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Equine genome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919223/trpm2-snp-genotype-previously-associated-with-susceptibility-to-rhodococcus-equi-pneumonia-in-quarter-horse-foals-displays-differential-gene-expression-identified-using-rna-seq
#1
Cole M McQueen, Canaan M Whitfield-Cargile, Kranti Konganti, Glenn P Blodgett, Scott V Dindot, Noah D Cohen
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) is an intracellular bacterium that affects young foals and immuno-compromised individuals causing severe pneumonia. Currently, the genetic mechanisms that confer susceptibility and/or resistance to R. equi are not fully understood. Previously, using a SNP-based genome-wide association study, we identified a region on equine chromosome 26 associated with culture-confirmed clinical pneumonia. To better characterize this region and understand the function of the SNP located within TRPM2 that was associated with R...
December 5, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915089/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-parasitic-nematode-cylicocyclus-nassatus-and-comparative-analyses-with-cylicocyclus-insigne
#2
Yuan Gao, Jian-Hua Qiu, Bing-Bing Zhang, Xin Su, Xue Fu, Dong-Mei Yue, Chun-Ren Wang
Cylicocyclus nassatus is a common and important parasite in the large intestine of equine. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of C. nassatus was determined and comparatively analysed with Cylicocyclus insigne. The mt genome size of C. nassatus was 13,846 bp, 18 bp longer than that of C. insigne. The circular mt genome includes 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and two non-coding regions. All the genes are transcribed in the same direction and gene arrangement is consistent with that of gene arrangement 3 (GA3)...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908988/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-burkholderia-mallei-isolate-originating-from-a-glanderous-horse-from-the-kingdom-of-bahrain
#3
Mandy C Elschner, Prasad Thomas, Falk Melzer
Burkholderia mallei is a zoonotic agent causing glanders, a notifiable disease in equines. During the past decades glanders emerged, and the Kingdom of Bahrain reported outbreaks to the World Organization of Animal Health in 2010 and 2011. This paper presents the complete genome sequence of the Burkholderia mallei strain 11RR2811 Bahrain1.
December 1, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902376/detection-of-a-novel-equine-like-g3-rotavirus-associated-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-brazil
#4
Sylvia F S Guerra, Luana S Soares, Patrícia S Lobo, Edvaldo T Penha Júnior, Edivaldo C Sousa Júnior, Delana A M Bezerra, Lívia R Vaz, Alexandre C Linhares, Joana D P Mascarenhas
Genotype G3P[8] of rotavirus A (RVA) is detected worldwide, usually associated with Wa-like constellation and exhibiting a long RNA migration pattern. More recently, a novel intergenogroup, G3P[8] reassortant variant with a short electropherotype has emerged in Asia, Oceania and Europe, denoting an overall potential of unusual rotavirus strains. During a RVA surveillance in Brazil, G3P[8] strains were found displaying a short electropherotype pattern, which had not been detected before in this region. This study aims to characterize the complete genomes of 10 G3P[8] strains detected in Northern region of Brazil...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902371/mapping-b-lymphocytes-as-major-reservoirs-of-naturally-occurring-latent-equine-herpesvirus-5-infection
#5
Zelalem Mekuria, Charles El Hage, Nino P Ficorilli, Elizabeth A Washington, James R Gilkerson, Carol Hartley
Equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV5) is a commonly detected gammaherpesvirus which, along with the closely related EHV2, constitute the only two known Percaviruses that infect horses. Apart from detection in horse populations worldwide and the recent publication of the whole genome, there is little known about the biology and pathogenesis of this virus, with many assumptions made by parallels with EHV2. The long-term survival of gammaherpesviruses within infected hosts involves the establishment and maintenance of latency in selected cell and tissues types, particularly lymphocytes...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899161/multiple-molecular-detection-of-respiratory-viruses-and-associated-signs-of-airway-inflammation-in-racehorses
#6
Nadia Doubli-Bounoua, Eric A Richard, Albertine Léon, Pierre-Hugues Pitel, Stéphane Pronost, Guillaume Fortier
BACKGROUND: The potential involvement of viruses in inflammatory airway disease (IAD) was previously investigated through either serology or PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs (NS). The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and incidence of viral genome detection by qPCR in the equine airways, and their association with respiratory clinical signs. METHODS: Both NS and tracheal washes (TW) were collected monthly on 52 Standardbred racehorses at training, over 27 consecutive months (581 samples)...
