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Inflammatory bowel disease

Jeremy A Goettel, Roopali Gandhi, Jessica E Kenison, Ada Yeste, Gopal Murugaiyan, Sharmila Sambanthamoorthy, Alexandra E Griffith, Bonny Patel, Dror S Shouval, Howard L Weiner, Scott B Snapper, Francisco J Quintana
Existing therapies for inflammatory bowel disease that are based on broad suppression of inflammation result in variable clinical benefit and unwanted side effects. A potential therapeutic approach for promoting immune tolerance is the in vivo induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we report that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor using the non-toxic agonist 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) induces human Tregs in vitro that suppress effector T cells through a mechanism mediated by CD39 and Granzyme B...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Marina Aparicio-Soto, Marina Sánchez-Hidalgo, Ma Ángeles Rosillo, Ma Luisa Castejón, Catalina Alarcón-de-la-Lastra
Nowadays, it is clear that an unhealthy diet is one of the prime factors that contributes to the rise of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity in the populations of both developed and developing countries. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced incidence of certain pathologies related to chronic inflammation and the immune system. Olive oil, the principal source of dietary lipids of the Mediterranean diet, possesses a high nutritional quality and a particular composition, which is especially relevant in the case of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO)...
October 26, 2016: Food & Function
Aliza B Solomon, Rachel Reed, Keith Benkov, Joseph Kingsbery, Sarah S Lusman, Lisa B Malter, Jeremiah Levine, Simon Rabinowitz, Martin Wolff, Sondra Zabar, Elizabeth Weinshel
BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has described six core competencies with which trainees should demonstrate proficiency. Using the Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE), we aimed to assess four of these competencies among Pediatric GI fellows (PG). METHODS: Eight first-year PG's from six medical centers in the New York area participated in a four-station OSCE with trained standardized patient (SP) actors. The cases included an "ED Consult" for lower GI bleeding; "Breaking Bad News" focusing on CF nutritional complications; "Second Opinion" for abdominal pain; "Transition of Care" for inflammatory bowel disease...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Kari Skrautvol, Dagfinn Nåden
People living with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experienced that knowledge about their embodied tolerance limits, diet, mental problem solving, and change in lifestyle together with integrative health care could promote recovery from their diagnosed disease in calmer periods of suffering. A hermeneutic approach was used to analyze interviews with patients living with IBD outside hospitals. Thirteen young adults between 18 and 45 years of age in calmer phases of IBD participated in the study. Three main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: (1) Understanding limits in embodied tolerance, (2) Restoring balance is creating a new equilibrium, and (3) Creating resilience through integrative care...
October 25, 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
Paola Triggianese, Paola Conigliaro, Maria Sole Chimenti, Livia Biancone, Giovanni Monteleone, Roberto Perricone, Ivan Monteleone
OBJECTIVES: Both the innate and the adaptive immune responses contribute to the onset of chronic inflammation in spondyloarthritis (SpA). The association between SpA and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, enteropathic SpA-ESpA) has been largely established and suggests a shared pathophysiology. There is evidence that innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are involved in the pathogenesis of both SpA and IBD while no evidence has been reported to date on ESpA. We aimed to analyse for the first time the frequency and cytokine expression of ILC in peripheral blood from ESpA patients compared with both IBD and healthy subjects...
October 21, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
T M Fenton, A Kelly, E E Shuttleworth, C Smedley, A Atakilit, F Powrie, S Campbell, S L Nishimura, D Sheppard, S Levison, J J Worthington, M J Lehtinen, M A Travis
Regulation of intestinal T-cell responses is crucial for immune homeostasis and prevention of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A vital cytokine in regulating intestinal T cells is transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), which is secreted by cells as a latent complex that requires activation to function. However, how TGFβ activation is regulated in the human intestine, and how such pathways are altered in IBD is completely unknown. Here we show that a key activator of TGFβ, integrin αvβ8, is highly expressed on human intestinal dendritic cells (DCs), specifically on the CD1c(+) but not the CD141(+) intestinal DC subset...
