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Placenta choline

Sze Ting Cecilia Kwan, Julia H King, Jian Yan, Xinyin Jiang, Emily Wei, Vladislav G Fomin, Mark S Roberson, Marie A Caudill
INTRODUCTION: Normal placental vascular development is influenced by inflammatory, angiogenic and apoptotic processes, which may be modulated by choline through its role in membrane biosynthesis, cellular signaling and gene expression regulation. The current study examined the effect of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on placental inflammatory, angiogenic and apoptotic processes during murine pregnancy. METHOD: Pregnant dams were randomized to receive 1, 2 or 4 times (X) the normal choline content of rodent diets, and tissues were harvested on embryonic day (E) 10...
May 2017: Placenta
Min Zhang, Xinjia Han, Juejie Bao, Jinying Yang, Shao-Qing Shi, Robert E Garfield, Huishu Liu
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects and mechanisms of choline, an essential nutrient and a selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, on the prevention of symptoms and the effects on the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways (CAP) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in a rat model. METHODS: Inflammation was induced by LPS treatment (1.0 μg LPS/kg body weight) on gestational day (GD) 14. Nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were placed on a normal choline diet (1...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Renata H Bahous, Nafisa M Jadavji, Liyuan Deng, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Jessica Lu, Olga Malysheva, Kit-Yi Leung, Ming-Kai Ho, Mercè Pallàs, Perla Kaliman, Nicholas D E Greene, Barry J Bedell, Marie A Caudill, Rima Rozen
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C > T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Ullrich G Mueller-Lisse, Sophie Murer, Ulrike L Mueller-Lisse, Marissa Kuhn, Juergen Scheidler, Michael Scherr
OBJECTIVES: To apply an easy-to-assemble phantom substitute for human prostates in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and 3D magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). METHODS: Kiwi fruit were fixed with gel hot and cold compress packs on two plastic nursery pots, separated by a plastic plate, and submerged in tap water inside a 1-L open-spout plastic watering can for T2WI (TR/TE 7500/101 ms), DWI (5500/61 ms, ADC b50-800 s/mm(2) map) and MRS (940/145 ms) at 3...
January 5, 2017: European Radiology
Sanjay Kumar, Alex Tinson, Brendan Patrick Mulligan, Shreesh Ojha
In order to advance the assisted reproductive technologies used in animals and human beings, it is important to accumulate basic informations about underlying molecular mechanisms that shape the biological processes of reproduction. From within seminal plasma, proteins perform a wide variety of distinct functions that regulate major reproductive events such as fertilization. The ability of such proteins to bind and interact with different antagonistic ions and biomolecules such as polysaccharides, lipids, and other proteins present in the male and female reproductive tract define these capabilities...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Karen E Christensen, Wenyang Hou, Renata H Bahous, Liyuan Deng, Olga V Malysheva, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Marie A Caudill, Loydie A Jerome-Majewska, Rima Rozen
BACKGROUND: Moderately high folic acid intake in pregnant women has led to concerns about deleterious effects on the mother and fetus. Common polymorphisms in folate genes, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) R653Q, may modulate the effects of elevated folic acid intake. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of moderate folic acid supplementation on reproductive outcomes and assessed the potential interaction of the supplemented diet with MTHFD1-synthetase (Mthfd1S) deficiency in mice, which is a model for the R653Q variant...
November 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Fuzhen Song, Weibin Wu, Zhaoxia Qian, Guofu Zhang, Yingsheng Cheng
Placental insufficiency is a major cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and seriously affects fetal development. When placental insufficiency happened, the diffusion of water molecule was restricted and the metabolic balance was destroyed in the placenta. In this prospective study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in combination with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) for placental insufficiency in IUGR. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated using DWI, and the metabolism of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline, and lipid and their ratios in the placenta were calculated using (1)H MRS...