November 29, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889800/polymorphism-at-expressed-dq-and-dr-loci-in-five-common-equine-mhc-haplotypes
#7
Donald Miller, Rebecca L Tallmadge, Matthew Binns, Baoli Zhu, Yasmin Ali Mohamoud, Ayeda Ahmed, Samantha A Brooks, Douglas F Antczak
The polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQ and DR genes in five common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) haplotypes was determined through sequencing of mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphocytes of eight ELA homozygous horses. Ten expressed MHC class II genes were detected in horses of the ELA-A3 haplotype carried by the donor horses of the equine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the reference genome sequence: four DR genes and six DQ genes. The other four ELA haplotypes contained at least eight expressed polymorphic MHC class II loci...
November 26, 2016: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882682/prevalence-of-equine-hepacivirus-infections-in-france-and-evidence-for-two-viral-subtypes-circulating-worldwide
#8
S Pronost, E Hue, C Fortier, M Foursin, G Fortier, F Desbrosse, F A Rey, P-H Pitel, E Richard, B Saunier
Like hepatitis C virus (HCV) in humans, the newly identified equine hepacivirus (NPHV) displays a predominating liver tropism that may evolve into chronic infections. The genomes of the two viruses share several organizational and functional features and are phylogenetically closest amongst the Hepacivirus genus. A limited amount of data is available regarding the spread of hepacivirus infections in horses. In this study, we asked whether in a more representative sample the prevalence and distribution of NPHV infections in France would resemble that reported so far in other countries...
November 24, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865864/construction-and-manipulation-of-a-full-length-infectious-bacterial-artificial-chromosome-clone-of-equine-herpesvirus-type-3-ehv-3
#9
Maksat Akhmedzhanov, Mariela Scrochi, Maria Barrandeguy, Aldana Vissani, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Armando Mario Damiani
Equine herpesvirus type 3 (EHV-3) is the causal agent of equine coital exanthema, a disease characterized by pox-like lesions on the penis of stallions and the vulva of mares. Although the complete genomic sequence of EHV-3 has been recently made available, its genomic content remains poorly characterized and the molecular mechanisms of disease development not yet elucidated. In an attempt to facilitate genetic manipulation of EHV-3, we describe here the construction of a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of EHV-3...
November 16, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832060/comparative-bioinformatics-analysis-of-transcription-factor-genes-indicates-conservation-of-key-regulatory-domains-among-babesia-bovis-babesia-microti-and-theileria-equi
#10
REVIEW
Heba F Alzan, Donald P Knowles, Carlos E Suarez
Apicomplexa tick-borne hemoparasites, including Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis, respectively. These parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate and tick hosts. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms used by these parasites for gene regulation remain. Regulatory genes coding for DNA binding proteins such as members of the Api-AP2, HMG, and Myb families are known to play crucial roles as transcription factors...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793082/dwarfism-with-joint-laxity-in-friesian-horses-is-associated-with-a-splice-site-mutation-in-b4galt7
#11
Peter A Leegwater, Manon Vos-Loohuis, Bart J Ducro, Iris J Boegheim, Frank G van Steenbeek, Isaac J Nijman, Glen R Monroe, John W M Bastiaansen, Bert W Dibbits, Leanne H van de Goor, Ids Hellinga, Willem Back, Anouk Schurink
BACKGROUND: Inbreeding and population bottlenecks in the ancestry of Friesian horses has led to health issues such as dwarfism. The limbs of dwarfs are short and the ribs are protruding inwards at the costochondral junction, while the head and back appear normal. A striking feature of the condition is the flexor tendon laxity that leads to hyperextension of the fetlock joints. The growth plates of dwarfs display disorganized and thickened chondrocyte columns. The aim of this study was to identify the gene defect that causes the recessively inherited trait in Friesian horses to understand the disease process at the molecular level...
