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Equine genome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702049/endurance-exercise-ability-in-the-horse-a-trait-with-complex-polygenic-determinism
#1
Anne Ricard, Céline Robert, Christine Blouin, Fanny Baste, Gwendoline Torquet, Caroline Morgenthaler, Julie Rivière, Nuria Mach, Xavier Mata, Laurent Schibler, Eric Barrey
Endurance horses are able to run at more than 20 km/h for 160 km (in bouts of 30-40 km). This level of performance is based on intense aerobic metabolism, effective body heat dissipation and the ability to endure painful exercise. The known heritabilities of endurance performance and exercise-related physiological traits in Arabian horses suggest that adaptation to extreme endurance exercise is influenced by genetic factors. The objective of the present genome-wide association study (GWAS) was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to endurance racing performance in 597 Arabian horses...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679463/expanded-equine-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-exhibit-higher-meiotic-competence-and-lower-glucose-consumption-than-compact-cumulus-oocyte-complexes
#2
L González-Fernández, M J Sánchez-Calabuig, M G Alves, P F Oliveira, S Macedo, A Gutiérrez-Adán, A Rocha, B Macías-García
Equine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) are classified as compact (cCOC) or expanded (eCOC) and vary in their meiotic competence. This difference could be related to divergent glucose metabolism. To test this hypothesis in the present study, eCOCs, cCOCs and expanded or compact mural granulosa cells (EC and CC respectively) were matured in vitro for 30h, at which time maturation rate, glucose metabolism and the expression of genes involved in glucose transport, glycolysis, apoptosis and meiotic competence were determined...
July 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676104/identification-of-long-non-coding-rna-in-the-horse-transcriptome
#3
E Y Scott, T Mansour, R R Bellone, C T Brown, M J Mienaltowski, M C Penedo, P J Ross, S J Valberg, J D Murray, C J Finno
BACKGROUND: Efforts to resolve the transcribed sequences in the equine genome have focused on protein-coding RNA. The transcription of the intergenic regions, although detected via total RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), has yet to be characterized in the horse. The most recent equine transcriptome based on RNA-seq from several tissues was a prime opportunity to obtain a concurrent long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) database. RESULTS: This lncRNA database has a breadth of eight tissues and a depth of over 20 million reads for select tissues, providing the deepest and most expansive equine lncRNA database...
July 4, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591825/corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-and-corticosterone-impair-development-of-preimplantation-embryos-by-inducing-oviductal-cell-apoptosis-via-activating-the-fas-system-an-in-vitro-study
#4
Xiu-Wen Tan, Chang-Li Ji, Liang-Liang Zheng, Jie Zhang, Hong-Jie Yuan, Shuai Gong, Jiang Zhu, Jing-He Tan
STUDY QUESTION: What are the mechanisms by which corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and corticosterone impair the development of preimplantation embryos in the oviduct. SUMMARY ANSWER: CRH and corticosterone do not affect preimplantation embryos directly, but impair their development indirectly by triggering apoptosis of oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) through activation of the Fas system. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies report that stress impairs embryo development with facilitated secretion of CRH and glucocorticoids...
June 7, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578629/chaetomiaceae-fungi-novel-pathogens-of-equine-neurotropic-phaeohyphomycosis
#5
Quinci Plumlee, Courtney Meason-Smith, Alexandra Dieterly, Gabriel Gomez, Brian F Porter, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann
Many previously unrecognized fungi are emerging as potential pathogens. One such group is dematiaceous fungi of the Chaetomiaceae family (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes). These fungi are rare causes of opportunistic, neurotropic phaeohyphomycosis in humans but are not known to cause similar infections in animals. The aims of this study were to investigate equine hyphal mycotic encephalitis, characterize key histopathologic features, and classify causative organisms with molecular diagnostic techniques...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508211/development-and-characterization-of-an-infectious-cdna-clone-of-equine-arteritis-virus
#6
Udeni B R Balasuriya, Jianqiang Zhang
Development and characterization of several infectious cDNA clones of equine arteritis virus (EAV) have been described in the literature. Here we describe the assembly of the full-length infectious cDNA clone of the virulent Bucyrus strain (VBS; ATCC VR-796) of EAV in a plasmid vector. This system allows generation of infectious in vitro-transcribed (IVT) RNA from the linearized plasmid that can be transfected or electroporated into mammalian cells to produce infectious recombinant progeny virus. This is an efficient reverse genetics system that allows easy manipulation of EAV genomes to study molecular biology of the virus and pathogenesis of equine viral arteritis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495781/draft-genome-sequence-of-lawsonia-intracellularis-strain-e40504-isolated-from-a-horse-diagnosed-with-equine-proliferative-enteropathy
#7
Nandita S Mirajkar, Molly R Kelley, Connie J Gebhart
Reported herein is the draft genome sequence of equine-origin Lawsonia intracellularis strain E40504, an obligate intracellular bacterium and the etiological agent of equine proliferative enteropathy. The 1.69-Mb draft genome sequence includes 1,380 protein-coding genes and 49 RNA genes, and it lacks a genomic island reported in swine-origin L. intracellularis strain PHE/MN1-00.
