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Equine genome

Riccardo Paolo Lia, Yasen Mutafchiev, Vincenzo Veneziano, Alessio Giannelli, Francesca Abramo, Mario Santoro, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Cinzia Cantacessi, Coralie Martin, Domenico Otranto, Andrea Bertuglia, Barbara Riccio
Equids can be infected by a range of skin-dwelling filarial nematodes, including four species of the genus Onchocerca. Current literature on equine onchocercosis is fragmentary and often limited to isolated case reports. The present study aimed to describe a clinical case of equine onchocercosis caused by Onchocerca boehmi (Supperer, 1953) (syn. Elaeophora boehmi) in an 8-year-old gelding Belgian show jumper from northern Italy. The horse was presented with a firm and painless mass on the proximal third of the right metacarpal region...
October 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
M M Franco, J B F Santos, A S Mendonça, T C F Silva, R C Antunes, E O Melo
The domestication of the Equus genus 5000-6000 years ago has influenced the history of human civilization. As soon as horse and donkey species had been domesticated, they were crossbred, producing humanity's first documented attempt at animal genome manipulation. Since then, the mule (male donkey x female horse) and the reciprocal cross (the hinny, male horse x female donkey) have been the most common equine hybrids in the world. Due to their hybrid vigor, mules and hinnies have been intensively used for carrying loads and people and for tilling the land...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Marilia Farignoli Romeiro, William Marciel de Souza, Aline Lavado Tolardo, Luiz Carlos Vieira, Dyana Alves Henriques, Jansen de Araujo, Carlos Eduardo Hassegawa Siqueira, Tatiana Elias Colombo, Victor Hugo Aquino, Benedito Antonio Lopes da Fonseca, Roberta Vieira de Morais Bronzoni, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Edison Luiz Durigon, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo
Mosquito-borne alphaviruses are widely distributed throughout the world, causing important human illnesses. Therefore, the development of methods to enable early diagnosis of infections by alphavirus is essential. We show here the development and evaluation of a quantitative real-time RT-PCR using genus-specific primers to the nsP1 viral gene of all mosquito-borne alphaviruses. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were tested using seven alphaviruses and RNA transcribed from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus...
November 2016: Archives of Virology
Flavia Caridi, Rodrigo Cañas-Arranz, Angela Vázquez-Calvo, Francisco Sobrino, Miguel A Martín-Acebes
: Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) is a picornavirus associated with respiratory disease in horses and is genetically closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the prototype aphthovirus. ERAV has recently gained interest as an FMDV alternative for the study of aphthovirus biology, including cell entry and uncoating or antiviral testing. As described for FMDV, current data support that acidic pH inside cellular endosomes triggers ERAV uncoating. In order to provide further insights into aphthovirus uncoating mechanism, we have isolated a panel of ERAV mutants with altered acid sensitivity and that differed on their degree of sensitivity to the inhibition of endosome acidification...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Marcos D Pinho, Erdal Erol, Bruno Ribeiro-Gonçalves, Catarina I Mendes, João A Carriço, Sandra C Matos, Silvia Preziuso, Antina Luebke-Becker, Lothar H Wieler, Jose Melo-Cristino, Mario Ramirez
The pathogenic role of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae in the equine host is increasingly recognized. A collection of 108 Lancefield group C (n = 96) or L (n = 12) horse isolates recovered in the United States and in three European countries presented multilocus sequence typing (MLST) alleles, sequence types and emm types (only 56% of the isolates could be emm typed) that were, with few exceptions, distinct from those previously found in human Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Dal Young Kim, Josephine M Reynaud, Aliaksandra Rasalouskaya, Ivan Akhrymuk, James A Mobley, Ilya Frolov, Elena I Frolova
The positive-strand RNA viruses initiate their amplification in the cell from a single genome delivered by virion. This single RNA molecule needs to become involved in replication process before it is recognized and degraded by cellular machinery. In this study, we show that distantly related New World and Old World alphaviruses have independently evolved to utilize different cellular stress granule-related proteins for assembly of complexes, which recruit viral genomic RNA and facilitate formation of viral replication complexes (vRCs)...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
M R Meyer, M Barton
In premenopausal women, endogenous estrogens are associated with reduced prevalence of arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Clinical trials conducted in the 1990s such as HERS, WHI, and WISDOM have shown that postmenopausal treatment with horse hormone mixtures (so-called conjugated equine estrogens) and synthetic progestins adversely affects female cardiovascular health. Our understanding of rapid (nongenomic) and chronic (genomic) estrogen signaling has since advanced considerably, including identification of a new G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), which like the "classical" receptors ERα and ERβ is highly abundant in the cardiovascular system...
