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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320202/identification-and-expression-of-equine-mer-derived-mirnas
#1
Jeong-An Gim, Heui-Soo Kim
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, small RNAs (21-23 nucleotides) that function in gene silencing and translational inhibition via the RNA interference mechanism. Most miRNAs originate from host genomic regions, such as intergenic regions, introns, exons, and transposable elements (TEs). Here, we focused on the palindromic structure of medium reiteration frequencies (MERs), which are similar to precursor miRNAs. Five MER consensus sequences (MER5A1, MER53, MER81, MER91C, and MER117) were matched with paralogous transcripts predicted to be precursor miRNAs in the horse genome (equCab2) and located in either intergenic regions or introns...
March 21, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292661/genetic-evolution-of-equine-influenza-virus-strains-h3n8-isolated-in-france-from-1967-to-2015-and-the-implications-of-several-potential-pathogenic-factors
#2
Stéphanie Fougerolle, Loïc Legrand, Fanny Lecouturier, Corinne Sailleau, Romain Paillot, Aymeric Hans, Stéphane Pronost
Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a major respiratory pathogen of horses despite the availability of equine influenza vaccines. This study aimed to determine genetic evolution of EIV strains in France between 1967 to present. A whole genome comparative analysis was also conducted on recent French strains in order to identify potential factors of pathogenicity. Comparison of French EIV sequences with vaccine and worldwide epidemic strains revealed amino acid substitutions in both haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase, especially within the antigenic sites and/or close to receptor binding sites (HA)...
March 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284628/japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-diagnosis-and-control-in-domestic-animals
#3
REVIEW
Karen L Mansfield, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Ashley C Banyard, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant cause of neurological disease in humans throughout Asia causing an estimated 70,000 human cases each year with approximately 10,000 fatalities. The virus contains a positive sense RNA genome within a host-derived membrane and is classified within the family Flaviviridae. Like many flaviviruses, it is transmitted by mosquitoes, particularly those of the genus Culex in a natural cycle involving birds and some livestock species. Spill-over into domestic animals results in a spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic infection in some species to acute neurological signs in others...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235824/a-nonsense-variant-in-the-st14-gene-in-akhal-teke-horses-with-naked-foal-syndrome
#4
Anina Bauer, Theresa Hiemesch, Vidhya Jagannathan, Markus Neuditschko, Iris Bachmann, Stefan Rieder, Sofia Mikko, M Cecilia Penedo, Nadja Tarasova, Martina Vitková, Nicolò Sirtori, Paola Roccabianca, Tosso Leeb, Monika M Welle
Naked foal syndrome (NFS) is a genodermatosis in the Akhal-Teke horse breed. We provide the first scientific description of this phenotype. Affected horses had almost no hair and showed a mild ichthyosis. So far, all known NFS affected horses died between a few weeks and 3 years of age. It is not clear whether a specific pathology caused the premature deaths. NFS is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait. We mapped the disease causing genetic variant to two segments on chromosomes 7 and 27 in the equine genome...
February 24, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229048/anaplasma-phagocytophilum-infection-subverts-carbohydrate-metabolic-pathways-in-the-tick-vector-ixodes-scapularis
#5
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Pilar Alberdi, James J Valdés, Margarita Villar, José de la Fuente
The obligate intracellular pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is the causative agent of human, equine, and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants. A. phagocytophilum has become an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the United States, Europe, Africa, and Asia, with increasing numbers of infected people and animals every year. It has been recognized that intracellular pathogens manipulate host cell metabolic pathways to increase infection and transmission in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220614/comparative-analysis-of-dna-methylation-patterns-of-equine-sarcoid-and-healthy-skin-samples
#6
E Semik, T Ząbek, A Gurgul, A Fornal, T Szmatoła, K Pawlina, M Wnuk, J Klukowska-Rötzler, C Koch, K Mählmann, M Bugno-Poniewierska
OBJECTIVE: In this study, for the first time we report the genome-wide DNA methylation profile of skin tumour in horses and describe differentially methylated genomic regions (DMRs) with respect to healthy skin. MATERIALS & METHODS: The comparative analysis of DNA methylation patterns detected using Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) technique, allowed identification of 136 regions showing differential methylation between sarcoid and normal skin tissue...
