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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333713/micrornas-and-lipid-metabolism
#1
Binod Aryal, Abhishek K Singh, Noemi Rotllan, Nathan Price, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work over the past decade has identified the important role of microRNAs (miRNAS) in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and associated disorders including metabolic syndrome, obesity, and atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the most recent findings in the field, highlighting the contribution of miRNAs in controlling LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of lipid metabolism, including miR-122 and miR-33...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329037/comprehensive-mirna-profiling-of-skeletal-muscle-and-serum-in-induced-and-normal-mouse-muscle-atrophy-during-aging
#2
Hwa Jin Jung, Kwang-Pyo Lee, Brandon Milholland, Yeo Jin Shin, Jae Sook Kang, Ki-Sun Kwon, Yousin Suh
Age-associated loss of muscle mass and function is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly adults. Muscular atrophy can also be induced by disuse associated with long-term bed rest or disease. Although miRNAs regulate muscle growth, regeneration, and aging, their potential role in acute muscle atrophy is poorly understood. Furthermore, alterations in circulating miRNA levels have been shown to occur during aging but their potential as noninvasive biomarkers for muscle atrophy remains largely unexplored...
March 10, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323921/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#3
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322921/linking-deregulation-of-non-coding-rna-to-the-core-pathophysiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-integrative-review
#4
REVIEW
Mark J Millan
The human genome encodes a vast repertoire of protein non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), some specific to the brain. MicroRNAs, which interfere with the translation of target mRNAs, are of particular interest since their deregulation has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains challenging to link the complex body of observations on miRNAs and AD into a coherent framework. Using extensive graphical support, this article discusses how a diverse panoply of miRNAs convergently and divergently impact (and are impacted by) core pathophysiological processes underlying AD: neuroinflammation and oxidative stress; aberrant generation of β-amyloid-42 (Aβ42); anomalies in the production, cleavage and post-translational marking of Tau; impaired clearance of Aβ42 and Tau; perturbation of axonal organisation; disruption of synaptic plasticity; endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response; mitochondrial dysfunction; aberrant induction of cell cycle re-entry; and apoptotic loss of neurons...
March 17, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321402/prognostic-role-of-the-microrna-200-family-in-various-carcinomas-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Jung Soo Lee, Young-Ho Ahn, Hye Sung Won, Der Sheng Sun, Yeo Hyung Kim, Yoon Ho Ko
Background/Aims. The miRNA-200 (miR-200) family may act as key inhibitors of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, the potential prognostic value of miR-200s in various human malignancies remains controversial. This meta-analysis analyzed the associations between miR-200 levels and survival outcomes in a variety of tumors. Methods. Eligible published studies were identified by searching the Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, and Google scholar databases. Patient clinical data were pooled, and pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to calculate the strength of this association...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319523/plasma-levels-of-microrna-155-are-upregulated-with-long-term-left-ventricular-assist-device-support
#6
Teresa Wang, Emily C OʼBrien, Joseph G Rogers, Daniel L Jacoby, Michael E Chen, Jeffrey M Testani, Dawn E Bowles, Carmelo A Milano, G Michael Felker, Chetan B Patel, Pramod N Bonde, Tariq Ahmad
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy unloads the failing heart but exposes the human body to unique pathophysiological demands such as continuous blood-flow and complete univentricular support, which are associated with increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes. MiRNAs are 22-23 nucleotide RNAs involved in regulation of multiple biological processes including the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). Thus, measurement of miRNAs may have potential in both diagnostics as circulating biomarkers, and in therapeutics for targeted interventions...
March 17, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317889/mirnas-novel-regulators-of-autoimmunity-mediated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-destruction-in-type-1-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Ying Zheng, Zhen Wang, Zhiguang Zhou
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a series of conserved, short, non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression in a posttranscriptional manner. miRNAs are involved in almost every physiological and pathological process. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is the result of selective destruction of pancreatic β-cells driven by the immune system. miRNAs are also important participants in T1D pathogenesis. Herein, we review the most recent data on the potential involvement of miRNAs in T1D. Specifically, we focus on two aspects: the roles of miRNAs in maintaining immune homeostasis and regulating β-cell survival and/or functions in T1D...
March 20, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315863/circulating-mirnas-as-potential-biomarkers-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#8
Chengda Ren, Qingyu Liu, Qingquan Wei, Wenting Cai, Mengmei He, Yaru Du, Ding Xu, Yan Wu, Jing Yu
Backgroud: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness of the elder people. This research was intended to demonstrate the different expression of microRNAs (miRNA) in AMD patients and whether they can be used as biomarkers for AMD. METHODS: MiRNAs expression was measured by microarray of 6 AMD cases and 6 gender matched controls. In a larger-sample case-control study with 126 AMD cases and 140 controls, whole blood samples were detected for the differences of miRNA expression...