2016: Advances in Pharmacology
Camilla T Weyer, John D Grewar, Phillippa Burger, Esthea Rossouw, Carina Lourens, Christopher Joone, Misha le Grange, Peter Coetzee, Estelle Venter, Darren P Martin, N James MacLachlan, Alan J Guthrie
African horse sickness (AHS) is a hemorrhagic viral fever of horses. It is the only equine disease for which the World Organization for Animal Health has introduced specific guidelines for member countries seeking official recognition of disease-free status. Since 1997, South Africa has maintained an AHS controlled area; however, sporadic outbreaks of AHS have occurred in this area. We compared the whole genome sequences of 39 AHS viruses (AHSVs) from field AHS cases to determine the source of 3 such outbreaks...
December 15, 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Changqing Li, Yannick Debing, Gytis Jankevicius, Johan Neyts, Ivan Ahel, Bruno Coutard, Bruno Canard
UNLABELLED: ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational protein modification in which ADP-ribose is transferred from NAD(+) to specific acceptors to regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. The macro domain is an ancient and highly evolutionarily conserved protein domain widely distributed throughout all kingdoms of life, including viruses. The human TARG1/C6orf130, MacroD1, and MacroD2 proteins can reverse ADP-ribosylation by acting on ADP-ribosylated substrates through the hydrolytic activity of their macro domains...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Adiljan Kader, Xuexue Liu, Kunzhe Dong, Shen Song, Jianfei Pan, Min Yang, Xiaofei Chen, Xiaohong He, Lin Jiang, Yuehui Ma
Copy number variation (CNV), an essential form of genetic variation, has been increasingly recognized as one promising genetic marker in the analysis of animal genomes. Here, we used the Equine 70K single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array for the genome-wide detection of CNVs in 96 horses from three diverse Chinese breeds: Debao pony (DB), Mongolian horse (MG) and Yili horse (YL). A total of 287 CNVs were determined and merged into 122 CNV regions (CNVRs) ranging from 199 bp to 2344 kb in size and distributed in a heterogeneous manner on chromosomes...
October 2016: Animal Genetics
Rachael E Tarlinton, Lauren Alder, Joanna Moreton, Grazieli Maboni, Richard D Emes, Sabine Tötemeyer
BACKGROUND: Toll like receptors are one of the major innate immune system pathogen recognition systems. There is little data on the expression of the TLR10 member of this family in the horse. RESULTS: This paper describes the genetic structure of the Equine TLR10 gene and its RNA expression in a range of horse tissues. It describes the phylogenetic analysis of the Equine TLR1,6,10,2 annotations in the horse genome, firmly identifying them in their corresponding gene clades compared to other species and firmly placing the horse gene with other TLR10 genes from odd-toed ungulates...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Aijiang Guo
The 2 species of the genus Anoplocephala (Anoplocephalidae), A. perfoliata and A. magna, are among the most important equine cestode parasites. However, there is little information about their differences at the molecular level. The present study revealed that the mitochondrial (mt) genome of A. magna was 13,759 bp in size and 700 bp shorter than that of A. perfoliata. The 2 species includes 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, and 12 protein-coding genes each. The size of each of the 36 genes was the same as that of A. perfoliata, except for cox1, rrnL, trnC, trnS2(UCN), trnG, trnH, trnQ, and trnP...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Yoshiko Nakagawa, Tetsushi Sakuma, Norihisa Nishimichi, Yasuyuki Yokosaki, Noriyuki Yanaka, Toru Takeo, Naomi Nakagata, Takashi Yamamoto
Current advances in producing genetically modified mice using genome-editing technologies have indicated the need for improvement of limiting factors including zygote collection for microinjection and their cryopreservation. Recently, we developed a novel superovulation technique using inhibin antiserum and equine chorionic gonadotropin to promote follicle growth. This method enabled the increased production of fertilized oocytes via in vitro fertilization compared with the conventional superovulation method...
