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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448765/digital-assays-part-i-partitioning-statistics-and-digital-pcr
#1
Amar S Basu
A digital assay is one in which the sample is partitioned into many small containers such that each partition contains a discrete number of biological entities (0, 1, 2, 3, …). A powerful technique in the biologist's toolkit, digital assays bring a new level of precision in quantifying nucleic acids, measuring proteins and their enzymatic activity, and probing single-cell genotypes and phenotypes. Part I of this review begins with the benefits and Poisson statistics of partitioning, including sources of error...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448269/circulating-cell-free-micrornas-as-clinical-cancer-biomarkers
#2
REVIEW
Virginie Armand-Labit, Anne Pradines
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that are master regulators of genic expression and consequently of many cellular processes. But their expression is often deregulated in human tumors leading to cancer development. Recently miRNAs were discovered in body fluids (serum, plasma and others) and their levels have often been reported to be altered in patients. Circulating miRNAs became one of the most promising biomarkers in oncology for early diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response prediction. Here we describe the origins and roles of miRNAs, and summarize the most recent studies focusing on their usefulness as cancer biomarkers in lung, breast, colon, prostate, ovary cancers and melanoma...
April 27, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446714/profiling-of-metastatic-small-intestine-neuroendocrine-tumors-reveals-characteristic-mirnas-detectable-in-plasma
#3
Michaela Bowden, Chensheng W Zhou, Sui Zhang, Lauren Brais, Ashley Rossi, Laurent Naudin, Arunthi Thiagalingam, Ewa Sicinska, Matthew H Kulke
BACKGROUND: Current diagnostic and prognostic blood-based biomarkers for neuroendocrine tumors are limited. MiRNAs have tumor-specific expression patterns, are relatively stable, and can be measured in patient blood specimens. We performed a multi-stage study to identify and validate characteristic circulating miRNAs in patients with metastatic small intestine neuroendocrine tumors, and to assess associations between miRNA levels and survival. METHODS: Using a 742-miRNA panel, we identified candidate miRNAs similarly expressed in 19 small intestine neuroendocrine tumors and matched plasma samples...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446295/-circulating-serum-microrna-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-multiple-myeloma
#4
Yan-Ni Xu, Cui-Rong Xiao, Ying-Dan Huang, Quan-Yi Lu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic value of circulating serum miRNA for multiple myeloma. METHODS: Forty blood samples from patients with multiple myeloma were collected from July 2013 to June 2014 in Department of Hematology, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University. The real-time quantitative PCR was performed to detect the serum expression levels of miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-155, miR-16 and miR-92a) circulating in the different stages of patients with multiple myeloma and evaluate the diagnostic value for patients with multiple myeloma...
April 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442511/circulating-mirna-profiles-of-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-breast-cancer-patients
#5
Valentina K Todorova, Issam Makhoul, Jeanne Wei, V S Klimberg
Doxorubicin (DOX) cardiotoxicity is unpredictable and begins with the first dose of chemotherapy. This study aimed to obtain information about circulating microRNA of cancer patients in the early dose of DOX chemotherapy, who either did or did not develop cardiac abnormality after the completion of chemotherapy. Plasma of 20 patients treated for breast cancer with DOX-chemotherapy was analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. Circulating microRNA profiles of patients with DOX cardiotoxicity were compared to microRNA profiles of patients without DOX cardiotoxicity by quantitative real-time PCR...
March 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442458/circulating-micrornas-in-delayed-cerebral-infarction-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#6
Gang Lu, Man Sze Wong, Mark Zhi Qiang Xiong, Chi Kwan Leung, Xian Wei Su, Jing Ye Zhou, Wai Sang Poon, Vera Zhi Yuan Zheng, Wai Yee Chan, George Kwok Chu Wong
BACKGROUND: Delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) is a major cause of morbidities after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and typically starts at day 4 to 7 after initial hemorrhage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in posttranscriptional gene expression control, and distinctive patterns of circulating miRNA changes have been identified for some diseases. We aimed to investigate miRNAs that characterize SAH patients with DCI compared with those without DCI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Circulating miRNAs were collected on day 7 after SAH in healthy, SAH-free controls (n=20), SAH patients with DCI (n=20), and SAH patients without DCI (n=20)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441665/microrna-1185-promotes-arterial-stiffness-though-modulating-vcam-1-and-e-selectin-expression
#7
Haoyuan Deng, Zhenfeng Song, Huan Xu, Xinrui Deng, Qiao Zhang, Hongyu Chen, Yanjiao Wang, Ying Qin, Ying Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of cardiovascular ischaemic events; arterial stiffness is a characteristic of the atherosclerotic process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed as crucial modulators of atherosclerosis. However, the role of arterial stiffness-related miRNAs in the atherosclerotic process is still unclear. METHODS: Four hundred six participants from Northern China were enrolled in this study. Circulating miR-1185 and adhesion molecule levels were measured...
