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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731346/kinetics-of-light-induced-intramolecular-energy-transfer-in-different-conformational-states-of-nadh
#1
Zsuzsanna Heiner, Thomas Roland, Jérémie Léonard, Stefan Haacke, Géza I Groma
When bound to a protein, the coenzyme NAD+/NADH typically exists in an extended conformation, while in aqueous solutions it can be characterized by an equilibrium of folded and unfolded structures. It was recognized long ago that in the folded conformation light absorption at the adenine ring initiates an effective energy transfer (ET) towards the nicotinamide group, but the mechanism of this process is still unexplored. Here we apply ultrafast transient absorption measurements on NADH combined with compartmental model analysis for following the kinetics of the ET...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730831/the-galanin-and-galanin-receptor-subtypes-its-regulatory-role-in-the-biological-and-pathological-functions
#2
J Šípková, I Kramáriková, S Hynie, V Klenerová
The multitalented neuropeptide galanin was first discovered 30 years ago but initially no biologic activity was found. Further research studies discovered the presence of galanin in the brain and some peripheral tissues, and galanin was identified as a modulator of neurotransmission in the central and peripheral nervous system. Over the last decade there were performed very intensive studies of the neuronal actions and also of nonneuronal actions of galanin. Other galanin family peptides have been described, namely galanin, galanin-like peptide, galanin-message associated peptide and alarin...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730256/advanced-metastatic-breast-cancer-in-pregnancy-the-imperative-of-physical-breast-examination-in-pregnancy
#3
Anca Angela Simionescu, Claudia Valentina Georgescu, Mirela Corina Ghiluşi, Sabrina Ioana Stoica, Mircea Dragoş Median
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer diagnosed among women; its association with pregnancy is not encountered. As childbearing age is increasing, the diagnosis of breast cancer associated pregnancy tends to be more often than years ago. Here we report a case of a 37-year-old patient, gravida 7, para 7, diagnosed at 30 weeks gestation with metastatic breast cancer. The patient presented to hospital due to an altered performance status. Obstetrical evaluation was within normal range. A metastatic infiltrating breast cancer poorly differentiated (G3) with satellite skin lesions (T4b), ipsilateral axillary and supraclavicular lymph nodes (N3), lung metastasis bilateral with pleural effusion and hepatic metastasis (M1), were diagnosed...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729857/nutrient-acquisition-and-the-metabolic-potential-of-photoferrotrophic-chlorobi
#4
Katharine J Thompson, Rachel L Simister, Aria S Hahn, Steven J Hallam, Sean A Crowe
Anoxygenic photosynthesis evolved prior to oxygenic photosynthesis and harnessed energy from sunlight to support biomass production on the early Earth. Models that consider the availability of electron donors predict that anoxygenic photosynthesis using Fe(II), known as photoferrotrophy, would have supported most global primary production before the proliferation of oxygenic phototrophs at approximately 2.3 billion years ago. These photoferrotrophs have also been implicated in the deposition of banded iron formations, the world's largest sedimentary iron ore deposits that formed mostly in late Archean and early Proterozoic Eons...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728823/piezo1-channels-in-vascular-development-and-the-sensing-of-shear-stress
#5
A J Hyman, S Tumova, D J Beech
A critical point in mammalian development occurs before mid-embryogenesis when the heart starts to beat, pushing blood into the nascent endothelial lattice. This pushing force is a signal, detected by endothelial cells as a frictional force (shear stress) to trigger cellular changes that underlie the essential processes of vascular remodeling and expansion required for embryonic growth. The processes are complex and multifactorial and Piezo1 became a recognized player only 2years ago, 4years after Piezo1's initial discovery as a functional membrane protein...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728816/in-touch-with-the-mechanosensitive-piezo-channels-structure-ion-permeation-and-mechanotransduction
#6
J Geng, Q Zhao, T Zhang, B Xiao
Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical forces into biological signals, plays critical roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes in mammals, such as conscious sensing of touch, pain, and sound, as well as unconscious sensing of blood flow-associated shear stress, urine flow, and bladder distention. Among the various molecules involved in mechanotransduction, mechanosensitive (MS) cation channels have long been postulated to represent one critical class of mechanotransducers that directly and rapidly converts mechanical force into electrochemical signals...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726381/impact-of-the-metallic-crystalline-structure-on-the-properties-of-nanocrystals-and-their-mesoscopic-assemblies
#7
Marie-Paule Pileni
The spontaneous assembly of uniform-sized globular entities into ordered arrays is a universal phenomenon observed for objects with diameters spanning a broad range of length scales. These extend from the atomic scale (10(-8) cm), through molecular and macromolecular scales with proteins, synthetic low polymers, and colloidal crystals (∼10(-6) cm), to the wavelength of visible light (∼10(-5) cm). The associated concepts of sphere packing have had an influence in diverse fields ranging from pure geometrical analysis to architectural models or ideals...