March 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315083/achieving-the-promise-of-therapeutic-extracellular-vesicles-the-devil-is-in-details-of-therapeutic-loading
#9
REVIEW
Dhruvitkumar S Sutaria, Mohamed Badawi, Mitch A Phelps, Thomas D Schmittgen
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a class of cell secreted organelles which naturally contain biomolecular cargo such as miRNA, mRNA and proteins. EVs mediate intercellular communication, enabling the transfer of functional nucleic acids from the cell of origin to the recipient cells. In addition, EVs make an attractive delivery vehicle for therapeutics owing to their increased stability in circulation, biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and toxicity profiles. EVs can also be engineered to display targeting moieties on their surfaces which enables targeting to desired tissues, organs or cells...
March 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306519/variability-in-variability-out-best-practice-recommendations-to-standardize-pre-analytical-variables-in-the-detection-of-circulating-and-tissue-micrornas
#10
Jenna Khan, Joshua A Lieberman, Christina M Lockwood
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) hold promise as biomarkers for a variety of disease processes and for determining cell differentiation. These short RNA species are robust, survive harsh treatment and storage conditions and may be extracted from blood and tissue. Pre-analytical variables are critical confounders in the analysis of miRNAs: we elucidate these and identify best practices for minimizing sample variation in blood and tissue specimens. Pre-analytical variables addressed include patient-intrinsic variation, time and temperature from sample collection to storage or processing, processing methods, contamination by cells and blood components, RNA extraction method, normalization, and storage time/conditions...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303895/total-extracellular-small-rna-profiles-from-plasma-saliva-and-urine-of-healthy-subjects
#11
Ashish Yeri, Amanda Courtright, Rebecca Reiman, Elizabeth Carlson, Taylor Beecroft, Alex Janss, Ashley Siniard, Ryan Richholt, Chris Balak, Joel Rozowsky, Robert Kitchen, Elizabeth Hutchins, Joseph Winarta, Roger McCoy, Matthew Anastasi, Seungchan Kim, Matthew Huentelman, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen
Interest in circulating RNAs for monitoring and diagnosing human health has grown significantly. There are few datasets describing baseline expression levels for total cell-free circulating RNA from healthy control subjects. In this study, total extracellular RNA (exRNA) was isolated and sequenced from 183 plasma samples, 204 urine samples and 46 saliva samples from 55 male college athletes ages 18-25 years. Many participants provided more than one sample, allowing us to investigate variability in an individual's exRNA expression levels over time...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301325/circulating-mirnas-as-biomarkers-of-gait-speed-responses-to-aerobic-exercise-training-in-obese-older-adults
#12
Tan Zhang, Tina E Brinkley, Keqin Liu, Xin Feng, Anthony P Marsh, Stephen Kritchevsky, Xiaobo Zhou, Barbara J Nicklas
Gait speed is a useful predictor of adverse outcomes, including incident mobility disability and mortality in older adults. While aerobic exercise training (AEX) is generally an effective therapy to improve gait speed, individual responses are highly variable. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to inter-individual changes in gait speed with AEX. We examined whether plasma miRNAs are associated with gait speed changes (dGaitSp) in 33 obese older adults (age: 69.3±3.6 years, BMI: 34.0±3.1 kg/m(2), 85% white, 73% women) who performed treadmill walking, 4 days/week for 5 months...
March 15, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293796/low-circulating-microrna-levels-in-heart-failure-patients-are-associated-with-atherosclerotic-disease-and-cardiovascular-related-rehospitalizations
#13
Eline L Vegter, Ekaterina S Ovchinnikova, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Tiny Jaarsma, Eugene Berezikov, Peter van der Meer, Adriaan A Voors
OBJECTIVE: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in both heart failure and atherosclerotic disease. The aim of this study was to examine associations between heart failure specific circulating miRNAs, atherosclerotic disease and cardiovascular-related outcome in patients with heart failure. METHODS: The levels of 11 heart failure-specific circulating miRNAs were compared in plasma of 114 heart failure patients with and without different manifestations of atherosclerotic disease...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289400/increased-circulating-exosomal-mirna-223-is-associated-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#14
Yajing Chen, Yaying Song, Jun Huang, Meijie Qu, Yu Zhang, Jieli Geng, Zhijun Zhang, Jianrong Liu, Guo-Yuan Yang
Recent studies have demonstrated that exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various diseases including vascular disease. However, specific exosomal miRNAs expression in stroke patients has not been reported yet. Here, we explored whether circulating exosomal miRNAs can serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke and discussed the potential for clinical application. Blood samples were collected from acute ischemic stroke patients within the first 72 h (n = 50)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289238/stroke-and-circulating-extracellular-rnas
#15
Eric Mick, Ravi Shah, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Venkatesh Murthy, Mark Gerstein, Joel Rozowsky, Robert Kitchen, Martin G Larson, Daniel Levy, Jane E Freedman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is increasing interest in extracellular RNAs (ex-RNAs), with numerous reports of associations between selected microRNAs (miRNAs) and a variety of cardiovascular disease phenotypes. Previous studies of ex-RNAs in relation to risk for cardiovascular disease have investigated small numbers of patients and assayed only candidate miRNAs. No human studies have investigated links between novel ex-RNAs and stroke. METHODS: We conducted unbiased next-generation sequencing using plasma from 40 participants of the FHS (Framingham Heart Study; Offspring Cohort Exam 8) followed by high-throughput polymerase chain reaction of 471 ex-RNAs...