May 11, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461071/host-oxidative-folding-pathways-offer-novel-anti-chikungunya-virus-drug-targets-with-broad-spectrum-potential
#8
Rose M Langsjoen, Albert J Auguste, Shannan L Rossi, Christopher M Roundy, Heidy N Penate, Maria Kastis, Matthew K Schnizlein, Kevin C Le, Sherry L Haller, Rubing Chen, Stanley J Watowich, Scott C Weaver
Alphaviruses require conserved cysteine residues for proper folding and assembly of the E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, and likely depend on host protein disulfide isomerase-family enzymes (PDI) to aid in facilitating disulfide bond formation and isomerization in these proteins. Here, we show that in human HEK293 cells, commercially available inhibitors of PDI or modulators thereof (thioredoxin reductase, TRX-R; endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin-1, ERO-1) inhibit the replication of CHIKV chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in vitro in a dose-dependent manner...
April 28, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455133/development-and-application-of-a-quantitative-pcr-assay-to-study-equine-herpesvirus-5-invasion-and-replication-in-equine-tissues-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Lila M Zarski, Emily A High, Rahul K Nelli, Steven R Bolin, Kurt J Williams, Gisela Hussey
Equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5) infection is associated with pulmonary fibrosis in horses, but further studies on EHV-5 persistence in equine cells are needed to fully understand viral and host contributions to disease pathogenesis. Our aim was to develop a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to measure EHV-5 viral copy number in equine cell cultures, blood lymphocytes, and nasal swabs of horses. Furthermore, we used a recently developed equine primary respiratory cell culture system to study EHV-5 pathogenesis at the respiratory tract...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451902/genetic-characterization-of-equid-herpesvirus-type-1-from-cases-of-abortion-in-poland
#10
Karol Stasiak, Magdalena Dunowska, Simon F Hills, Jerzy Rola
Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a common viral infection associated with varied clinical outcomes including respiratory disease, abortion and neurological disease. We have characterized EHV-1 sequences (n = 38) obtained from cases of equine abortion in Poland between 1999 and 2016, based on sequencing of PCR products from open reading frames (ORF) 30 and 68 of the EHV-1 genome. The majority (81.6%) of sequences were not classified into any of the previously described groups based on the ORF68 sequence. The remaining sequences belonged to ORF68 group III (7...
April 27, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446152/differential-host-gene-responses-from-infection-with-neurovirulent-and-partially-neurovirulent-strains-of-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus
#11
Paridhi Gupta, Anuj Sharma, Jing Han, Amy Yang, Manish Bhomia, Barbara Knollmann-Ritschel, Raj K Puri, Radha K Maheshwari
BACKGROUND: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae. VEEV causes a bi-phasic illness in mice where primary replication in lymphoid organs is followed by entry into the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS phase of infection is marked by encephalitis and large scale neuronal death ultimately resulting in death. Molecular determinants of VEEV neurovirulence are not well understood. In this study, host gene expression response to highly neurovirulent VEEV (V3000 strain) infection was compared with that of a partially neurovirulent VEEV (V3034 strain) to identify host factors associated with VEEV neurovirulence...
April 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444912/whole-genome-sequencing-reveals-a-novel-deletion-variant-in-the-kit-gene-in-horses-with-white-spotted-coat-colour-phenotypes
#12
N Dürig, R Jude, H Holl, S A Brooks, C Lafayette, V Jagannathan, T Leeb
White spotting phenotypes in horses can range in severity from the common white markings up to completely white horses. EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3 and TRPM1 represent known candidate genes for such phenotypes in horses. For the present study, we re-investigated a large horse family segregating a variable white spotting phenotype, for which conventional Sanger sequencing of the candidate genes' individual exons had failed to reveal the causative variant. We obtained whole genome sequence data from an affected horse and specifically searched for structural variants in the known candidate genes...