July 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722725/the-monogenic-autoinflammatory-diseases-define-new-pathways-in-human-innate-immunity-and-inflammation
#8
REVIEW
Kalpana Manthiram, Qing Zhou, Ivona Aksentijevich, Daniel L Kastner
Autoinflammatory diseases were first recognized nearly 20 years ago as distinct clinical and immunological entities caused by dysregulation in the innate immune system. Since then, advances in genomic techniques have led to the identification of new monogenic disorders and their corresponding signaling pathways. Here we review these monogenic autoinflammatory diseases, ranging from periodic fever syndromes caused by dysregulated inflammasome-mediated production of the cytokine IL-1β to disorders arising from perturbations in signaling by the transcription factor NF-κB, ubiquitination, cytokine signaling, protein folding, type I interferon production and complement activation, and we further examine their molecular mechanisms...
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717873/orchestration-of-h3k27-methylation-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implication
#9
REVIEW
Mei-Ren Pan, Ming-Chuan Hsu, Li-Tzong Chen, Wen-Chun Hung
Histone proteins constitute the core component of the nucleosome, the basic unit of chromatin. Chemical modifications of histone proteins affect their interaction with genomic DNA, the accessibility of recognized proteins, and the recruitment of enzymatic complexes to activate or diminish specific transcriptional programs to modulate cellular response to extracellular stimuli or insults. Methylation of histone proteins was demonstrated 50 years ago; however, the biological significance of each methylated residue and the integration between these histone markers are still under intensive investigation...
July 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715501/diversity-and-distribution-of-nuclease-bacteriocins-in-bacterial-genomes-revealed-using-hidden-markov-models
#10
Connor Sharp, James Bray, Nicholas G Housden, Martin C J Maiden, Colin Kleanthous
Bacteria exploit an arsenal of antimicrobial peptides and proteins to compete with each other. Three main competition systems have been described: type six secretion systems (T6SS); contact dependent inhibition (CDI); and bacteriocins. Unlike T6SS and CDI systems, bacteriocins do not require contact between bacteria but are diffusible toxins released into the environment. Identified almost a century ago, our understanding of bacteriocin distribution and prevalence in bacterial populations remains poor. In the case of protein bacteriocins, this is because of high levels of sequence diversity and difficulties in distinguishing their killing domains from those of other competition systems...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713376/myristoylation-an-important-protein-modification-in-the-immune-response
#11
REVIEW
Daniel Ikenna Udenwobele, Ruey-Chyi Su, Sara V Good, Terry Blake Ball, Shailly Varma Shrivastav, Anuraag Shrivastav
Protein N-myristoylation is a cotranslational lipidic modification specific to the alpha-amino group of an N-terminal glycine residue of many eukaryotic and viral proteins. The ubiquitous eukaryotic enzyme, N-myristoyltransferase, catalyzes the myristoylation process. Precisely, attachment of a myristoyl group increases specific protein-protein interactions leading to subcellular localization of myristoylated proteins with its signaling partners. The birth of the field of myristoylation, a little over three decades ago, has led to the understanding of the significance of protein myristoylation in regulating cellular signaling pathways in several biological processes especially in carcinogenesis and more recently immune function...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712292/crystal-structure-of-cocosin-a-potential-food-allergen-from-coconut-cocos-nucifera
#12
Tengchuan Jin, Cheng Wang, Caiying Zhang, Yang Wang, Yu-Wei Chen, Feng Guo, Andrew Howard, Min-Jie Cao, Tong-Jen Fu, Tara H McHugh, Yuzhu Zhang
Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is an important palm tree. Coconut fruit is widely consumed. The most abundant storage protein in coconut fruit is cocosin (a likely food allergen), which belongs to the 11S globulin family. Cocosin was crystallized near a century ago, but its structure remains unknown. By optimizing crystallization conditions and cryoprotectant solutions, we were able to obtain cocosin crystals that diffracted to 1.85 Å. The cocosin gene was cloned from genomic DNA isolated from dry coconut tissue...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710791/origin-of-enhanced-vcd-in-amyloid-fibril-spectra-effect-of-deuteriation-and-ph
#13
Markéta Pazderková, Tomáš Pazderka, Maruda Shanmugasundaram, Rina K Dukor, Igor K Lednev, Laurence A Nafie
Supramolecular chirality of amyloid fibrils, protein aggregates related to many neurodegenerative diseases, is a remarkable property associated with fibril structure and polymorphism. Since its discovery almost 10 years ago there is still little understanding of this phenomenon, including the cause of the highly enhanced vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) intensity arising from fibril supramolecular chirality. In this study, VCD spectra, enhanced by filament supramolecular chirality, are presented for lysozyme and insulin fibrils above and below pH 2 and after deuterium exchange, above and below pD 2...
