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Inflammatory bowel disease

Anava A Wren, K T Park
As clinicians have begun to provide targeted pharmacotherapy for children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), several ethical challenges have arisen. In this paper, we review 3 challenges related to applying a precision health approach to pediatric IBD populations: selection of a disease monitoring method, pharmacotherapy optimization, and economic considerations in clinical decision making.
September 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Agnieszka Pastuła, Janusz Marcinkiewicz
Epithelial cells are one of the most actively cycling cells in a mammalian organism and therefore are prone to malignant transformation. Already during organogenesis, the connective tissue (mesenchyme) provides instructive signals for the epithelium. In an adult organism, the mesenchyme is believed to provide crucial regulatory signals for the maintenance and regeneration of epithelial cells. Here, we discuss the role of intestinal myofibroblasts, α-smooth muscle actin-positive stromal (mesenchymal) cells, as an important regulatory part of the intestinal stem cell niche...
September 21, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Ruihua Zhang, Chen-Feng Qi, Yuan Hu, Yanhong Shan, Yuan-Pang Hsieh, Feihong Xu, Geming Lu, Jun Dai, Monica Gupta, Miao Cui, Liang Peng, Jianjun Yang, Qingjie Xue, Ray Chen-Liang, Kang Chen, Yeyunfei Zhang, Wai-Ping Fung-Leung, J Rodrigo Mora, Liwu Li, Herbert C Morse, Keiko Ozato, Peter S Heeger, Huabao Xiong
The follicular helper T cell (TFH ) are established regulators of germinal center (GC) B cells, whether TFH have pathogenic potential independent of B cells is unknown. Based on in vitro TFH cell differentiation, in vivo T cell transfer animal colitis model, and intestinal tissues of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, TFH and its functions in colitis development were analyzed by FACS, ChIP, ChIP-sequencing, WB, ELISA and PCR. Herein we demonstrate that intestinal tissues of patients and colon tissues obtained from Rag1-/- recipients of naïve CD4+ T cells with colitis, each over-express TFH -associated gene products...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Lenka Kučerová, Jiří Dolina, Milan Dastych, Daniel Bartušek, Tomáš Honzík, Jan Mazanec, Lumír Kunovský
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by a mutation in the TYMP gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase. MNGIE causes gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms in homozygous individuals and is often misdiagnosed as anorexia nervosa, inflammatory bowel disease, or celiac disease. We present the case of a 26-year-old female with MNGIE, who was initially diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and Crohn's disease. The diagnosis of MNGIE was established by biochemical confirmation of elevated serum and urine thymidine and deoxyuridine levels after multiple examinations and several years of disease progression and ineffective treatment...
September 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Theodore Rokkas, Piero Portincasa, Ioannis E Koutroubakis
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Fecal calprotectin (FC) has been suggested as a sensitive biomarker of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, its usefulness in assessing IBD activity needs to be more precisely defined. In this meta-analysis we aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of FC in assessing IBD endoscopic activity in adults. METHODS: We searched the databases PubMed/Medline and EMBASE, and studies which examined IBD endoscopic activity in association to FC were identified...
September 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Dana Duricova, Eva Dvorakova, Ondrej Hradsky, Katarina Mitrova, Marianna Durilova, Jana Kozeluhova, Pavel Kohout, Kristyna Zarubova, Jiri Bronsky, Nora Hradska, Eva Bronska, Miroslava Adamcova, Nadezda Machkova, Veronika Hruba, Martin Bortlik, Martin Lukas, Karin Malickova, Milan Lukas
Background: Evidence of the impact of in utero exposure to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on long-term childhood development is limited. The aim was to assess the impact of in utero exposure to anti-TNF-alpha due to mothers' inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on long-term postnatal development of exposed children. Methods: We included consecutive children (≥12 months of age) born to mothers with IBD (2007-2016) treated with anti-TNF-alpha during pregnancy in 3 centers in the Czech Republic...
September 20, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Miranda G Kiernan, J Calvin Coffey, Kieran McDermott, Paul D Cotter, Raul Cabrera-Rubio, Patrick A Kiely, Colum P Dunne
Background and Aims: Mesenteric lymph nodes are sites in which translocated bacteria incite and progress immunological responses. For this reason, understanding the microbiome of mesenteric lymph nodes in inflammatory bowel disease is important. The bacterial profile of Crohn's disease mesenteric lymph nodes has been analysed using culture-independent methods in only one previous study. This study aimed to investigate the mesenteric lymph node microbiota from both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Karen van Hoeve, Erwin Dreesen, Ilse Hoffman, Gert Van Assche, Marc Ferrante, Ann Gils, Séverine Vermeire
Background: The role of therapeutic drug monitoring for infliximab [IFX] therapy in children with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is poorly investigated. We determined if IFX exposure correlates with long-term remission in children. Methods: In this retrospective study, all children with Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], receiving maintenance IFX at our centre, were included. Serum trough levels and cumulative drug exposure were correlated with clinical, biological, and endoscopic remission...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Maria T Abreu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Irina Leonardi, Xin Li, Iliyan D Iliev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss recent advances into delineating the dual role of intestinal phagocytes in health and during intestinal disease. We further discuss the key role of gut-resident macrophages in recognition of bacterial and fungal microbiota in the gut. RECENT FINDINGS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly manifests with pathologic changes in the composition of gut bacterial and fungal microbiota. Intestinal macrophages are key regulators of the balance between tolerogenic immunity and inflammation...