October 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782799/novel-equine-tissue-mirnas-and-breed-related-mirna-expressed-in-serum
#12
Alicja Pacholewska, Núria Mach, Xavier Mata, Anne Vaiman, Laurent Schibler, Eric Barrey, Vincent Gerber
BACKGROUND: MiRNAs regulate multiple genes at the post-transcriptional level and therefore play an important role in many biological processes. It has been suggested that miRNA exported outside the cells contribute to inter-cellular communication. Consequently, circulating miRNAs are of particular interest and are promising biomarkers for many diseases. The number of miRNAs annotated in the horse genome is much lower compared to model organisms like human and mouse. We therefore aimed to identify novel equine miRNAs for tissue types and breed in serum...
October 26, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761717/filarial-infection-caused-by-onchocerca-boehmi-supperer-1953-in-a-horse-from-italy
#13
Riccardo Paolo Lia, Yasen Mutafchiev, Vincenzo Veneziano, Alessio Giannelli, Francesca Abramo, Mario Santoro, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Cinzia Cantacessi, Coralie Martin, Domenico Otranto, Andrea Bertuglia, Barbara Riccio
Equids can be infected by a range of skin-dwelling filarial nematodes, including four species of the genus Onchocerca. Current literature on equine onchocercosis is fragmentary and often limited to isolated case reports. The present study aimed to describe a clinical case of equine onchocercosis caused by Onchocerca boehmi (Supperer, 1953) (syn. Elaeophora boehmi) in an 8-year-old gelding Belgian show jumper from northern Italy. The horse was presented with a firm and painless mass on the proximal third of the right metacarpal region...
October 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706783/short-communication-quick-method-for-identifying-horse-equus-caballus-and-donkey-equus-asinus-hybrids
#14
M M Franco, J B F Santos, A S Mendonça, T C F Silva, R C Antunes, E O Melo
The domestication of the Equus genus 5000-6000 years ago has influenced the history of human civilization. As soon as horse and donkey species had been domesticated, they were crossbred, producing humanity's first documented attempt at animal genome manipulation. Since then, the mule (male donkey x female horse) and the reciprocal cross (the hinny, male horse x female donkey) have been the most common equine hybrids in the world. Due to their hybrid vigor, mules and hinnies have been intensively used for carrying loads and people and for tilling the land...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558120/a-real-time-rt-pcr-for-rapid-detection-and-quantification-of-mosquito-borne-alphaviruses
#15
Marilia Farignoli Romeiro, William Marciel de Souza, Aline Lavado Tolardo, Luiz Carlos Vieira, Dyana Alves Henriques, Jansen de Araujo, Carlos Eduardo Hassegawa Siqueira, Tatiana Elias Colombo, Victor Hugo Aquino, Benedito Antonio Lopes da Fonseca, Roberta Vieira de Morais Bronzoni, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Edison Luiz Durigon, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo
Mosquito-borne alphaviruses are widely distributed throughout the world, causing important human illnesses. Therefore, the development of methods to enable early diagnosis of infections by alphavirus is essential. We show here the development and evaluation of a quantitative real-time RT-PCR using genus-specific primers to the nsP1 viral gene of all mosquito-borne alphaviruses. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were tested using seven alphaviruses and RNA transcribed from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus...
