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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792237/according-to-mitochondrial-dna-evidence-parascaris-equorum-and-parascaris-univalens-may-represent-the-same-species
#1
J F Gao, X X Zhang, X X Wang, Q Li, Y Li, W W Xu, Y Gao, C R Wang
Parascarosis is caused mainly by parasitic infections with Parascaris equorum and Parascaris univalens, the most common ascarid nematodes, in the small intestine of equines. Parascarosis often causes severe illness and even death in foals and yearlings. In this study, we obtained the complete sequence of the P. equorum mitochondrial (mt) genome and compared its organization and structure with that of P. equorum Japan isolate (nearly complete), and the complete mtDNA sequences of P. univalens Switzerland and USA isolates...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778182/evidence-for-involvement-of-the-fas-bcax-regulon-in-capsule-synthesis-by-streptococcus-equi
#2
Sridhar Velineni, John F Timoney
The constitutively expressed hyaluronic acid capsule is an important virulence factor of Streptococcus equi, the cause of equine strangles. Study of the genomic sequence of CF22caps-, a non-encapsulated mutant of S. equi CF22 generated by gamma (Co60 ) irradiation revealed a non-sense mutation in fasC (SEQ_0302), a sensor kinase gene in FasBCAX an operon with an important regulatory role in expression of streptococcal secreted virulence and matrix binding proteins. The mutation was associated with a significant (p < ...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765033/an-epizootic-of-chlamydia-psittaci-equine-reproductive-loss-associated-with-suspected-spillover-from-native-australian-parrots
#3
Cheryl Jenkins, Martina Jelocnik, Melinda L Micallef, Francesca Galea, Alyce Taylor-Brown, Daniel R Bogema, Michael Liu, Brendon O'Rourke, Catherine Chicken, Joan Carrick, Adam Polkinghorne
Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen capable of spill-over infections to humans. A parrot C. psittaci strain was recently detected in an equine reproductive loss case associated with a subsequent cluster of human C. psittaci infections. In this study, we screened for C. psittaci in cases of equine reproductive loss reported in regional New South Wales, Australia during the 2016 foaling season. C. psittaci specific-PCR screening of foetal and placental tissue samples from cases of equine abortion (n = 161) and foals with compromised health status (n = 38) revealed C...
May 16, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752558/equine-infectious-anemia-virus-in-naturally-infected-horses-from-the-brazilian-pantanal
#4
Andreia Elisa Cursino, Ana Paula Pessoa Vilela, Ana Paula Moreira Franco-Luiz, Jaquelline Germano de Oliveira, Márcia Furlan Nogueira, João Pessoa Araújo Júnior, Daniel Moura de Aguiar, Erna Geessien Kroon
Equine infectious anemia (EIA) has a worldwide distribution, and is widespread in Brazil. The Brazilian Pantanal presents with high prevalence comprising equine performance and indirectly the livestock industry, since the horses are used for cattle management. Although EIA is routinely diagnosed by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), this serological assay has some limitations, so PCR-based detection methods have the potential to overcome these limitations and act as complementary tests to those currently used...
May 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745869/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-togaviridae
#5
Rubing Chen, Suchetana Mukhopadhyay, Andres Merits, Bethany Bolling, Farooq Nasar, Lark L Coffey, Ann Powers, Scott C Weaver, Ictv Report Consortium
The Togaviridae is a family of small, enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of 10-12 kb. Within the family, the genus Alphavirus includes a large number of diverse species, while the genus Rubivirus includes the single species Rubella virus. Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and are pathogenic in their vertebrate hosts. Many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. chikungunya virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus). Rubella virus is transmitted by respiratory routes among humans...
May 10, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743377/equine-myxovirus-resistance-protein-2-restricts-lentiviral-replication-by-blocking-nuclear-uptake-of-capsid-protein
#6
Shuang Ji, Lei Na, Huiling Ren, Yujie Wang, Xiaojun Wang
Human Myxovirus resistance 2 (huMxB) has been shown to be a determinant type I interferon-induced host factor involved in the inhibition of HIV-1 as well as many other primate lentiviruses. This blocking occurs after the reverse transcription of viral RNA and ahead of the integration into the host DNA, which is closely connected to the ability of the protein to bind the viral capsid. To date, Mx2s derived from non-primate animals have shown no capacity for HIV-1 suppression. In this study, we examined the restrictive effect of equine Mx2 (eqMx2) on both the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and HIV-1 and investigated possible mechanisms for its specific function...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740610/improved-de-novo-genomic-assembly-for-the-domestic-donkey
#7
Gabriel Renaud, Bent Petersen, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Mads Frost Bertelsen, Andrew Waller, Richard Newton, Romain Paillot, Neil Bryant, Mark Vaudin, Pablo Librado, Ludovic Orlando
Donkeys and horses share a common ancestor dating back to about 4 million years ago. Although a high-quality genome assembly at the chromosomal level is available for the horse, current assemblies available for the donkey are limited to moderately sized scaffolds. The absence of a better-quality assembly for the donkey has hampered studies involving the characterization of patterns of genetic variation at the genome-wide scale. These range from the application of genomic tools to selective breeding and conservation to the more fundamental characterization of the genomic loci underlying speciation and domestication...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678910/serotype-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-patients-at-an-equine-referral-hospital
#8
I M Leon, S D Lawhon, K N Norman, D S Threadgill, N Ohta, J Vinasco, H M Scott
Although Salmonella enterica can produce life-threatening colitis in horses, certain serotypes are more commonly associated with clinical disease. Our aim was to evaluate the proportional morbidity attributed to different serotypes, as well as phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital in the southern United States. Two-hundred-fifty-five Salmonella isolates were obtained from clinical samples of patients admitted to the hospital between 2007 and 2015...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658859/identification-and-genetic-characterization-of-equine-pegivirus-in-china
#9
Weiping Tang, Naling Zhu, Haiying Wang, Youwen Gao, Zhengwei Wan, Qundi Cai, Shouyi Yu, Shixing Tang
In 2013, two new viruses, equine pegivirus (EPgV) and Theiler's disease-associated virus (TDAV), both belonging to the genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae, were identified. To investigate the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of these two viruses in China, we screened EPgV and TDAV infection in imported race horses and Chinese work horses by using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). EPgV was detected in 10.8 % (8/74) of the total horses tested, with a prevalence of 5...
