEW
Md Shariful Islam, Darren J Moore
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD) with autosomal dominant inheritance. Accordingly, LRRK2 has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for disease modification in PD. Since the first discovery of LRRK2 mutations some 12 years ago, LRRK2 has been the subject of intense investigation. It has been established that LRRK2 can function as a protein kinase, with many putative substrates identified, and can also function as a GTPase that may serve in part to regulate kinase activity...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202538/targeting-rna-for-processing-or-destruction-by-the-eukaryotic-rna-exosome-and-its-cofactors
#9
REVIEW
John C Zinder, Christopher D Lima
The eukaryotic RNA exosome is an essential and conserved protein complex that can degrade or process RNA substrates in the 3'-to-5' direction. Since its discovery nearly two decades ago, studies have focused on determining how the exosome, along with associated cofactors, achieves the demanding task of targeting particular RNAs for degradation and/or processing in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. In this review, we highlight recent advances that have illuminated roles for the RNA exosome and its cofactors in specific biological pathways, alongside studies that attempted to dissect these activities through structural and biochemical characterization of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA exosome complexes...
January 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202045/identification-of-micrornas-and-their-response-to-the-stress-of-plant-allelochemicals-in-aphis-gossypii-hemiptera-aphididae
#10
Kang-Sheng Ma, Fen Li, Ying Liu, Ping-Zhuo Liang, Xue-Wei Chen, Xi-Wu Gao
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of short non-coding RNAs involved in the inhibition of protein translation or in mRNA degradation. Although the regulatory roles of miRNAs in various biological processes have been investigated, there is as yet an absence of studies about the regulatory roles of miRNAs involved in the metabolism of plant allelochemicals in insects. RESULTS: We constructed five small RNA libraries from apterous Aphis gossypii adults that had fed on an artificial diet containing various allelochemicals...
February 16, 2017: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193867/genetic-signature-of-natural-selection-in-first-americans
#11
Carlos Eduardo G Amorim, Kelly Nunes, Diogo Meyer, David Comas, Maria Cátira Bortolini, Francisco Mauro Salzano, Tábita Hünemeier
When humans moved from Asia toward the Americas over 18,000 y ago and eventually peopled the New World they encountered a new environment with extreme climate conditions and distinct dietary resources. These environmental and dietary pressures may have led to instances of genetic adaptation with the potential to influence the phenotypic variation in extant Native American populations. An example of such an event is the evolution of the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes, which have been claimed to harbor signals of positive selection in Inuit populations due to adaptation to the cold Greenland Arctic climate and to a protein-rich diet...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185551/assisted-transcriptome-reconstruction-and-splicing-orthology
#12
Samuel Blanquart, Jean-Stéphane Varré, Paul Guertin, Amandine Perrin, Anne Bergeron, Krister M Swenson
BACKGROUND: Transcriptome reconstruction, defined as the identification of all protein isoforms that may be expressed by a gene, is a notably difficult computational task. With real data, the best methods based on RNA-seq data identify barely 21 % of the expressed transcripts. While waiting for algorithms and sequencing techniques to improve - as has been strongly suggested in the literature - it is important to evaluate assisted transcriptome prediction; this is the question of how alternative transcription in one species performs as a predictor of protein isoforms in another relatively close species...
November 11, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185098/advancement-in-bioprocess-technology-parallels-between-microbial-natural-products-and-cell-culture-biologics
#13
REVIEW
Arpan A Bandyopadhyay, Anurag Khetan, Li-Hong Malmberg, Weichang Zhou, Wei-Shou Hu
The emergence of natural products and industrial microbiology nearly eight decades ago propelled an era of bioprocess innovation. Half a century later, recombinant protein technology spurred the tremendous growth of biologics and added mammalian cells to the forefront of industrial producing cells in terms of the value of products generated. This review highlights the process technology of natural products and protein biologics. Despite the separation in time, there is a remarkable similarity in their progression...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184929/e3-ubiquitin-ligase-fbw7%C3%AE-inhibits-cholangiocarcinoma-cell-proliferation-by-downregulating-c-myc-and-cyclin-e
#14
Ming Li, Ling Ouyang, Zhigang Zheng, Dan Xiang, Aijun Ti, Leihua Li, Yuzhen Dan, Chundong Yu, Wengang Li
FBW7 (F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7), also known as CDC4, AGO and SEL10, is the substrate recognition component of an evolutionary conserved SCF (complex of SKP1, CUL1 and F-box protein)-type E3 ubiquitin ligase. It is a recognized tumor suppressor because it targets multiple oncoproteins for ubiquitination-mediated destruction and its mutations are frequently identified in a variety of human malignancies. However, the function of FBW7 in proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remains unknown...