July 15, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705754/progression-of-lyme-disease-to-bell-s-palsy-despite-treatment-with-doxycycline
#14
Luis A Marcos, Zengmin Yan
A 54 year-old healthy woman presented to the emergency department with a right sided facial paralysis. About 3 weeks ago, she woke up and noticed an attached engorged tick in her right lower extremity. A week later, she noticed a mild to moderate right jaw pain which progressed to a severe right facial pain so she visited her doctor. On physical, II to XII cranial nerve examination was unremarkable. Doppler ultrasound did not show any vascular abnormalities in temporal artery. Her inflammatory markers were within normal limits (C-reactive protein:0...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704707/a-founder-mutation-underlies-a-severe-form-of-phosphoglutamase-3-pgm3-deficiency-in-tunisian-patients
#15
Leila Ben-Khemis, Najla Mekki, Imen Ben-Mustapha, Karen Rouault, Fethi Mellouli, Monia Khemiri, Mohamed Bejaoui, Leila Essaddam, Saayda Ben-Becher, Lamia Boughamoura, Saida Hassayoun, Meriem Ben-Ali, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche
Phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3) protein catalyzes the conversion of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P) to N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcNAc-1-P), which is required for the synthesis of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) an important precursor for protein glycosylation. Mutations in PGM3 gene have been recently shown to underlie a new congenital disorder of glycosylation often associated to elevated IgE. Herein, we report twelve PGM3 deficient patients. They belong to three highly consanguineous families, originating from a rural district in the west central Tunisia...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698879/complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-coptis-chinensis-franch-and-its-evolutionary-history
#16
Yang He, Hongtao Xiao, Cao Deng, Gang Fan, Shishang Qin, Cheng Peng
The Coptis chinensis Franch. is an important medicinal plant from the Ranunculales. We used next generation sequencing technology to determine the complete chloroplast genome of C. chinensis. This genome is 155,484 bp long with 38.17% GC content. Two 26,758 bp long inverted repeats separated the genome into a typical quadripartite structure. The C. chinensis chloroplast genome consists of 128 gene loci, including eight rRNA gene loci, 28 tRNA gene loci, and 92 protein-coding gene loci. Most of the SSRs in C...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697886/revisiting-the-structure-of-haemoglobin-and-myoglobin-with-cryo-electron-microscopy
#17
REVIEW
Maryam Khoshouei, Radostin Danev, Juergen M Plitzko, Wolfgang Baumeister
Sixty years ago the first protein structure was determined by John Kendrew and his colleagues, that of myoglobin; haemoglobin followed shortly thereafter. For quite some time it seemed that only X-ray crystallography would be capable of determining the structure of proteins to high resolution. In recent years, cryo- electron microscopy has emerged as a viable alternative and indeed in many cases the preferred approach. It is capable of studying proteins which span a size range from several megadaltons to proteins as small as myoglobin and haemoglobin...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695996/downregulation-of-genes-coding-for-core-rnai-components-and-disease-resistance-proteins-via-corresponding-micrornas-might-be-correlated-with-successful-smv-infection-in-soybean
#18
Duran Bao, Oyunchuluun Ganbaatar, Xiuqi Cui, Ruonan Yu, Wenhua Bao, Bryce W Falk, Hada Wuriyanghan
Plants protect themselves from virus infections by several different defense mechanisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is one prominent antiviral mechanism, which requires the participation of AGO (Argonaute) and Dicer/DCL (Dicer-like) proteins. Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is an antiviral mechanism mediated by resistance (R) genes, most of which encode NBS-LRR family proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in plants, including regulation of host defenses. SMV (Soybean mosaic virus) is the most common virus in soybean and here we identified dozens of SMV-responsive miRNAs by microarray analysis in a SMV-susceptible soybean line...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695248/divergent-effects-of-anesthetics-on-lipid-bilayer-properties-and-sodium-channel-function
#19
REVIEW
Karl F Herold, Olaf S Andersen, Hugh C Hemmings
General anesthetics revolutionized medicine by allowing surgeons to perform more complex and much longer procedures. This widely used class of drugs is essential to patient care, yet their exact molecular mechanism(s) are incompletely understood. One early hypothesis over a century ago proposed that nonspecific interactions of anesthetics with the lipid bilayer lead to changes in neuronal function via effects on membrane properties. This model was supported by the Meyer-Overton correlation between anesthetic potency and lipid solubility and despite more recent evidence for specific protein targets, in particular ion-channels, lipid bilayer-mediated effects of anesthetics is still under debate...
July 10, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694781/amelogenesis-imperfecta-genes-proteins-and-pathways
#20
REVIEW
Claire E L Smith, James A Poulter, Agne Antanaviciute, Jennifer Kirkham, Steven J Brookes, Chris F Inglehearn, Alan J Mighell
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is the name given to a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by inherited developmental enamel defects. AI enamel is abnormally thin, soft, fragile, pitted and/or badly discolored, with poor function and aesthetics, causing patients problems such as early tooth loss, severe embarrassment, eating difficulties, and pain. It was first described separately from diseases of dentine nearly 80 years ago, but the underlying genetic and mechanistic basis of the condition is only now coming to light...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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