April 26, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444202/application-of-genomic-estimation-methods-of-inbreeding-and-population-structure-in-an-arabian-horse-herd
#13
Mohammed A Al Abri, Uta König von Borstel, Veronique Strecker, Samantha A Brooks
Horse breeders rely heavily on pedigrees for identification of ancestry in breeding stock. Inaccurate pedigrees may erroneously assign individuals to false lineages or breed memberships resulting in wrong estimates of inbreeding and coancestry. Moreover, discrepancies in pedigree records can lead breeders seeking to limit inbreeding into making misguided breeding decisions. Genome-wide SNPs provide a quantitative tool to aid in the resolution of lineage assignments and the calculation of genomic measures of relatedness...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429732/long-term-stability-and-infectivity-of-herpesviruses-in-water
#14
Anisha Dayaram, Mathias Franz, Alexander Schattschneider, Armando M Damiani, Sebastian Bischofberger, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D Greenwood
For viruses to utilize environmental vectors (hard surfaces, soil, water) for transmission, physical and chemical stability is a prerequisite. There are many factors including pH, salinity, temperature, and turbidity that are known to contribute to the ability of viruses to persist in water. Equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) is a pathogenic alphaherpesvirus associated with domestic horses and wild equids. EHV-1 and recombinants of EHV-1 and EHV-9 are able to cause infections in non-equid animal species, particularly in captive settings...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425625/a-missense-mutation-in-damage-specific-dna-binding-protein-2-is-a-genetic-risk-factor-for-limbal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-horses
#15
Rebecca R Bellone, Jiayin Liu, Jessica L Petersen, Maura Mack, Moriel Singer-Berk, Cord Drögemüller, Julia Malvick, Barbara Wallner, Gottfried Brem, M Cecilia Penedo, Mary Lassaline
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common cancer of the equine eye, frequently originating at the limbus, with the potential to invade the cornea, cause visual impairment, and result in loss of the eye. Several breeds of horses have a high occurrence of limbal SCC implicating a genetic basis for limbal SCC predisposition. Pedigree analysis in the Haflinger breed supports a simple recessive mode of inheritance and a genome-wide association study (N = 23) identified a 1.5 Mb locus on ECA12 significantly associated with limbal SCC (Pcorrected = 0...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421046/horses-in-denmark-are-a-reservoir-of-diverse-clones-of-methicillin-resistant-and-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Md Zohorul Islam, Carmen Espinosa-Gongora, Peter Damborg, Raphael N Sieber, Rikke Munk, Louise Husted, Arshnee Moodley, Robert Skov, Jesper Larsen, Luca Guardabassi
Denmark is a country with high prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 in pigs. Even though pig farming is regarded as the main source of human infection or colonization with MRSA CC398, 10-15% of the human cases appear not to be linked to pigs. Following the recent reports of MRSA CC398 in horses in other European countries and the lack of knowledge on S. aureus carriage in this animal species, we carried out a study to investigate whether horses constitute a reservoir of MRSA CC398 in Denmark, and to gain knowledge on the frequency and genetic diversity of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414739/an-in-silico-pan-genomic-probe-for-the-molecular-traits-behind-lactobacillus-ruminis-gut-autochthony
#17
Ravi Kant, Airi Palva, Ingemar von Ossowski
As an ecological niche, the mammalian intestine provides the ideal habitat for a variety of bacterial microorganisms. Purportedly, some commensal genera and species offer a beneficial mix of metabolic, protective, and structural processes that help sustain the natural digestive health of the host. Among these sort of gut inhabitants is the Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus ruminis, a strict anaerobe with both pili and flagella on its cell surface, but also known for being autochthonous (indigenous) to the intestinal environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385832/draft-genome-sequences-of-two-clinical-isolates-of-burkholderia-mallei-obtained-from-nasal-swabs-of-glanderous-equines-in-india
#18
Harisankar Singha, Praveen Malik, Sheetal Saini, Sandip K Khurana, Mandy C Elschner, Katja Mertens, Stefanie A Barth, Bhupendra N Tripathi, Raj K Singh
Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative coccobacillus which causes glanders-a fatal disease of equines that may occasionally be transmitted to humans. Several cases of outbreaks have been reported from India since 2006. This paper presents draft genome sequences of two B. mallei strains isolated from equines affected by glanders in India.
April 6, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369330/comparative-genomics-of-rhodococcus-equi-virulence-plasmids-indicates-host-driven-evolution-of-the-vap-pathogenicity-island
#19
Iain MacArthur, Elisa Anastasi, Sonsiray Alvarez, Mariela Scortti, José A Vázquez-Boland
The conjugative virulence plasmid is a key component of the Rhodococcus equi accessory genome essential for pathogenesis. Three host-associated virulence plasmid types have been identified the equine pVAPA and porcine pVAPB circular variants, and the linear pVAPN found in bovine (ruminant) isolates. We recently characterized the R. equi pangenome (Anastasi E, et al. 2016. Pangenome and phylogenomic analysis of the pathogenic actinobacterium Rhodococcus equi. Genome Biol Evol. 8:3140-3148.) and we report here the comparative analysis of the virulence plasmid genomes...
May 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361880/genomic-structure-of-the-horse-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-ii-region-resolved-using-pacbio-long-read-sequencing-technology
#20
Agnese Viļuma, Sofia Mikko, Daniela Hahn, Loren Skow, Göran Andersson, Tomas F Bergström
The mammalian Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region contains several gene families characterized by highly polymorphic loci with extensive nucleotide diversity, copy number variation of paralogous genes, and long repetitive sequences. This structural complexity has made it difficult to construct a reliable reference sequence of the horse MHC region. In this study, we used long-read single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) to sequence eight Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones spanning the horse MHC class II region...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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