April 16, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627335/on-site-detection-of-equid-alphaherpesvirus-3-in-perineal-and-genital-swabs-of-mares-and-stallions
#10
M A Vissani, M S Tordoya, Y-L Tsai, P-Y A Lee, Y-H Shen, F-C Lee, H-T T Wang, V Parreño, M Barrandeguy
Equine coital exanthema (ECE) is an infectious, venereally transmitted muco-cutaneous disease affecting mares and stallions, caused by equid alphaherpesvirus 3 (EHV3). Diagnostic tools for rapid identification of EHV3 are of primary importance to diminish the risk of EHV3 dissemination at the time of breeding. In the last years, it has been shown that the performance of the insulated-isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) is comparable to virus isolation, nested PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR) in detecting pathogens of various animal species...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618651/large-scale-complete-genome-sequencing-and-phylodynamic-analysis-of-eastern-equine-encephalitis-virus-reveal-source-sink-transmission-dynamics-in-the-united-states
#11
Yi Tan, Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Lea A Heberlein-Larson, Sandra C Smole, Albert J Auguste, Scott Hennigan, Rebecca A Halpin, Nadia Fedorova, Vinita Puri, Timothy B Stockwell, Meghan H Shilts, Theodore Andreadis, Philip M Armstrong, Robert B Tesh, Scott C Weaver, Thomas R Unnasch, Alexander T Ciota, Laura D Kramer, Suman R Das
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) has a high case-fatality rate in horses and humans, and Florida has been hypothesized to be the source of EEEV epidemics for the northeastern U.S. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced complete genomes of 433 EEEV strains collected within the U.S. from 1934 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis suggested EEEV evolves relatively slowly and that transmission is enzootic in Florida, characterized by higher genetic diversity and long-term local persistence. In contrast, EEEV in New York and Massachusetts were characterized by lower genetic diversity, multiple introductions, and shorter local persistence...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618647/identification-of-the-rna-pseudoknot-within-the-3-end-of-prrsv-genome-as-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-to-activate-antiviral-signaling-via-rig-i-and-tlr3
#12
Sha Xie, Xin-Xin Chen, Songlin Qiao, Rui Li, Yangang Sun, Shuangfei Xia, Lin-Jian Wang, Xuegang Luo, Ruiguang Deng, En-Min Zhou, Gai-Ping Zhang
Once infected by viruses, cells can detect pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on viral nucleic acid by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate the antiviral response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by reproductive failure in sows and respiratory diseases in pigs of different ages. To date, the sensing mechanism of PRRSV has not been elucidated. Here, we reported that the pseudoknot region residing in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of PRRSV genome, which has been proposed to regulate RNA synthesis and virus replication, was sensed as non-self by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Toll like receptor (TLR3) and strongly induced type I IFNs and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614325/equine-like-g3-rotavirus-strains-as-predominant-strains-among-children-in-indonesia-in-2015-2016
#13
Takako Utsumi, Rury Mega Wahyuni, Yen Hai Doan, Zayyin Dinana, Soegeng Soegijanto, Yoshiki Fujii, Juniastuti, Laura Navika Yamani, Chieko Matsui, Lin Deng, Takayuki Abe, Soetjipto, Maria Inge Lusida, Koji Ishii, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Kazuhiko Katayama, Ikuo Shoji
Rotavirus A (RVA) is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans and animals worldwide. As a result of the segmented nature of the rotavirus genome, genetic reassortment commonly occurs. This study aims to clarify the genetic characteristics of RVAs circulating in Indonesia. From June 2015 through August 2016, stool samples were collected from 134 children aged <5 years (71 male and 63 female) with acute gastroenteritis who were inpatients at a private hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia. All stool samples were screened for RVA antigen using immunochromatography...