April 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439839/a-robust-protocol-to-quantify-circulating-cancer-biomarker-micrornas
#8
Emma Bell, Hannah L Watson, Shivani Bailey, Matthew J Murray, Nicholas Coleman
Reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a widely used method for quantifying microRNAs (miRNAs) in cells and tissues. However, the quantification of miRNAs in the circulation presents specific challenges. Here, we describe an optimized protocol using a small amount of input material to assess serum sample quality and quantify levels of a panel of up to 20 miRNAs. This is achieved by multiplexing Taqman miRNA stem-loop primers in the reverse transcription step. An additional multiplexed pre-amplification step is used to increase the sensitivity of the final quantification step, which is carried out using standard Taqman qPCR methodology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439838/mirna-quantitation-with-microelectrode-sensors-enabled-by-enzymeless-electrochemical-signal-amplification
#9
Tanyu Wang, Gangli Wang, Didier Merlin, Emilie Viennois
Quantification of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) is of great interest because of their potentials as disease biomarkers. Currently, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and microarray are considered mainstream techniques for miRNA identification and quantitation. However, these techniques are challenged by the low levels and wide dynamic range (from aM to nM) of miRNAs in a physiological sample, as well as the difficulty in the implementation in point-of-care settings. Here, we describe a one-step label-free electrochemical sensing technique by assembling a triple-stem DNA-redox probe structure on a gold microelectrode and introducing a reductant, tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP) in the detection buffer solution to achieve ultrasensitive miRNAs detection with a detection limit of 0...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437675/whole-blood-sequencing-reveals-circulating-microrna-associations-with-high-risk-traits-in-non-st-segment-elevation-acute-coronary-syndrome
#10
Alice Wang, Lydia Coulter Kwee, Elizabeth Grass, Megan L Neely, Simon G Gregory, Keith A A Fox, Paul W Armstrong, Harvey D White, E Magnus Ohman, Matthew T Roe, Svati H Shah, Mark Y Chan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although circulating microRNA (miRNAs) have emerged as biomarkers predicting mortality in acute coronary syndrome (ACS), more data are needed to understand these mechanisms. Mapping miRNAs to high-risk traits may identify miRNAs involved in pathways conferring risk for poor outcome in ACS. We aim to investigate the relationship between circulating miRNAs and high-risk traits in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). METHODS: Whole-genome miRNA sequencing was performed on RNA extracted from whole blood of 199 patients with NSTE-ACS...
March 30, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434388/microrna-221-3p-is-up-regulated-and-serves-as-a-potential-biomarker-in-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Feng Li, Jian-Wei Xu, Lei Wang, Han Liu, Ye Yan, San-Yuan Hu
It has been demonstrated that circulating MicroRNAs (miRNAs) could be potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. For pancreatic cancer (PCa), little is known about miR-221-3p biological function or its prognostic value. In the current study, we profiled miR-221-3p expression in PCa cell lines. Compared with normal pancreases ductal epithelial cells, miR-221-3p is up-regulated in all PCa cell lines analysed. In SW1990 cells, overexpression of miR-221-3p increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis, while inhibition of miR-221-3p decreased cell growth rate and promoted apoptosis...
April 21, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431866/circulating-micrornas-signature-correlates-with-positive-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-patients-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#12
Audrey Courtois, Betty Nusgens, Nancy Garbacki, Roland Hustinx, Pierre Gomez, Jean-Olivier Defraigne, Alain C Colige, Natzi Sakalihasan
BACKGROUND: Prediction of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is a challenging issue. Small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are potent regulators of gene expression and are considered as valuable circulating biomarkers. Recently, [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake detected by positron emission tomography (PET) in AAA was correlated with cellular and molecular alterations involved in wall instability and its potential rupture. Our study aimed at identifying circulating miRNAs correlated with a positive PET that could help discriminate patients at high risk of rupture...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429232/detection-of-potential-metastatic-prostate-cancer-circulating-biomarkers-by-comparison-of-mirna-profiles-in-du145-cells-and-culture-medium
#13
K A Fomicheva, A I Osip'yants, E N Knyazev, T R Samatov, M Yu Shkurnikov
We studied the profile of miRNA secreted into culture medium by DU145 prostate cancer cells and identified a subset of miRNAs characterized by the absence of correlation of their content in the cell and medium, which is likely a result of specific secretion. Three of these miRNA, hsa-miR-4417, hsa-miR-3175, and hsa-miR-6782-5p, exhibit the highest expression and are candidate circulating biomarkers for metastatic activity of prostate cancer. Two of these miRNA are coded by introns of genes linked with genome stability maintenance and chromatin remodeling regulation...
April 21, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427387/serum-microrna-profile-in-patients-with-colon-adenomas-or-cancer
#14
Yajie Zhang, Min Li, Yijiang Ding, Zhimin Fan, Jinchun Zhang, Hongying Zhang, Bin Jiang, Yong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer, one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths, arises from adenomatous polyps. In these years, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted increasing attention as novel biomarkers for colon cancers. The dysregulated circulating miRNAs in patients with colon adenomas has not been well-understood. METHODS: Here, we aimed to identify miRNA profile in the serum of patients with colon adenomas or colon cancer by using microarray. Then we validated eight differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) by qRT-PCR and predicted their targets...
