Read by QxMD icon Read

Equine genome

Sophie Mißbach, Denis Aleksic, Lisa Blaschke, Timm Hassemer, Kyung Jin Lee, Martin Mansfeld, Jana Hänske, Johannes Handler, Robert Kammerer
BACKGROUND: The CEA gene family is one of the most rapidly evolving gene families in the human genome. The founder gene of the family is thought to be an ancestor of the inhibitory immune checkpoint molecule CEACAM1. Comprehensive analyses of mammalian genomes showed that the CEA gene family is subject to tremendous gene family expansion and contraction events in different mammalian species. While in some species (e.g. rabbits) less than three CEACAM1 related genes exist, were in others (certain microbat species) up to 100 CEACAM1 paralogs identified...
March 15, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Yara Suliman, Frank Becker, Klaus Wimmers
Poor fertility of breeding stallions is a recognised problem in the equine industry. The aim of the present study was to detect molecular pathways using two groups of stallions that differed in pregnancy rates as well as in the proportion of normal and motile spermatozoa. RNA was isolated from spermatozoa of each stallion and microarray data were analysed to obtain a list of genes for which transcript abundance differed between the groups (P ≤0.05, fold change ≥1.2). In all, there were 437 differentially expressed (DE) genes between the two groups (P ≤ 0...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Carrie J Finno, Giuliana Gianino, Sudeep Perumbakkam, Zoë J Williams, Matthew H Bordbari, Keri L Gardner, Erin Burns, Sichong Peng, Sian A Durward-Akhurst, Stephanie J Valberg
BACKGROUND: The cause of immune-mediated myositis (IMM), characterized by recurrent, rapid-onset muscle atrophy in Quarter Horses (QH), is unknown. The histopathologic hallmark of IMM is lymphocytic infiltration of myofibers. The purpose of this study was to identify putative functional variants associated with equine IMM. METHODS: A genome-wide association (GWA) study was performed on 36 IMM QHs and 54 breed matched unaffected QHs from the same environment using the Equine SNP50 and SNP70 genotyping arrays...
March 6, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
F Naccache, J Metzger, O Dist
Osteochondrosis (OC) is an injury to cartilage canals with a following necrosis in the growth cartilage, from there it can develop to osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD). Due to its high impact in the equine industry, new insights into predisposing factors and potential high-risk genetic variants are warranted. This article reviews advancements in quantitative and molecular genetics in refining estimation of genetic parameters and identifying predisposing genetic loci. Heritabilities were highest for hock OC with estimates at 0...
March 2, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
N A Bryant, G S Wilkie, C A Russell, L Compston, D Grafham, L Clissold, K McLay, L Medcalf, R Newton, A J Davison, D M Elton
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and neurological disease in equines and is endemic in most countries. The viral factors that influence EHV-1 disease severity are poorly understood, and this has hampered vaccine development. However, the N752D substitution in the viral DNA polymerase catalytic subunit has been shown statistically to be associated with neurological disease. This has given rise to the term "neuropathic strain," even though strains lacking the polymorphism have been recovered from cases of neurological disease...
February 9, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Célia Boukadida, Matthieu Fritz, Brigitte Blumen, Marie-Laure Fogeron, François Penin, Annette Martin
Over the recent years, several homologues with varying degrees of genetic relatedness to hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been identified in a wide range of mammalian species. HCV infectious life cycle relies on a first critical proteolytic event of its single polyprotein, which is carried out by nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) and allows replicase assembly and genome replication. In this study, we characterized and evaluated the conservation of the proteolytic mode of action and regulatory mechanisms of NS2 across HCV and animal hepaciviruses...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Nienke W M de Jong, Manouk Vrieling, Brandon L Garcia, Gerrit Koop, Matt Brettmann, Piet C Aerts, Maartje Ruyken, Jos A G van Strijp, Mark Holmes, Ewan M Harrison, Brian V Geisbrecht, Suzan H M Rooijakkers
Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen capable of causing a broad range of diseases in many different hosts. S. aureus can adapt to its host through modification of its genome, e.g. by acquisition and exchange of mobile genetic elements that encode host-specific virulence factors. Recently the prophage ΦSaeq1 was discovered in S. aureus strains from six different clonal lineages almost exclusively isolated from equids. Within this phage we discovered a novel variant of Staphylococcal Complement Inhibitor (SCIN), a secreted protein that interferes with activation of the human complement system, an important line of host defense...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Birgit Walther, Katja-Sophia Klein, Ann-Kristin Barton, Torsten Semmler, Charlotte Huber, Silver Anthony Wolf, Karsten Tedin, Roswitha Merle, Franziska Mitrach, Sebastian Guenther, Antina Lübke-Becker, Heidrun Gehlen
Pathogens frequently associated with multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from horses admitted to horse clinics, pose a risk for animal patients and personnel in horse clinics. To estimate current rates of colonization, a total of 341 equine patients were screened for carriage of zoonotic indicator pathogens at hospital admission. Horses showing clinical signs associated with colic (n = 233) or open wounds (n = 108) were selected for microbiological examination of nostril swabs, faecal samples and wound swabs taken from the open wound group...