February 21, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206905/discovery-of-a-novel-alphavirus-related-to-eilat-virus
#7
Kyra Hermanns, Florian Zirkel, Anne Kopp, Marco Marklewitz, Innocent B Rwego, Alejandro Estrada, Thomas R Gillespie, Christian Drosten, Sandra Junglen
Most alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods and infect vertebrate hosts. An exception is Eilat virus (EILV), the only described alphavirus with a host range restricted to insects. We established a new generic reverse transcription PCR assay for alphaviruses and tested 8860 tropical mosquitoes. We detected a novel alphavirus, tentatively named Taï Forest alphavirus (TALV), in Culex decens mosquitoes collected in Ivory Coast. The full genome was sequenced, and closest similarity was found to EILV. Pairwise amino acid identities to EILV ranged between 67 and 88 % for the corresponding proteins, suggesting that TALV defines a proposed new alphavirus species...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166307/picornavirus-rna-is-protected-from-cleavage-by-ribonuclease-during-virion-uncoating-and-transfer-across-cellular-and-model-membranes
#8
Elisabetta Groppelli, Hazel C Levy, Eileen Sun, Mike Strauss, Clare Nicol, Sarah Gold, Xiaowei Zhuang, Tobias J Tuthill, James M Hogle, David J Rowlands
Picornaviruses are non-enveloped RNA viruses that enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Because they lack an envelope, picornaviruses face the challenge of delivering their RNA genomes across the membrane of the endocytic vesicle into the cytoplasm to initiate infection. Currently, the mechanism of genome release and translocation across membranes remains poorly understood. Within the enterovirus genus, poliovirus, rhinovirus 2, and rhinovirus 16 have been proposed to release their genomes across intact endosomal membranes through virally induced pores, whereas one study has proposed that rhinovirus 14 releases its RNA following disruption of endosomal membranes...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161473/first-identification-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-equine-hepacivirus-in-korea
#9
Ho-Seong Kim, Hyun-Woo Moon, Haan Woo Sung, Hyuk Moo Kwon
Non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV) corresponds a group of isolates recently characterized in horses and dogs that present similar genomic organization and are closely related to hepatitis C virus. Since canine hapacivirus, NPHV identified in dogs, was first discovered in dogs in the United States, equine hepacivirus (EqHV, NPHV identified in horses) has been identified in horses in several countries. However, no epidemiological studies have investigated EqHV in horses in Korea. In this study, a total of 74 (n=74) serum samples collected from horses in four regions of Korea were tested for EqHV RNA using nested RT-PCR...
February 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148802/recombinant-isfahan-virus-and-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-vaccine-vectors-provide-durable-multivalent-single-dose-protection-against-lethal-alphavirus-challenge
#10
Farooq Nasar, Demetrius Matassov, Robert L Seymour, Theresa Latham, Rodion V Gorchakov, Rebecca M Nowak, Grace Leal, Stefan Hamm, John H Eldridge, Robert B Tesh, David K Clarke, Scott C Weaver
The demonstrated clinical efficacy of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine vector has stimulated the investigation of additional serologically distinct Vesiculovirus vectors as therapeutic and/or prophylactic vaccine vectors to combat emerging viral diseases. Amongst these viral threats are encephalitic alphaviruses, Venezuelan and eastern equine encephalitic viruses (VEEV, EEEV), which have demonstrated potential for natural disease outbreaks, yet no licensed vaccines are available in the event of an epidemic...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107812/tissue-resolved-gene-structure-refined-equine-transcriptome
#11
T A Mansour, E Y Scott, C J Finno, R R Bellone, M J Mienaltowski, M C Penedo, P J Ross, S J Valberg, J D Murray, C T Brown
BACKGROUND: Transcriptome interpretation relies on a good-quality reference transcriptome for accurate quantification of gene expression as well as functional analysis of genetic variants. The current annotation of the horse genome lacks the specificity and sensitivity necessary to assess gene expression especially at the isoform level, and suffers from insufficient annotation of untranslated regions (UTR) usage. We built an annotation pipeline for horse and used it to integrate 1.9 billion reads from multiple RNA-seq data sets into a new refined transcriptome...