October 26, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Irene D Román, David Cano-Martínez, María Val T Lobo, María Dolores Fernández-Moreno, Borja Hernández-Breijo, Silvia Sacristán, Patricia Sanmartín-Salinas, Jorge Monserrat, Javier P Gisbert, Luis G Guijarro
: Objetive: Our purpose was to study the molecular basis of infliximab (IFX) effect on colon mucosa in a colitis model and to identify new biomarkers of mucosal healing. METHODS: Healthy rats and rats which were subjected to experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium, with or without IFX treatment (in the short- and long-term), were studied along with forty-seven IBD patients. Colon mucosal integrity by Periodic Acid Schiff staining, intestinal damage by immunohistochemistry (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, β-catenin, E-cadherin, phosphotyrosine, p-p38, allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) and colonic mucosal apoptosis by TUNEL staining were evaluated in rats...
October 26, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
J Kirchgesner, M Lemaitre, A Rudnichi, A Racine, M Zureik, F Carbonnel, R Dray-Spira
BACKGROUND: Management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has evolved in the last decade. AIM: To assess IBD therapeutic management, including treatment withdrawal and early treatment use in the current era of anti-TNF agents (anti-TNFs). METHODS: All patients affiliated to the French national health insurance diagnosed with IBD were included from 2009 to 2013 and followed up until 31 December 2014. Medication uses, treatment sequences after introduction of thiopurine or anti-TNF monotherapies or both (combination therapy), surgical procedures and hospitalisations were assessed...
October 26, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Corey A Siegel, Cynthia B Whitman, Brennan M R Spiegel, Brian Feagan, Bruce Sands, Edward V Loftus, Remo Panaccione, Geert D'Haens, Charles N Bernstein, Richard Gearry, Siew C Ng, Gerassimos J Mantzaris, Balfour Sartor, Mark S Silverberg, Robert Riddell, Ioannis E Koutroubakis, Colm O'Morain, Peter L Lakatos, Dermot P B McGovern, Jonas Halfvarson, Walter Reinisch, Gerhard Rogler, Wolfgang Kruis, Curt Tysk, Stefan Schreiber, Silvio Danese, William Sandborn, Anne Griffiths, Bjorn Moum, Christoph Gasche, Francesco Pallone, Simon Travis, Julian Panes, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Stephen Hanauer, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Disease activity for Crohn's disease (CD) and UC is typically defined based on symptoms at a moment in time, and ignores the long-term burden of disease. The aims of this study were to select the attributes determining overall disease severity, to rank the importance of and to score these individual attributes for both CD and UC. METHODS: Using a modified Delphi panel, 14 members of the International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IOIBD) selected the most important attributes related to IBD...
October 25, 2016: Gut
Melissa Ellermann, Janelle C Arthur
Iron is an essential micronutrient for most life forms including the majority of resident bacteria of the microbiota and their mammalian hosts. Bacteria have evolved numerous mechanisms to competitively acquire iron within host environments, such as the secretion of small molecules known as siderophores that can solubilize iron for bacterial use. However, siderophore biosynthesis and acquisition is not a capability equally harbored by all resident bacteria. Moreover, the structural diversity of siderophores creates variability in the susceptibility to host mechanisms that serve to counteract siderophore-mediated iron acquisition and limit bacterial growth...
October 22, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Clara Abraham, Parambir S Dulai, Séverine Vermeire, William J Sandborn
Insights into the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have provided important information for the development of therapeutics. Levels of interleukin 23 (IL23) and T-helper (Th) 17 cell pathway molecules are elevated in inflamed intestinal tissues of patients with IBD. Loss of function variants of the interleukin 23 receptor gene (IL23R) protect against IBD, and in animals, blocking IL23 reduces severity of colitis. These findings indicated that the IL23 and Th17 cell pathways might be promising targets for treatment of IBD...