2018: PloS One
Katrina M Kutchko, Emily A Madden, Clayton Morrison, Kenneth S Plante, Wes Sanders, Heather A Vincent, Marta C Cruz Cisneros, Kristin M Long, Nathaniel J Moorman, Mark T Heise, Alain Laederach
Alphaviruses are mosquito-borne pathogens that cause human diseases ranging from debilitating arthritis to lethal encephalitis. Studies with Sindbis virus (SINV), which causes fever, rash, and arthralgia in humans, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), which causes encephalitis, have identified RNA structural elements that play key roles in replication and pathogenesis. However, a complete genomic structural profile has not been established for these viruses. We used the structural probing technique SHAPE-MaP to identify structured elements within the SINV and VEEV genomes...
January 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
X-X Liu, J-F Pan, Q-J Zhao, X-H He, Y-B Pu, J-L Han, Y-H Ma, L Jiang
The X chromosome shows a special interaction between demographic factors and genetic variation, and the analysis of X-linked genomic variation can therefore provide insights into the unique effects of demography and selection on the horse genome that cannot be readily detected by autosomal markers. Debao (DB) ponies have experienced intense selective pressure for the development of their small stature (<106 cm at adult height). To identify selective sweeps on the X chromosome of the DB pony, we performed a genome-wide scan of three Chinese horse breeds using an Equine SNP70 BeadChip...
February 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
C Horecky, E Horecka, J Futas, E Janova, P Horin, A Knoll
Genotyping microsatellite markers represents a standard, relatively easy and inexpensive method of assessing genetic diversity of complex genomic regions in various animal species, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and/or natural killer cell receptor (NKR) genes. MHC-linked microsatellite markers have been identified and some of them were used for characterizing MHC polymorphism in various species, including horses. However, most of those were MHC class II markers, while MHC class I and III sub-regions were less well covered...
January 17, 2018: HLA
N Pusterla, C M Leutenegger, S M Barnum, B A Byrne
BACKGROUND: In recent years, molecular approaches have been able to characterise the viability of equine upper respiratory tract pathogens using absolute molecular quantitation as well as detection of transcripts for virulence genes. OBJECTIVES: The objective this study was to investigate molecular surrogates for S. equi subspecies equi (S. equi) viability in biological samples from horses with strangles. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study...
January 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Chithra C Sreenivasan, Sunayana S Jandhyala, Sisi Luo, Ben M Hause, Milton Thomas, David E B Knudsen, Pamela Leslie-Steen, Travis Clement, Stephanie E Reedy, Thomas M Chambers, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Dan Wang, Radhey S Kaushik, Feng Li
Equine influenza, caused by the H3N8 subtype, is a highly contagious respiratory disease affecting equid populations worldwide and has led to serious epidemics and transboundary pandemics. This study describes the phylogenetic characterization and replication kinetics of recently-isolated H3N8 virus from a nasal swab obtained from a sporadic case of natural infection in an unvaccinated horse from Montana, USA. The nasal swab tested positive for equine influenza by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)...