January 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062388/netf-producing-clostridium-perfringens-clonality-and-plasmid-pathogenicity-loci-analysis
#12
Iman Mehdizadeh Gohari, Andrew M Kropinski, Scott J Weese, Ashley E Whitehead, Valeria R Parreira, Patrick Boerlin, John F Prescott
Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of foal necrotizing enteritis and canine acute hemorrhagic diarrhea. A major virulence determinant of the strains associated with these diseases appears to be a beta-sheet pore-forming toxin, NetF, encoded within a pathogenicity locus (NetF locus) on a large tcp-conjugative plasmid. Strains producing NetF also produce the putative toxin NetE, encoded within the same pathogenicity locus, as well as CPE enterotoxin and CPB2 on a second plasmid, and sometimes the putative toxin NetG within a pathogenicity locus (NetG locus) on another separate large conjugative plasmid...
January 3, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053107/domain-organization-and-evolution-of-the-highly-divergent-5-coding-region-of-genomes-of-arteriviruses-including-the-novel-possum-nidovirus
#13
Anastasia Gulyaeva, Magdalena Dunowska, Erik Hoogendoorn, Julia Giles, Dmitry Samborskiy, Alexander E Gorbalenya
In five experimentally characterized arterivirus species, the 5'-end genome coding region encodes the most divergent nonstructural proteins (nsp's), nsp1 and nsp2, which include papain-like proteases (PLPs) and other poorly characterized domains. These are involved in regulation of transcription, polyprotein processing, and virus-host interaction. Here we present results of a bioinformatics analysis of this region of 14 arterivirus species, including that of the most distantly related virus, wobbly possum disease virus (WPDV), determined by a modified 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) protocol...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005523/discovery-of-a-novel-alphavirus-related-to-eilat-virus
#14
Kyra Hermanns, Florian Zirkel, Anne Kopp, Marco Marklewitz, Innocent Rwego, Alejandro Estrada, Thomas Robert Gillespie, Christian Drosten, Sandra Junglen
Most alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods and infect vertebrate hosts. An exception is Eilat virus (EILV), the only described alphavirus with a host range restricted to insects. We established a new generic reverse transcription PCR assay for alphaviruses and tested 8,860 tropical mosquitoes. We detected a novel alphavirus, tentatively named Taï Forest alphavirus (TALV), in Culex decens mosquitoes collected in Côte d'Ivoire. The full genome was sequenced and closest similarity was found to EILV. Pairwise amino acid identities to EILV ranged between 67-88% for the corresponding proteins suggesting that TALV defines a proposed new alphavirus species...