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Smiljana Spasic, Iva Brcic, Rochelle Freire, Monica T Garcia-Buitrago, Andrew E Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an uncommon malignant endothelial neoplasm that most commonly arises in soft tissue, bone, lung, and liver. Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology that is frequently associated with complications including strictures, fistulas/fissures, and neoplasms. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 43-year-old woman with a 6-year history of severe CD presented with anal pain and bleeding. She had prior partial colectomy for a stricture and a diverting ileostomy for perianal fissures and stricture...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Claudio Trigo Salado, Eduardo Leo Carnerero, María Dolores de la Cruz Ramírez
The relationship between cystic fibrosis (CF) and the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not clear. CFTR mutations can influence dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability, which are two key elements in the pathophysiology of IBD. These patients have increased intestinal inflammation, as demonstrated by increase pro-inflammatory gene expression in the bowel, specific fecal markers (fecal calprotectin), gross lesions (capsule endoscopy) and histological lesions on examination of surgical specimens...
September 21, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Yang Yu, Shengtao Zhu, Peng Li, Li Min, Shutian Zhang
Helicobacter pylori has coexisted with humans for approximately 60,000 years and greater than 50% of the global population is infected with H. pylori. H. pylori was successfully cultured in vitro in 1983 and studies of H. pylori have achieved substantial advances over the last 35 years. Since then, H. pylori has been characterized as the primary pathogenic factor for chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric malignancy. Numerous patients have received H. pylori eradication treatment, but only 1-2% of H. pylori-infected individuals ultimately develop gastric cancer...
September 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Babatunde O Akinwunmi, Ana Babic, Allison F Vitonis, Daniel W Cramer, Linda Titus, Shelley S Tworoger, Kathryn L Terry
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials using the biomarker CA125, with or without pelvic ultrasound, have failed to show a clear benefit of general population screening for ovarian cancer. In part this may be due to a lack of information about conditions, besides ovarian cancer, that can alter CA125 levels and affect specificity or sensitivity. We evaluated the association between common medical conditions and CA125 levels among women without ovarian cancer. METHODS: We used data and specimens from 2,004 women without ovarian cancer who participated in the New England Case Control study between 1992 and 2008...
September 20, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Urszula Daniluk, Jaroslaw Daniluk, Milena Krasnodebska, Joanna Maria Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta Sobaniec-Lotowska, Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn
PURPOSE: Increased fecal calprotectin is a sensitive marker of various types of intestinal inflammation. We investigated correlations between high fecal calprotectin concentration and serum inflammatory markers in children with different intestinal diseases with diarrhea with/without blood and/or abdominal pain, to test whether the combination of these markers can differentiate potential patients with inflammatory bowel disease. MATERIALS/METHODS: The study included 128 children with high fecal calprotectin concentration (>150ug/g) and symptoms suggesting bowel disorders, hospitalized in the years 2013- 2015...
September 17, 2018: Advances in Medical Sciences
Alba Rodríguez-Nogales, Francesca Algieri, José Garrido-Mesa, Teresa Vezza, M Pilar Utrilla, Natalia Chueca, Federico García, M Elena Rodríguez-Cabezas, Julio Gálvez
The beneficial effects exerted by probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are well known, although their exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, and only few studies have focused on their impact on selected miRNAs and the gut microbiota composition. Therefore, our aim was to correlate the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in the dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) model of mouse colitis and the changes induced in miRNA expression and gut microbiota populations...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Abhijit A Date, Gilad Halpert, Taarika Babu, Jairo Ortiz, Pranjali Kanvinde, Peter Dimitrion, Janani Narayan, Hannah Zierden, Kalpana Betageri, Olivia Musmanno, Helen Wiegand, Xinglu Huang, Sanjeev Gumber, Justin Hanes, Laura M Ensign
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal disorder that affects more than 1 million individuals in the USA. Local therapy with enema formulations, such as micronized budesonide (Entocort® ), is a common strategy for treating patients with distally active IBD. However, we hypothesize that micronized particulates are too large to effectively penetrate colorectal mucus, limiting the extent of drug delivery to affected tissues prior to clearance. Here, we describe the development of a budesonide nanosuspension (NS) with the appropriate surface coating and size to enhance penetration of colorectal mucus and ulcerated colorectal tissues...
September 7, 2018: Biomaterials
Nya D Nelson, Laurel Glaser, Rashmi Tondon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Long Yang, Yuanyuan Song, Pei Jin, Yueyang Liu, Yue Wang, Huixia Qiao, Yahui Huang
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) at the colonic mucosa and submucosa. Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San (SLBZS) is one of the most common formulations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of UC. However, its effects and safety remain uncertain. This protocol is described for a systematic review to investigate the beneficial effects and safety of SLBZS for UC. METHODS: We will systematically search for eligible studies in PubMed, the Cochrane library, Embase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data (WAN FANG) until August 2018...
September 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xiaoxue Li, Ning Chen, Peng You, Tao Peng, Guodong Chen, Jiangyuan Wang, Jing Li, Yulan Liu
AIMS: This cross-sectional study is to investigate the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in colonic mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and its correlation with the clinical disease activities and therapeutic regimens. METHODS: Subjects undergoing colonoscopy for screening of polyps were recruited as control. EBV DNA load was analyzed by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and EBV-encoded RNAs were tested by in situ hybridization in intestinal mucosa of IBD patients...
September 20, 2018: Digestion
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