January 11, 2018: Viruses
Satoshi Komoto, Tomihiko Ide, Manami Negoro, Takaaki Tanaka, Kazutoyo Asada, Masakazu Umemoto, Haruo Kuroki, Hiroaki Ito, Shigeki Tanaka, Mitsue Ito, Saori Fukuda, Shigeru Suga, Hajime Kamiya, Takashi Nakano, Koki Taniguchi
The emergence and rapid spread of novel DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant rotaviruses having the equine-like G3 genotype (DS-1-like G3P[8] strains) have been recently reported from several countries. During rotavirus surveillance in Japan in 2015-2016, three DS-1-like G3P[8] strains were identified from children with severe diarrhea. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the full genomes of these three strains. On full-genomic analysis, all three strains showed a unique genotype constellation including both genogroup 1 and 2 genes: G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
G Farries, P A McGettigan, K F Gough, B A McGivney, D E MacHugh, L M Katz, E W Hill
Adaptation to early training and racing (i.e. precocity), which is highly variable in racing Thoroughbreds, has implications for the selection and training of horses. We hypothesised that precocity in Thoroughbred racehorses is heritable. Age at first sprint training session (work day), age at first race and age at best race were used as phenotypes to quantify precocity. Using high-density SNP array data, additive SNP heritability (hSNP2) was estimated to be 0.17, 0.14 and 0.17 for the three traits respectively...
December 12, 2017: Animal Genetics
Wakako Kikuchi, Toyoko Nakagomi, Punita Gauchan, Chantal Ama Agbemabiese, Atsuko Noguchi, Osamu Nakagomi, Tsutomu Takahashi
Equine-like G3P[8] rotavirus A strains with DS-1-like backbone genes have emerged since 2013. An equine-like RVA/Human-wt/JPN/15R429/2015/G3P[8] strain possessing I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 was detected in Japan in 2015. Its VP7 gene was ≥ 99.3% identical to those of equine-like G3P[4] strains detected in Japan, and the remaining 10 genes were 98.6-99.8% identical to G1P[8] double-gene reassortants detected in Japan, Thailand and the Philippines. Thus, 15R429 was likely generated through reassortment between the equine-like G3P[4] and G1P[8] reassortant strains...
March 2018: Archives of Virology
Jesse H Erasmus, Robert L Seymour, Jason T Kaelber, Dal Y Kim, Grace Leal, Michael B Sherman, Ilya Frolov, Wah Chiu, Scott C Weaver, Farooq Nasar
Most alphaviruses are mosquito borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates, including birds, rodents, equids, humans, and nonhuman primates. Recently, a host-restricted, mosquito-borne alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), was described with an inability to infect vertebrate cells based on defective attachment and/or entry, as well as a lack of genomic RNA replication. We investigated the utilization of EILV recombinant technology as a vaccine platform against eastern (EEEV) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV), two important pathogens of humans and domesticated animals...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Nadya Urakova, Valeriya Kuznetsova, David K Crossman, Arpine Sokratian, David B Guthrie, Alexander A Kolykhalov, Mark A Lockwood, Michael G Natchus, Michael R Crowley, George R Painter, Elena I Frolova, Ilya Frolov
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a representative member of the New World alphaviruses. It is transmitted by mosquito vectors and causes highly debilitating disease in humans, equides and other vertebrate hosts. Despite a continuous public health threat, very few compounds with anti-VEEV activity in cell culture and in mouse models have been identified to date, and rapid development of virus resistance to some of them has been recorded. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using a modified nucleoside analog, β-D-N(4)-hydroxycytidine (NHC), as an anti-VEEV agent and defined the mechanism of its anti-VEEV activity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
Charity Perkins, Slavica Mijatovic-Rustempasic, M Leanne Ward, Margaret M Cortese, Michael D Bowen
We report here the full coding region sequences for all 11 segments of the first equine-like G3P[8] rotavirus strain detected in the United States, strain RVA/Human-wt/USA/3000390639/2015/G3P[8]. The full genotype constellation of this strain is G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2.
November 22, 2017: Genome Announcements
Aaron W Kolb, Andrew C Lewin, Ralph Moeller Trane, Gillian J McLellan, Curtis R Brandt
BACKGROUND: The varicelloviruses comprise a genus within the alphaherpesvirus subfamily, and infect both humans and other mammals. Recently, next-generation sequencing has been used to generate genomic sequences of several members of the Varicellovirus genus. Here, currently available varicellovirus genomic sequences were used for phylogenetic, recombination, and genetic distance analysis. RESULTS: A phylogenetic network including genomic sequences of individual species, was generated and suggested a potential restriction between the ungulate and non-ungulate viruses...
November 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"