March 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181555/determination-of-biological-activity-of-gonadotropins-hcg-and-fsh-by-f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer-based-biosensors
#15
Olga Mazina, Anni Allikalt, Juha S Tapanainen, Andres Salumets, Ago Rinken
Determination of biological activity of gonadotropin hormones is essential in reproductive medicine and pharmaceutical manufacturing of the hormonal preparations. The aim of the study was to adopt a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signal transduction pathway based assay for quantification of biological activity of gonadotropins. We focussed on studying human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as these hormones are widely used in clinical practice. Receptor-specific changes in cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, second messenger in GPCR signalling) were monitored by a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor protein (T)Epac(VV) in living cells upon activation of the relevant gonadotropin receptor...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179510/when-coi-barcodes-deceive-complete-genomes-reveal-introgression-in-hairstreaks
#16
Qian Cong, Jinhui Shen, Dominika Borek, Robert K Robbins, Paul A Opler, Zbyszek Otwinowski, Nick V Grishin
Two species of hairstreak butterflies from the genus Calycopis are known in the United States: C. cecrops and C. isobeon Analysis of mitochondrial COI barcodes of Calycopis revealed cecrops-like specimens from the eastern US with atypical barcodes that were 2.6% different from either USA species, but similar to Central American Calycopis species. To address the possibility that the specimens with atypical barcodes represent an undescribed cryptic species, we sequenced complete genomes of 27 Calycopis specimens of four species: C...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179158/a-comparative-study-of-simulated-body-fluids-in-the-presence-of-proteins
#17
Weitian Zhao, Jacques Lemaître, Paul Bowen
: Simulated body fluid (SBF) is widely used as part of an in vitro method to evaluate implant materials such as their apatite forming ability (AFA), a typical indication of potential bone-bonding ability in vivo. We report the use of carbonate-buffered SBFs as potential solutions for implant evaluation and the effect of proteins, represented by bovine serum albumin (BSA) in SBFs on the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA). These solutions are buffered by the thermodynamic equilibrium with 5% CO2 in an incubator, and result in a deposition of carbonated HA...
February 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177093/-pharmacological-and-nutritional-problems-in-pregnant-patient-on-chronic-dialysis
#18
Michele Giannattasio, Federica Giannattasio, Giuseppe Gernone
Many of information on the safety of drugs during pregnancy were obtained many years ago, before the pregnant women were excluded from the study protocols for possible fetal risks. Because randomized trials in pregnancy are complex and considered unethical. For the same reasons, there are no randomized controlled trials in pregnant women on dialysis. Moreover Compared to the normal subject, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in these patients are influenced or by pregnancy or from dialysis techniques or from chronic uremia...
January 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174021/biogenesis-and-function-of-ago-associated-rnas
#19
REVIEW
Iben Daugaard, Thomas Birkballe Hansen
Numerous sophisticated high-throughput sequencing technologies have been developed over the past decade, and these have enabled the discovery of a diverse catalog of small non-coding (nc)RNA molecules that function as regulatory entities by associating with Argonaute (Ago) proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are currently the best-described class of post-transcriptional regulators that follow a specific biogenesis pathway characterized by Drosha/DGCR8 and Dicer processing. However, more exotic miRNA-like species that bypass particular steps of the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway continue to emerge, with one of the most recent additions being the agotrons, which escape both Drosha/DGCR8- and Dicer-processing...
February 4, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164786/application-of-modified-yeast-surface-display-technologies-for-non-antibody-protein-engineering
#20
REVIEW
Meng Mei, Yu Zhou, Wenfang Peng, Chan Yu, Lixin Ma, Guimin Zhang, Li Yi
Yeast surface display (YSD) system has been widely used in protein engineering since it was established 20 years ago. Combined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) technology and directed evolution, YSD has been proven of its extraordinary effectiveness for molecular engineering of various target proteins, especially for antibodies. Recently, a few remarkable efforts were exploited to modify the original Aga1-Aga2 YSD for the non-antibody protein engineering with successful outcomes, expanding its application on oxidase, Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II), protease, sortase, lipoic acid ligase etc...
March 2017: Microbiological Research
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