April 20, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425921/plasma-micro-rna-alterations-appear-late-in-pancreatic-cancer
#15
Oskar Franklin, Pär Jonsson, Ola Billing, Erik Lundberg, Daniel Öhlund, Hanna Nyström, Christina Lundin, Henrik Antti, Malin Sund
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to study whether plasma microRNAs (miRNA) can be used for early detection of pancreatic cancer (PC) by analyzing prediagnostic plasma samples collected before a PC diagnosis. BACKGROUND: PC has a poor prognosis due to late presenting symptoms and early metastasis. Circulating miRNAs are altered in PC at diagnosis but have not been evaluated in a prediagnostic setting. METHODS: We first performed an initial screen using a panel of 372 miRNAs in a retrospective case-control cohort that included early-stage PC patients and healthy controls...
January 3, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424819/plasma-micrornas-characterising-patients-with-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#16
Bin Zuo, Juping Zhai, Lifang You, Yunxiao Zhao, Jianfeng Yang, Zhen Weng, Lan Dai, Qingyu Wu, Changgeng Ruan, Yang He
Altered microRNA (miRNA) expression has been reported in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). However, the detailed expression profiling of cell-free circulating miRNAs in ITP patients has not been fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to examine plasma miRNAs in ITP patients and evaluate their diagnostic values. Plasma samples from 74 ITP patients and 58 healthy controls were obtained and allocated into discovery, validation, and therapy-response sets. Initial screen with a miRNA microarray assay identified 23 miRNAs with different levels between ITP patients and healthy controls (>1...
April 20, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424619/retinal-and-circulating-mirnas-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-an-in-vivo-animal-and-human-study
#17
Giovanni L Romano, Chiara B M Platania, Filippo Drago, Salvatore Salomone, Marco Ragusa, Cristina Barbagallo, Cinzia Di Pietro, Michele Purrello, Michele Reibaldi, Teresio Avitabile, Antonio Longo, Claudio Bucolo
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among people aged 50 and over. Retinal deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates in AMD patients has suggested a potential link between AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have evaluated the differential retinal expression profile of miRNAs in a rat model of AMD elicited by Aβ. A serum profile of miRNAs in AMD patients has been also assessed using single TaqMan assay. Analysis of retina from rats intravitreally injected with Aβ revealed that miR-27a, miR-146a, and miR-155 were up-regulated in comparison to control rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422744/serum-mir-143-levels-predict-the-pathological-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#18
Yukiharu Hiyoshi, Takashi Akiyoshi, Ramu Inoue, Keiko Murofushi, Noriko Yamamoto, Yosuke Fukunaga, Masashi Ueno, Hideo Baba, Seiichi Mori, Toshiharu Yamaguchi
Recently, several circulating miRNAs have been reported as promising, minimally invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis or prediction of the prognosis in various types of cancer. However, the utility of circulating miRNAs as predictive markers of the cancer response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer is still unclear. To identify circulating serum miRNAs useful for predicting a pathological good response to nCRT, total 18 serum miRNAs of interest were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 94 rectal cancer patients treated with nCRT and surgery...
March 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422282/analysis-of-circulating-mir-1-mir-23a-and-mir-26a-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients-undergoing-coronary-bypass-artery-grafting-surgery
#19
Andre Feldman, Dalmo Antonio Ribeiro Moreira, Carlos Gun, Hui-Tzu Lin Wang, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata, Juliana de Freitas Germano, Gabriela Guimarães Sousa Leite, Pedro Farsky
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery. From a pathophysiological point of view, a myriad of factors such as trauma, atrial dilation, ischemia, mechanical myopericarditis, autonomic imbalance, loss of connexins, AF nest remodeling, inflammation, sutures, and dysfunction caused by postextracorporeal circulation can contribute to postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) resulting in a longer hospital stay and consequently higher cost. Recent studies showed that short fragments of RNA, called microRNA (miRNA), can contribute to the development of several cardiovascular diseases, including AF...
May 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418110/identification-of-circulating-mirna-involved-in-meat-yield-of-korean-cattle
#20
Surim Lee, Seung-Ju Park, Jae-Kyoung Cheong, Jong-Youl Ko, Jinjong Bong, Myunggi Baik
Cattle plays an important role in providing essential nutrients through meat production. Thus, we focused on epigenetic factors associated with meat yield. To investigating circulating miRNAs that are involved with meat yield and connect biofluids and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle in Korean cattle, we performed analyses of the carcass characteristics, miRNA array, qPCR, and bioinformatics. Carcass characteristics relative to the yield grade (YG) showed that the yield index and rib eye area were the highest, whereas the backfat thickness was the lowest for YG A (equal to high yield grade) cattle among the three YGs...
April 18, 2017: Cell Biology International
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