September 19, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Z Zhou, M Vailati-Riboni, E Trevisi, J K Drackley, D N Luchini, J J Loor
The onset of lactation in dairy cows is characterized by high output of methylated compounds in milk when sources of methyl group are in short supply. Methionine and choline (CHOL) are key methyl donors and their availability during this time may be limiting for milk production, hepatic lipid metabolism, and immune function. Supplementing rumen-protected Met and CHOL may improve overall performance and health of transition cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental rumen-protected Met and CHOL on performance and health of transition cows...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Yu-Che Cheng, Chi-Jung Huang, Yih-Jing Lee, Lu-Tai Tien, Wei-Chi Ku, Raymond Chien, Fa-Kung Lee, Chih-Cheng Chien
This study presents human placenta-derived multipotent cells (PDMCs) as a source from which functional glutamatergic neurons can be derived. We found that the small heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) was downregulated during the neuronal differentiation process. The in vivo temporal and spatial profiles of HSP27 expression were determined and showed inverted distributions with neuronal proteins during mouse embryonic development. Overexpression of HSP27 in stem cells led to the arrest of neuronal differentiation; however, the knockdown of HSP27 yielded a substantially enhanced ability of PDMCs to differentiate into neurons...
2016: Scientific Reports
Heyjun Park, Patsy M Brannon, Allyson A West, Jian Yan, Xinyin Jiang, Cydne A Perry, Olga V Malysheva, Saurabh Mehta, Marie A Caudill
BACKGROUND: The impact of the reproductive state on vitamin D metabolism and requirements is uncertain in part because of a lack of studies with controlled dietary intakes of vitamin D and related nutrients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify the impact of the reproductive state on a panel of vitamin D biomarkers among women of childbearing age consuming equivalent amounts of vitamin D and related nutrients. METHODS: Nested within a feeding study providing 2 doses of choline, healthy pregnant (26-29 wk gestation; n = 26), lactating (5 wk postpartum; n = 28), and control (nonpregnant/nonlactating; n = 21) women consumed a single amount of vitamin D (511 ± 48 IU/d: 311 ± 48 IU/d from diet and 200 IU/d as supplemental cholecalciferol) and related nutrients (1...
August 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Xinyin Jiang, Esther Greenwald, Chauntelle Jack-Roberts
Choline is an essential nutrient that plays an important role in lipid metabolism and DNA methylation. Studies in rodents suggest that choline may adversely affect glycemic control, yet studies in humans are lacking. Using the human hepatic and placental cells, HepG2 and BeWo, respectively, we examined the interaction between choline and glucose treatments. In HepG2 cells, choline supplementation (1 mM) increased global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase expression in both low-glucose (5 mM) and high-glucose (35 mM) conditions...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
Magdalena Orczyk-Pawilowicz, Ewa Jawien, Stanislaw Deja, Lidia Hirnle, Adam Zabek, Piotr Mlynarz
Metabolic profiles of amniotic fluid and maternal blood are sources of valuable information about fetus development and can be potentially useful in diagnosis of pregnancy disorders. In this study, we applied 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling to track metabolic changes occurring in amniotic fluid (AF) and plasma (PL) of healthy mothers over the course of pregnancy. AF and PL samples were collected in the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) trimester, prolonged pregnancy (PP) until time of delivery (TD). A multivariate data analysis of both biofluids reviled a metabolic switch-like transition between 2nd and 3rd trimester, which was followed by metabolic stabilization throughout the rest of pregnancy probably reflecting the stabilization of fetal maturation and development...
2016: PloS One
Nathalie Siauve, Gihad E Chalouhi, Benjamin Deloison, Marianne Alison, Olivier Clement, Yves Ville, Laurent J Salomon
Abnormal placentation is responsible for most failures in pregnancy; however, an understanding of placental functions remains largely concealed from noninvasive, in vivo investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is safe in pregnancy for magnetic fields of up to 3 Tesla and is being used increasingly to improve the accuracy of prenatal imaging. Functional MRI (fMRI) of the placenta has not yet been validated in a clinical setting, and most data are derived from animal studies. FMRI could be used to further explore placental functions that are related to vascularization, oxygenation, and metabolism in human pregnancies by the use of various enhancement processes...
