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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640453/corrigendum
#1
(no author information available yet)
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) was first recognized more than four decades ago and occurred independent of cardiovascular diseases or hypertension in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The exact mechanisms underlying this disease remain incompletely understood. Several pathophysiological bases responsible for DCM have been proposed, including the presence of hyperglycemia, nonenzymatic glycosylation of large molecules (e.g., proteins), energy metabolic disturbance, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction, impaired calcium handling, reactive oxygen species formation, inflammation, cardiac cell death, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, leading to impairment of cardiac contractile functions...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639194/rnaa-induced-by-tata-box-targeting-micrornas
#2
Yijun Zhang, Hui Zhang
Recent studies reveal that some nuclear microRNAs (miRNA) and synthesized siRNAs target gene promoters to activate gene transcription (RNAa). Interestingly, our group identified a novel HIV-1-encoded miRNA, miR-H3, which targets specifically the core promoter TATA box of HIV-1 and activates viral gene expression. Depletion of miR-H3 significantly impaired the replication of HIV-1. miR-H3 mimics could activate viruses from CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients receiving suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy, which is very intriguing for reducing HIV-1 latent reservoir...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639188/small-rna-guided-transcriptional-gene-activation-rnaa-in-mammalian-cells
#3
Long-Cheng Li
Small RNA partnering with Argonaute (Ago) proteins plays important roles in diverse biological processes mainly by suppressing the expression of cognate target sequences. Mounting evidence reveals that the small RNA-Ago pathway can also positively regulate gene expression, a phenomenon termed as RNA activation (RNAa), which is evolutionarily conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to human. In this chapter, I provide a general overview of mammalian RNAa phenomena and their basic characteristics and discuss recent advances toward understanding the nature of the molecular machinery responsible for RNAa and the development of RNAa-based research tools and therapeutics...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636969/human-virus-derived-small-rnas-can-confer-antiviral-immunity-in-mammals
#4
Yang Qiu, Yanpeng Xu, Yao Zhang, Hui Zhou, Yong-Qiang Deng, Xiao-Feng Li, Meng Miao, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zhong, Yuanyang Hu, Fu-Chun Zhang, Ligang Wu, Cheng-Feng Qin, Xi Zhou
RNA interference (RNAi) functions as a potent antiviral immunity in plants and invertebrates; however, whether RNAi plays antiviral roles in mammals remains unclear. Here, using human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) as a model, we showed HEV71 3A protein as an authentic viral suppressor of RNAi during viral infection. When the 3A-mediated RNAi suppression was impaired, the mutant HEV71 readily triggered the production of abundant HEV71-derived small RNAs with canonical siRNA properties in cells and mice. These virus-derived siRNAs were produced from viral dsRNA replicative intermediates in a Dicer-dependent manner and loaded into AGO, and they were fully active in degrading cognate viral RNAs...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636818/critical-temperature-of-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-monolayers-and-its-possible-biological-relevance
#5
Jordi Hernandez Borrell, Oscar Domenech
Since transmembrane proteins (TMPs) can be obtained with sufficient purity for x-ray diffraction studies more frequently than decades ago, their mechanisms of action may now be elucidated. One of the pending issues is the actual interplay between transmembrane proteins and membrane lipids. There is strong evidence of the involvement of specific lipids with some membrane proteins, such as the potassium crystallographically sited activation channel (KcsA) of Streptomyces lividans and the secondary transporter of lactose LacY of Escherichia coli, the activities of which are associated with the presence of anionic phospholipids such as the phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidyethanolamine (PE), respectively...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634265/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-coregulators-as-mediators-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-signalling-diversity
#6
REVIEW
Peter J Fuller, Jun Yang, Morag J Young
The cloning of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) 30 years ago was the start of a new era of research into the regulatory processes of MR signalling at target genes in the distal nephron, and subsequently in many other tissues. Nuclear receptor (NR) signalling is modified by interactions with coregulatory proteins that serve to enhance or inhibit the gene transcriptional responses. Over 400 coregulatory proteins have been described for the NR super family, many with functional roles in signalling, cellular function, physiology and pathophysiology...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633959/characterization-of-the-superior-olivary-complex-of-canis-lupus-domesticus
#7
Tatiana Fech, Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Randy J Kulesza
The superior olivary complex (SOC) is a collection of brainstem auditory nuclei which play essential roles in the localization of sound sources, temporal coding of vocalizations and descending modulation of the cochlea. Notwithstanding, the SOC nuclei vary considerably between species in accordance with the auditory needs of the animal. The canine SOC was subjected to anatomical and physiological examination nearly 50 years ago and was then virtually forgotten. Herein, we aimed to characterize the nuclei of the canine SOC using quantitative morphometrics, estimation of neuronal number, histochemistry for perineuronal nets and immunofluorescence for the calcium binding proteins calbindin and calretinin...