2016: Biology Open
Yan-Dong Tang, Xiang Zhang, Lei Na, Xue-Feng Wang, Li-Hua Fu, Chun-Hui Zhu, Xiaojun Wang, Jian-Hua Zhou
Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a member of the genus Lentivirus of the family Retroviridae. Horses are the most susceptible equids to EIAV infection and are therefore the primary hosts of this virus. In contrast, infected donkeys do not develop clinically active equine infectious anemia (EIA). This phenomenon is similar to what has been observed with HIV-1, which fails to induce AIDS in non-human primates. Interestingly, Shen et al. developed a donkey-tropic pathogenic virus strain (EIAVDV117, DV117) by serially passaging a horse-tropic pathogenic strain, EIAVLN40 (LN40), in donkeys...
October 2016: Archives of Virology
Ainara Arana, Milagrosa Montes, Khuzwayo C Jere, Miriam Alkorta, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Gustavo Cilla
In March 2015, an atypical G3P[8] rotavirus with an equine-like VP7 gene was detected in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain) and spread contributing significantly to the seasonal epidemic. The strain was identified in fecal samples collected from 68 patients, mainly children from rural and urban settings with acute gastroenteritis, representing 14.9% of the 455 rotavirus strains genotyped between July 2014 and June 2015. Seven patients (10.3%) were hospitalized. Full genome analysis of six of these strains revealed a DS-1-like genotype constellation, G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2, and showed that most genome segments shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity with strains isolated in Japan, Thailand, Australia and the Philippines...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Renáta Dóró, Szilvia Marton, Anett Horváth Bartókné, György Lengyel, Zsófia Agócs, Ferenc Jakab, Krisztián Bányai
Novel, intergenogroup reassortant G3 rotavirus strains are spreading in at least three continents: Asia, Australia, and Europe. The present study provides evidence that a closely related G3P[8] strain circulated in Hungary during 2015. Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the identified strain continues to evolve by reassortment. This observation demonstrates the genomic plasticity of the novel strain, which is thought to be a prerequisite of the success of emerging rotavirus genotypes...
June 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Maren Gottschalk, Julia Metzger, Gunilla Martinsson, Harald Sieme, Ottmar Distl
We performed a genome-wide association study for semen quality traits in 139 German Warmblood stallions. Stallions were genotyped using the Illumina equine SNP50 Beadchip. Traits analysed were de-regressed estimated breeding values (EBVs) for gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility and the total number of progressively motile sperm. The GWAS revealed 29 SNPs on 12 different chromosomes as genome-wide significantly associated with semen quality traits. For ten genomic regions we could retrieve candidate genes influencing stallion fertility...
August 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Reed S Shabman, Susmita Shrivastava, Tshidi Tsibane, Oliver Attie, Anitha Jayaprakash, Chad E Mire, Kari E Dilley, Vinita Puri, Timothy B Stockwell, Thomas W Geisbert, Ravi Sachidanandam, Christopher F Basler
While employing deep sequencing and de novo assembly to characterize the mRNA transcript profile of a cell line derived from the microbat Myotis velifer incautus, we serendipitously identified mRNAs encoding proteins with a high level of identity to herpesviruses. A majority were closely related to proteins of equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2), a horse gammaherpesvirus. We demonstrated by electron microscopy the presence of herpesvirus-like particles in the microbat cells. Passage of supernatants from microbat cells to Vero cells resulted in syncytium formation, and expression of viral genes and amplification of viral DNA were demonstrated by quantitative PCR...
January 2016: MSphere
V Julliand, P Grimm
In the early 1990s, the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem looked like a "black box." Its vital role in hydrolyzing and fermenting fiber, thus providing energy to the host, was recognized. Although there was a critical lack of information on the hindgut microbes, their role in preventing intestinal diseases was suggested. Traditionally, the microbes of the horse hindgut were studied using culture-dependent techniques. More recently, culture-independent methods have been used and provided further insight. This review presents the history and updated knowledge regarding the microbes that live inside the different intestinal ecosystems and which collective genomes compose the hindgut microbiome...
June 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Valeria Lulla, Aleksei Lulla, Kerstin Wernike, Andrea Aebischer, Martin Beer, Polly Roy
UNLABELLED: African horse sickness virus (AHSV), an orbivirus in the Reoviridae family with nine different serotypes, causes devastating disease in equids. The virion particle is composed of seven proteins organized in three concentric layers, an outer layer made of VP2 and VP5, a middle layer made of VP7, and inner layer made of VP3 that encloses a replicase complex of VP1, VP4, and VP6 and a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments. In this study, we sought to develop highly efficacious candidate vaccines against all AHSV serotypes, taking into account not only immunogenic and safety properties but also virus productivity and stability parameters, which are essential criteria for vaccine candidates...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
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