October 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gillian Macnaught, Calum Gray, Jane Walker, Mary Simpson, Jane Norman, Scott Semple, Fiona Denison
The placenta is a temporary organ that is essential for a healthy pregnancy. It performs several important functions, including the transport of nutrients, the removal of waste products and the metabolism of certain substances. Placental disorders have been found to account for over 50% of stillbirths. Despite this, there are currently no methods available to directly and non-invasively assess placental function in utero. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate the use of (1)H MRS for this purpose...
October 2015: NMR in Biomedicine
A C Galdos-Riveros, P O Favaron, S E A L Will, M A Miglino, D A Maria
In several species, placentation involves the presence of two different membranes responsible for maternal-fetal exchanges: the yolk sac and the chorioallantoic placenta. The yolk sac plays important roles in embryonic survival, mainly during the early stages of gestation. In bovine, it is a transitional membrane that is present until day 50-70 of pregnancy. Herein, we evaluated the morphological and molecular aspects of the yolk sac of bovine embryos during 24 to 52 days of gestation. A total of 69 embryos were allocated into three groups according to the crown-rump length and estimated ages...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Nicholas F Parchim, Wei Wang, Takayuki Iriyama, Olaide A Ashimi, Athar H Siddiqui, Sean Blackwell, Baha Sibai, Rodney E Kellems, Yang Xia
C-reactive protein (CRP), an innate immune mediator, is elevated in the circulation before symptoms in patients with preeclampsia, a severe hypertensive pregnancy disorder with high mortality and morbidity. However, the specific sources underlying increased CRP and the role of elevated CRP in preeclampsia are undefined. Here, we report that circulating CRP levels are significantly increased in a large cohort of normotensive pregnant individuals when compared with nulligravid women and is further increased in patients with preeclampsia...
February 2015: Hypertension
Yi Chi, Lijun Pei, Gong Chen, Xinming Song, Aihua Zhao, Tianlu Chen, Mingming Su, Yinan Zhang, Jianmeng Liu, Aiguo Ren, Xiaoying Zheng, Guoxiang Xie, Wei Jia
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common types of birth defects with a complex etiology. We have previously profiled serum metabolites of pregnant women in Lvliang prefecture, Shanxi Province of China, which revealed distinct metabolic changes in pregnant women with NTDs outcome. Here we present a metabonomics study of human placentas of 144 pregnant women with normal pregnancy outcome and 115 pregnant women affected with NTDs recruited from four rural counties (Pingding, Xiyang, Taigu, and Zezhou) of Shanxi Province, the area with the highest prevalence worldwide...
February 7, 2014: Journal of Proteome Research
Nisha Padmanabhan, Erica D Watson
During development, a fetus and its placenta must respond to a changing maternal environment to ensure normal growth is achieved and survival is maintained. The mechanisms behind developmental programming involve complex interactions between epigenetic and physiological processes, which are not well understood. Importantly, when programming goes awry, it puts the fetus at risk for disease later in life and may, in some instances, affect subsequent generations via epigenetic processes including DNA methylation...
December 2013: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Jian Yan, Xinyin Jiang, Allyson A West, Cydne A Perry, Olga V Malysheva, J Thomas Brenna, Sally P Stabler, Robert H Allen, Jesse F Gregory, Marie A Caudill
BACKGROUND: Although biomarkers of choline metabolism are altered by pregnancy, little is known about the influence of human pregnancy on the dynamics of choline-related metabolic processes. OBJECTIVE: This study used stable isotope methodology to examine the effects of pregnancy on choline partitioning and the metabolic activity of choline-related pathways. DESIGN: Healthy third-trimester pregnant (n = 26; initially week 27 of gestation) and nonpregnant (n = 21) women consumed 22% of their total choline intake (480 or 930 mg/d) as methyl-d9-choline for the final 6 wk of a 12-wk feeding study...
December 2013: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Norie Arima, Yoshimi Uchida, Ruoxing Yu, Koh Nakayama, Hiroshi Nishina
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchRs) are critical components of the cholinergic system, which is the key regulator of both the central and peripheral nervous systems in mammals. Interestingly, several components of the cholinergic system, including mAchRs and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), have recently been found to be expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and human placenta. These results raise the intriguing possibility that mAchRs play physiological roles in the regulation of early embryogenesis...
June 7, 2013: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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