June 15, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630794/a-case-of-presumed-tuberculosis-uveitis-with-occlusive-vasculitis-from-an-endemic-region
#8
Berna Başarır, Yalçın Karaküçük, Çiğdem Altan, Banu Şatana, Bulut Ocak, Aslı İnal
In this report, we present a case with presumed unilateral tuberculosis uveitis from an endemic region. A 23-year-old male presented with decreased vision in his left eye for 15 days. Visual acuities were 1.0 in his right eye and 0.3 in his left eye. Ophthalmologic examination was normal for the right eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed 2+ cells in the vitreous without anterior chamber reaction in his left eye. Fundus examination revealed occlusive vasculitis and granuloma. His history revealed that he had a respiratory infection with fever 3 months ago while visiting his native country, Rwanda, and was treated with non-specific antibiotic therapy...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628078/nociceptor-interleukin-10-receptor-1-is-critical-for-muscle-analgesia-induced-by-repeated-bouts-of-eccentric-exercise-in-the-rat
#9
Pedro Alvarez, Oliver Bogen, Paul G Green, Jon D Levine
Delayed-onset muscle soreness is typically observed after strenuous or unaccustomed eccentric exercise. Soon after recovery, blunted muscle soreness is observed on repeated eccentric exercise, a phenomenon known as repeated bout effect (RBE). Although regular physical activity decreases muscle hyperalgesia, likely because of increased production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the skeletal muscle, whether IL-10 also contributes to the antinociceptive effect of RBE is unknown. Furthermore, whether IL-10 attenuates muscle hyperalgesia by acting on muscle nociceptors remains to be established...
April 26, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627265/atm-radiation-and-the-risk-of-second-primary-breast-cancer
#10
Jonine L Bernstein, Patrick Concannon
PURPOSE: It was first suggested more than 40 years ago that heterozygous carriers for the human autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) might also be at increased risk for cancer. Subsequent studies have identified the responsible gene, Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), characterized genetic variation at this locus in A-T and a variety of different cancers, and described the functions of the ATM protein with respect to cellular DNA damage responses. However, an overall model of how ATM contributes to cancer risk, and in particular, the role of DNA damage in this process, remains lacking...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626056/early-reperfusion-after-brain-ischemia-has-beneficial-effects-beyond-rescuing-neurons
#11
Masaki Tachibana, Tetsuro Ago, Yoshinobu Wakisaka, Junya Kuroda, Masahiro Shijo, Yoji Yoshikawa, Motohiro Komori, Ataru Nishimura, Noriko Makihara, Kuniyuki Nakamura, Takanari Kitazono
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent studies show that successful endovascular thrombectomy 6 to 12 hours after stroke onset enhances functional outcomes 3 months later. In this study, we investigated the effects of reperfusion after ischemia on repair processes in the ischemic areas, as well as on functional recovery, using mouse stroke models. METHODS: We examined time-dependent histological changes and functional recovery after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion of different durations, including permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, using the CB-17 (CB-17/lcr-+/+Jcl) mouse strain, which has poor pial collateral blood flow...