November 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535044/equine-rhinitis-a-virus-mutants-with-altered-acid-resistance-unveil-a-key-role-of-vp3-and-intrasubunit-interactions-in-the-control-of-the-ph-stability-of-the-aphthovirus-capsid
#16
Flavia Caridi, Rodrigo Cañas-Arranz, Angela Vázquez-Calvo, Francisco Sobrino, Miguel A Martín-Acebes
: Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) is a picornavirus associated with respiratory disease in horses and is genetically closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the prototype aphthovirus. ERAV has recently gained interest as an FMDV alternative for the study of aphthovirus biology, including cell entry and uncoating or antiviral testing. As described for FMDV, current data support that acidic pH inside cellular endosomes triggers ERAV uncoating. In order to provide further insights into aphthovirus uncoating mechanism, we have isolated a panel of ERAV mutants with altered acid sensitivity and that differed on their degree of sensitivity to the inhibition of endosome acidification...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530432/beta-hemolytic-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-strains-isolated-from-horses-are-a-genetically-distinct-population-within-the-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-taxon
#17
Marcos D Pinho, Erdal Erol, Bruno Ribeiro-Gonçalves, Catarina I Mendes, João A Carriço, Sandra C Matos, Silvia Preziuso, Antina Luebke-Becker, Lothar H Wieler, Jose Melo-Cristino, Mario Ramirez
The pathogenic role of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae in the equine host is increasingly recognized. A collection of 108 Lancefield group C (n = 96) or L (n = 12) horse isolates recovered in the United States and in three European countries presented multilocus sequence typing (MLST) alleles, sequence types and emm types (only 56% of the isolates could be emm typed) that were, with few exceptions, distinct from those previously found in human Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509095/new-world-and-old-world-alphaviruses-have-evolved-to-exploit-different-components-of-stress-granules-fxr-and-g3bp-proteins-for-assembly-of-viral-replication-complexes
#18
Dal Young Kim, Josephine M Reynaud, Aliaksandra Rasalouskaya, Ivan Akhrymuk, James A Mobley, Ilya Frolov, Elena I Frolova
The positive-strand RNA viruses initiate their amplification in the cell from a single genome delivered by virion. This single RNA molecule needs to become involved in replication process before it is recognized and degraded by cellular machinery. In this study, we show that distantly related New World and Old World alphaviruses have independently evolved to utilize different cellular stress granule-related proteins for assembly of complexes, which recruit viral genomic RNA and facilitate formation of viral replication complexes (vRCs)...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451102/estrogens-and-coronary-artery-disease-new-clinical-perspectives
#19
M R Meyer, M Barton
In premenopausal women, endogenous estrogens are associated with reduced prevalence of arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Clinical trials conducted in the 1990s such as HERS, WHI, and WISDOM have shown that postmenopausal treatment with horse hormone mixtures (so-called conjugated equine estrogens) and synthetic progestins adversely affects female cardiovascular health. Our understanding of rapid (nongenomic) and chronic (genomic) estrogen signaling has since advanced considerably, including identification of a new G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), which like the "classical" receptors ERα and ERβ is highly abundant in the cardiovascular system...
2016: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442883/african-horse-sickness-caused-by-genome-reassortment-and-reversion-to-virulence-of-live-attenuated-vaccine-viruses-south-africa-2004-2014
#20
Camilla T Weyer, John D Grewar, Phillippa Burger, Esthea Rossouw, Carina Lourens, Christopher Joone, Misha le Grange, Peter Coetzee, Estelle Venter, Darren P Martin, N James MacLachlan, Alan J Guthrie
African horse sickness (AHS) is a hemorrhagic viral fever of horses. It is the only equine disease for which the World Organization for Animal Health has introduced specific guidelines for member countries seeking official recognition of disease-free status. Since 1997, South Africa has maintained an AHS controlled area; however, sporadic outbreaks of AHS have occurred in this area. We compared the whole genome sequences of 39 AHS viruses (AHSVs) from field AHS cases to determine the source of 3 such outbreaks...
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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