October 22, 2016: Gastroenterology
Karen Zaghiyan, Jan P Kamiński, Galinos Barmparas, Phillip Fleshner
The risk of de novo Crohn's disease (CD) after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) versus inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU) or indeterminate colitis (IC) remains debatable. Here, we present updated results after long-term follow-up of a previously studied cohort of 334 patients with UC, IBDU, or IC who underwent IPAA during a 10-year period ending 2007. Of 334 study patients, 56 per cent were male and median age was 38 years (range: 8-81). Patients were classified as UC (n = 237) or IBDU (n = 97) preoperatively and UC (n = 236) or IC (n = 98) postoperatively...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Sandra Maria Barbalho, Marcelo Dib Bechara, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Karina Quesada, Rodrigo Galhardi Gasparini, Antonely de Cássio Alves de Carvalho, Adriana Maria Ragassi Fiorini
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are two major forms of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Vitamin A (VA) and vitamin D (VD) may be associated with reduction in inflammation in these disorders. The aim of this review was to show the current evidence that may associate VA and VD with IBDs. Data linking VA, VD, and IBDs were studied. Both VA and VD may be related to the immune system in different manners. The active form of VA, retinoic acid, may be related to the growth factor-β and release of interleukin-10 (IL-10), thus involved with the resolution of the inflammation...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Magdy El-Salhy, Tarek Mazzawi, Kazuo Umezawa, Odd Helge Gilja
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as animal models of human IBD have abnormal enteroendocrine cells. The present study aimed to identify the possible mechanisms underlying these abnormalities. For this purpose, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: the control group, the group with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis with no treatment (TNBS group), the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G; an activator protein-1 inhibitor) (DTCM-G group), and the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ; a nuclear factor-κB inhibitor) treatment (DHMEQ group)...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Adrianne Tsen, Yasmin Alishahi, Laura Rosenkranz
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) occurring in association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rather rare and carries a worse prognosis and greater disease severity compared with IBD alone. Although it is an infrequently documented association, progress over the last 20 years has led to better understanding of the association between AIP and IBD. IBD has a stronger association with type 2 than with type 1 AIP. Clinical and histologic features of AIP-IBD more often reveal features of type 2 AIP. Imaging is not helpful in facilitating the diagnosis of AIP and IBD...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Matthew C Choy, Kumar Visvanathan, Peter De Cruz
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are thought to develop as a result of complex interactions between host genetics, the immune system and the environment including the gut microbiome. Although an improved knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of IBDs has led to great advances in therapy such as the highly effective anti-tumor necrosis factor class of medications, a significant proportion of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis do not respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies. Further understanding of the different immune pathways involved in the genesis of chronic intestinal inflammation is required to help find effective treatments for IBDs...
October 21, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Cheong K C Kwong Chung, Francesca Ronchi, Markus B Geuking
Healthy host-microbial mutualism relies on compartmentalization and proper regulation of systemic and mucosal immune responses. Nevertheless, the systemic immune system is frequently exposed to bouts of bacteraemia, which can trigger systemic antimicrobial immune reactivity including CD4(+) T cells. Low level bacteraemia can occur when immune compartmentalization is compromised, for example in the presence of innate immune deficiency or following use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). We generated an Escherichia coli strain expressing a defined T helper neo-epitope to study systemic antigen-specific antimicrobial CD4(+) T cells and their potential involvement in the pathogenicity of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
October 24, 2016: Immunology
C P Selinger, I Carbery, V Warren, A F Rehman, C J Williams, S Mumtaz, H Bholah, R Sood, D J Gracie, P J Hamlin, A C Ford
BACKGROUND: Patient education forms a cornerstone of management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The Internet has opened new avenues for information gathering. AIM: To determine the relationship between different information sources and patient knowledge and anxiety in patients with IBD. METHODS: The use of information sources in patients with IBD was examined via questionnaire. Anxiety was assessed with the hospital anxiety and depression scale and disease-related patient knowledge with the Crohn's and colitis knowledge score questionnaires...
October 25, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
R F Claudino, D F Leite, A F Bento, J G Chichorro, J B Calixto, G A Rae
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This study attempted to clarify the roles of endothelins and mechanisms associated with ETA/ETB receptors in mouse models of colitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Colitis was induced by intracolonic administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 1.5 mg/animal) or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 3%). After colitis establishment, mice received Atrasentan (ETA receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg), A-192621 (ETB receptor antagonist, 20 mg/kg) or Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) and several inflammatory parameters were assessed, as well as mRNA levels for ET-1, ET-2 and ET receptors...
October 24, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Jonathan G Stine, Jennifer Wang, Brian W Behm
Drug-induced liver injury is a rare but clinically important diagnosis. Vedolizumab is an α4β7 integrin inhibitor recently approved for use in patients with moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease. Cases of hepatoxicity due to vedolizumab in the pre-marketing stage were rare, and all cases resolved upon drug withdrawal. We present here the first reported case of hepatotoxicity attributable to vedolizumab, which despite drug cessation persisted with chronic cholestatic liver injury.
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
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