March 31, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594155/effect-of-a-histone-demethylase-inhibitor-on-equine-herpesvirus-1-activity-in-vitro
#14
Rebecca L Tallmadge, Emilija Žygelytė, Gerlinde R Van de Walle, Thomas M Kristie, M Julia B Felippe
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a ubiquitous and highly contagious pathogen that causes a range of disease severities with outbreaks of notable economic impact. Given the limitations in immune protection of current vaccines and the limited effectiveness of antiviral drugs on EHV-1 infections in vivo , improved treatment measures are needed to control disease. The use of drugs that alter the epigenetic state of herpes simplex virus genome has been shown to limit viral primary infection and reactivation both in vitro and in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593445/effect-of-selection-for-eventing-on-the-mstn-gene-in-brazilian-sport-horses
#15
Felipe Gomes Ferreira Padilha, Kênia Balbi El-Jaick, Liane de Castro, Aline Dos Santos Moreira, Ana Maria Reis Ferreira
Polymorphisms in MSTN have previously been associated with equine performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify variants in MSTN intron 1 in 16 Brazilian Sport Horses selected for competition in eventing and their possible effects of selection on performance. Among the nine variants identified, eight had already been reported in previous studies or genomic databases, although they showed differences in frequencies when compared with other horse breeds. Moreover, a new mutation was identified in two horses, both in heterozygous form...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584782/genomic-diversity-of-taylorella-equigenitalis-introduced-into-the-united-states-from-1978-to-2012
#16
Jessica Hicks, Tod Stuber, Kristina Lantz, Matthew Erdman, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Xiaoqiu Huang
Contagious equine metritis is a disease of worldwide concern in equids. The United States is considered to be free of the disease although sporadic outbreaks have occurred over the last few decades that were thought to be associated with the importation of horses. The objective of this study was to create finished, reference quality genomes that characterize the diversity of Taylorella equigenitalis isolates introduced into the USA, and identify their differences. Five isolates of T. equigenitalis associated with introductions into the USA from unique sources were sequenced using both short and long read chemistries allowing for complete assembly and annotation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567739/complete-genomic-sequences-of-h3n8-equine-influenza-virus-strains-used-as-vaccine-strains-in-japan
#17
Manabu Nemoto, Takashi Yamanaka, Hiroshi Bannai, Koji Tsujimura, Hiroshi Kokado
We sequenced the eight segments of influenza A virus strains A/equine/Ibaraki/1/2007 and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010, which are strains of the Florida sublineage clades 1 and 2 of the H3N8 subtype equine influenza virus. These strains have been used as vaccine strains in Japan since 2016 in accordance with World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recommendations.
March 22, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544443/alternative-splicing-after-gene-duplication-drives-ceacam1-paralog-diversification-in-the-horse
#18
Sophie Mißbach, Denis Aleksic, Lisa Blaschke, Timm Hassemer, Kyung Jin Lee, Martin Mansfeld, Jana Hänske, Johannes Handler, Robert Kammerer
BACKGROUND: The CEA gene family is one of the most rapidly evolving gene families in the human genome. The founder gene of the family is thought to be an ancestor of the inhibitory immune checkpoint molecule CEACAM1. Comprehensive analyses of mammalian genomes showed that the CEA gene family is subject to tremendous gene family expansion and contraction events in different mammalian species. While in some species (e.g. rabbits) less than three CEACAM1 related genes exist, were in others (certain microbat species) up to 100 CEACAM1 paralogs identified...
March 15, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534788/implication-of-transcriptome-profiling-of-spermatozoa-for-stallion-fertility
#19
Yara Suliman, Frank Becker, Klaus Wimmers
Poor fertility of breeding stallions is a recognised problem in the equine industry. The aim of the present study was to detect molecular pathways using two groups of stallions that differed in pregnancy rates as well as in the proportion of normal and motile spermatozoa. RNA was isolated from spermatozoa of each stallion and microarray data were analysed to obtain a list of genes for which transcript abundance differed between the groups (P ≤0.05, fold change ≥1.2). In all, there were 437 differentially expressed (DE) genes between the two groups (P ≤ 0...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510741/a-missense-mutation-in-myh1-is-associated-with-susceptibility-to-immune-mediated-myositis-in-quarter-horses
#20
Carrie J Finno, Giuliana Gianino, Sudeep Perumbakkam, Zoë J Williams, Matthew H Bordbari, Keri L Gardner, Erin Burns, Sichong Peng, Sian A Durward-Akhurst, Stephanie J Valberg
BACKGROUND: The cause of immune-mediated myositis (IMM), characterized by recurrent, rapid-onset muscle atrophy in Quarter Horses (QH), is unknown. The histopathologic hallmark of IMM is lymphocytic infiltration of myofibers. The purpose of this study was to identify putative functional variants associated with equine IMM. METHODS: A genome-wide association (GWA) study was performed on 36 IMM QHs and 54 breed matched unaffected QHs from the same environment using the Equine SNP50 and SNP70 genotyping arrays...
March 6, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
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