June 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623579/yeast-one-and-two-hybrid-high-throughput-screenings-using-arrayed-libraries
#12
Rocío Sánchez-Montesino, Luis Oñate-Sánchez
Since their original description more than 25 years ago, the yeast one- and two-hybrid systems (Y1H/Y2H) have been used by many laboratories to detect DNA-protein (Y1H) and protein-protein interactions (Y2H). These systems use yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a eukaryotic "test tube" and are amenable for most labs in the world. The development of highly efficient cloning methods has fostered the generation of large collections of open reading frames (ORFs) for several organisms that have been used for yeast screenings...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622523/intracellular-ca-2-sensing-its-role-in-calcium-homeostasis-and-signaling
#13
REVIEW
Rafaela Bagur, György Hajnóczky
Ca(2+) is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger that controls diverse cellular functions but can become toxic and cause cell death. Selective control of specific targets depends on spatiotemporal patterning of the calcium signal and decoding it by multiple, tunable, and often strategically positioned Ca(2+)-sensing elements. Ca(2+) is detected by specialized motifs on proteins that have been biochemically characterized decades ago. However, the field of Ca(2+) sensing has been reenergized by recent progress in fluorescent technology, genetics, and cryo-EM...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620757/a-novel-homozygous-complex-deletion-in-cftr-caused-cystic-fibrosis-in-a-chinese-patient
#14
Keqiang Liu, Yaping Liu, Xue Li, Kai-Feng Xu, Xinlun Tian, Xue Zhang
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent lethal genetic disorder among Caucasians, but is considered to be a very rare disease in Chinese population. Here, we present an 11-year-old Chinese CF patient with disseminated bronchiectasis and salty sweat, for whom exon sequencing followed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis of the CFTR gene was applied for mutation screening. A homozygous deletion involving exon 20 of CFTR was observed in the patient's genome. Molecular characterization of the breakpoints indicated that both alleles of this locus had an identical novel complex rearrangement (c...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620026/learning-to-read-and-write-in-evolution-from-static-pseudoenzymes-and-pseudosignalers-to-dynamic-gear-shifters
#15
REVIEW
Abulikemu Abudukelimu, Thierry D G A Mondeel, Matteo Barberis, Hans V Westerhoff
We present a systems biology view on pseudoenzymes that acknowledges that genes are not selfish: the genome is. With network function as the selectable unit, there has been an evolutionary bonus for recombination of functions of and within proteins. Many proteins house a functionality by which they 'read' the cell's state, and one by which they 'write' and thereby change that state. Should the writer domain lose its cognate function, a 'pseudoenzyme' or 'pseudosignaler' arises. GlnK involved in Escherichia coli ammonia assimilation may well be a pseudosignaler, associating 'reading' the nitrogen state of the cell to 'writing' the ammonium uptake activity...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618839/sphingosine-kinase-and-sphingosine-1-phosphate-in-liver-pathobiology
#16
Timothy Rohrbach, Michael Maceyka, Sarah Spiegel
Over 20 years ago, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was discovered to be a bioactive signaling molecule. Subsequent studies later identified two related kinases, sphingosine kinase 1 and 2, which are responsible for the phosphorylation of sphingosine to S1P. Many stimuli increase sphingosine kinase activity and S1P production and secretion. Outside the cell, S1P can bind to and activate five S1P-specific G protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1-5) to regulate many important cellular and physiological processes in an autocrine or paracrine manner...
June 15, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618374/proteomic-profiling-of-german-dornfelder-grape-berries-using-data-independent-acquisition
#17
Matthias Riebel, Petra Fronk, Ute Distler, Stefan Tenzer, Heinz Decker
Grapevine is one of the most important fruit plants throughout the world. Sequencing of the grape genome in 2007 enabled in-depth analyses of the grape proteome. Whereas many studies addressed changes in proteomic composition of grapes during ripening, we focused on the proteome of mature grape berries from Dornfelder, a characteristic red wine grape for Germany. Current data-independent acquisition proteomics technology enables the analysis of proteomic compositions in a degree of accuracy that was unreachable only a few years ago...
June 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608350/phylogenetic-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-plant-argonautes
#18
Ravi K Singh, Shree P Pandey
Comparative sequence analysis is widely used for the reconstruction of phylogeny and for understanding the evolutionary history of gene families. Here, we describe the methodologies to reconstruct the phylogenetic and evolutionary history of a gene family across genomes with a focus on the ARGONAUTE (AGO) family of proteins in plants. The method described here may easily be adapted for studying molecular evolution of a wide variety of gene families. We enlist methods as well as parameters for the collection of molecular data (nucleic acids and peptides), preparation of datasets, and selection of evolutionary models and various methods for the phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis, such as maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608349/identification-and-evolutionary-characterization-of-argonaute-binding-platforms
#19
Joshua T Trujillo, Rebecca A Mosher
ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins are eukaryotic RNA silencing effectors that interact with their binding partners via short peptide motifs known as AGO hooks. AGO hooks tend to cluster in one region of the protein to create an AGO-binding platform. In addition to the presence of AGO hooks, AGO-binding platforms are intrinsically disordered, contain tandem repeat arrays, and have weak sequence conservation even between close relatives. These characteristics make it difficult to identify and perform evolutionary analysis of these regions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608348/identification-and-analysis-of-wg-gw-argonaute-binding-domains
#20
Andrzej Zielezinski, Wojciech M Karlowski
WG/GW domains recruit ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins to distinct silencing effector complexes using combinations of just two amino acids: tryptophan (W) and glycine (G), forming a wide arsenal of highly simplified interaction surfaces. These unstructured domains exhibit very low sequence identity and excessive length polymorphism, which makes identification of new AGO-binding proteins a challenging task as they escape detection with standard sequence comparison-based methods (e.g., BLAST, HMMER).In this chapter, we explain the use of tools for prediction of AGO-binding WG/GW domains in protein sequences...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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