December 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003490/lineage-a-betacoronavirus-ns2-proteins-and-the-homologous-torovirus-berne-pp1a-carboxy-terminal-domain-are-phosphodiesterases-that-antagonize-activation-of-rnase-l
#15
Stephen A Goldstein, Joshua M Thornbrough, Rong Zhang, Babal K Jha, Yize Li, Ruth Elliott, Katherine Quiroz-Figueroa, Annie I Chen, Robert H Silverman, Susan R Weiss
Viruses in the family Coronaviridae, within the order Nidovirales, are etiologic agents of a range of human and animal diseases, including both mild and severe respiratory diseases in humans. These viruses encode conserved replicase and structural proteins as well as more diverse accessory proteins, encoded in the 3' ends of their genomes, that often act as host cell antagonists. We previously showed that 2',5'-phosphodiesterases (2',5'-PDEs) encoded by the prototypical Betacoronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), and by Middle East respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus antagonize the oligoadenylate-RNase L (OAS-RNase L) pathway...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993615/translation-of-a-laboratory-validated-equine-herpesvirus-1-specific-real-time-pcr-assay-into-an-insulated-isothermal-polymerase-chain-reaction-iipcr-assay-for-point-of-need-diagnosis-using-pockit%C3%A2-nucleic-acid-analyzer
#16
Udeni B R Balasuriya, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Yun-Long Tsai, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Yu-Han Shen, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Ashley Skillman, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang, Stéphane Pronost, Yan Zhang
Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a major problem for the equine industry in the United States, is caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). In addition, EHV-1 is associated with upper respiratory disease, abortion, and chorioretinal lesions in horses. Here we describe the development and evaluation of an inexpensive, user-friendly insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) method targeting open reading 30 (ORF30) to detect both neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains on the field-deployable POCKIT™ device for point-of-need detection of EHV-1...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939152/whole-genome-characterization-of-a-peruvian-alpaca-rotavirus-isolate-expressing-a-novel-vp4-genotype
#17
Miguel Rojas, Jorge Luiz S Gonçalves, Helver G Dias, Alberto Manchego, Danilo Pezo, Norma Santos
The SA44 isolate of Rotavirus A (RVA) was identified from a neonatal Peruvian alpaca presenting with diarrhea, and the full-length genome sequence of the isolate (designated RVA/Alpaca-tc/PER/SA44/2014/G3P[40]) was determined. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the isolate possessed the genotype constellation G3-P[40]-I8-R3-C3-M3-A9-N3-T3-E3-H6, which differs considerably from those of RVA strains isolated from other species of the order Artiodactyla. Overall, the genetic constellation of the SA44 strain was quite similar to those of RVA strains isolated from a bat in Asia (MSLH14 and MYAS33)...
November 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930647/allelic-variation-in-cxcl16-determines-cd3-t-lymphocyte-susceptibility-to-equine-arteritis-virus-infection-and-establishment-of-long-term-carrier-state-in-the-stallion
#18
Sanjay Sarkar, Ernest Bailey, Yun Young Go, R Frank Cook, Ted Kalbfleisch, John Eberth, R Lakshman Chelvarajan, Kathleen M Shuck, Sergey Artiushin, Peter J Timoney, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of horses and other equid species. Following natural infection, 10-70% of the infected stallions can become persistently infected and continue to shed EAV in their semen for periods ranging from several months to life. Recently, we reported that some stallions possess a subpopulation(s) of CD3+ T lymphocytes that are susceptible to in vitro EAV infection and that this phenotypic trait is associated with long-term carrier status following exposure to the virus...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919223/trpm2-snp-genotype-previously-associated-with-susceptibility-to-rhodococcus-equi-pneumonia-in-quarter-horse-foals-displays-differential-gene-expression-identified-using-rna-seq
#19
Cole M McQueen, Canaan M Whitfield-Cargile, Kranti Konganti, Glenn P Blodgett, Scott V Dindot, Noah D Cohen
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) is an intracellular bacterium that affects young foals and immuno-compromised individuals causing severe pneumonia. Currently, the genetic mechanisms that confer susceptibility and/or resistance to R. equi are not fully understood. Previously, using a SNP-based genome-wide association study, we identified a region on equine chromosome 26 associated with culture-confirmed clinical pneumonia. To better characterize this region and understand the function of the SNP located within TRPM2 that was associated with R...
December 5, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915089/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-parasitic-nematode-cylicocyclus-nassatus-and-comparative-analyses-with-cylicocyclus-insigne
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yuan Gao, Jian-Hua Qiu, Bing-Bing Zhang, Xin Su, Xue Fu, Dong-Mei Yue, Chun-Ren Wang
Cylicocyclus nassatus is a common and important parasite in the large intestine of equine. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of C. nassatus was determined and comparatively analyzed with Cylicocyclus insigne. The mt genome size of C. nassatus was 13,846 bp, 18 bp longer than that of C. insigne. The circular mt genome includes 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and two non-coding regions. All the genes are transcribed in the same direction and gene arrangement is consistent with that of gene arrangement 3 (GA3)...
January 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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