March 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289056/expression-and-trafficking-of-placental-micrornas-at-the-feto-maternal-interface
#16
Guojing Chang, Jean-François Mouillet, Takuya Mishima, Tianjiao Chu, Elena Sadovsky, Carolyn B Coyne, W Tony Parks, Urvashi Surti, Yoel Sadovsky
During pregnancy, placental trophoblasts at the feto-maternal interface produce a broad repertoire of microRNA (miRNA) species. These species include miRNA from the primate-specific chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC), which is expressed nearly exclusively in the placenta. Trafficking of these miRNAs among the maternal, placental, and fetal compartments is unknown. To determine miRNA expression and trafficking patterns during pregnancy, we sequenced miRNAs in triads of human placenta and of maternal and fetal blood and found large subject-to-subject variability, with C19MC exhibiting compartment-specific expression...
March 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288782/exosomes-a-new-horizon-in-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Irene Vanni, Angela Alama, Francesco Grossi, Maria Giovanna Dal Bello, Simona Coco
Circulating exosomes are the major mediators of cell-cell communication. They have been found in various body fluids of healthy individuals and patients with malignancies as cargos of several molecules including miRNAs. Several studies have underlined the role of exosome miRNAs in different tumor types, including lung cancer, suggesting their potential use as biomarkers and therapeutic agents. An overview of the biology and function of exosomes and exosome miRNAs as indicators of diagnosis and treatment response in lung cancer is presented...
March 10, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287884/circulating-mirna29-family-expression-levels-in-patients-with-essential-hypertension-as-potential-markers-for-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#18
Yuqing Huang, Songtao Tang, Cheng Huang, Jiyan Chen, Jie Li, Anping Cai, Yingqing Feng
OBJECTIVES: The role of microRNAs (miRs,miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, as well as their diagnostic potential, has recently attracted much attention. However, target-organ damage (TOD) of hypertension remains a substantial challenge due to the lack of specific biomarkers. The present study was undertaken to identify and validate the potential of circulating miRs as novel biomarkers for TOD. METHODS: We assessed the expression levels of miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c in 54 patients with untreated essential hypertension and 30 healthy individuals...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276476/mir-193a-3p-interaction-with-hmgb1-downregulates-human-endothelial-cell-proliferation-and-migration
#19
Cheen P Khoo, Maria G Roubelakis, Jack B Schrader, Grigorios Tsaknakis, Rebecca Konietzny, Benedikt Kessler, Adrian L Harris, Suzanne M Watt
Circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) contribute to vascular repair where they are a target for therapy. Since ECFC proliferative potential is increased in cord versus peripheral blood and to define regulatory factors controlling this proliferation, we compared the miRNA profiles of cord blood and peripheral blood ECFC-derived cells. Of the top 25 differentially regulated miRNAs selected, 22 were more highly expressed in peripheral blood ECFC-derived cells. After validating candidate miRNAs by q-RT-PCR, we selected miR-193a-3p for further investigation...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275578/micrornas-for-the-prediction-of-early-response-to-sorafenib-treatment-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Naoshi Nishida, Tadaaki Arizumi, Satoru Hagiwara, Hiroshi Ida, Toshiharu Sakurai, Masatoshi Kudo
BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest the role of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the serum miRNA profile associated with the response to sorafenib remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the specific miRNAs in serum that could predict the early response of HCC to sorafenib treatment. SUMMARY: Analyzing the sera from 16 HCC patients, we selected five miRNAs that showed differences in serum levels between patients with and without tumor responses among 179 known secretory miRNAs by using locked nucleic acid probe-based quantitative PCR...
February 2017: Liver Cancer
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