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Immunosuppressive agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344177/characteristics-of-nosocomial-infection-and-its-effects-on-the-survival-of-chemotherapy-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Lili Wang, Yan Li, Xia Zhang, Hongxia Li
The present study was planned to investigate the characteristics of nosocomial infection and its effects on the survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Retrospective analysis was performed for the 169 chemotherapy patients with NSCLC and nosocomial infection during hospitalization in Binzhou City Central Hospital from March, 2013 to January, 2015. In addition, 170 patients without nosocomial infection were also involved as a control group. The distribution of major drug resistance of Gram-negative (G-) and Gram-positive (G+) were analyzed...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343622/enhanced-preclinical-antitumor-activity-of-m7824-a-bifunctional-fusion-protein-simultaneously-targeting-pd-l1-and-tgf-%C3%AE
#2
Yan Lan, Dong Zhang, Chunxiao Xu, Kenneth W Hance, Bo Marelli, Jin Qi, Huakui Yu, Guozhong Qin, Aroop Sircar, Vivian M Hernández, Molly H Jenkins, Rachel E Fontana, Amit Deshpande, George Locke, Helen Sabzevari, Laszlo Radvanyi, Kin-Ming Lo
Antibodies targeting immune checkpoints are emerging as potent and viable cancer therapies, but not all patients respond to these as single agents. Concurrently targeting additional immunosuppressive pathways is a promising approach to enhance immune checkpoint blockade, and bifunctional molecules designed to target two pathways simultaneously may provide a strategic advantage over the combination of two single agents. M7824 (MSB0011359C) is a bifunctional fusion protein composed of a monoclonal antibody against programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) fused to the extracellular domain of human transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptor II, which functions as a "trap" for all three TGF-β isoforms...
January 17, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343578/a-new-quinoline-brd4-inhibitor-targets-a-distinct-latent-hiv-1-reservoir-for-re-activation-from-other-shock-drugs
#3
Erik Abner, Mateusz Stoszko, Lei Zeng, Heng-Chang Chen, Andrea Izquierdo-Bouldstridge, Tsuyoshi Konuma, Eduard Zorita, Elisa Fanunza, Qiang Zhang, Tokameh Mahmoudi, Ming-Ming Zhou, Guillaume J Filion, Albert Jordan
Upon HIV-1 infection, a reservoir of latently infected resting T cells prevents the eradication of the virus from patients. To achieve complete depletion, the existing virus-suppressing antiretroviral therapy must be combined with drugs that reactivate the dormant viruses. We previously described a novel chemical scaffold compound, MMQO (8-methoxy-6-methylquinolin-4-ol) that is able to reactivate viral transcription in several models of HIV latency including J-Lat cells through an unknown mechanism. MMQO potentiates the activity of known latency-reversing agents (LRAs) or 'shock' drugs such as PKC agonists or HDAC inhibitors...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343274/coexistent-sickle-cell-anemia-and-autoimmune-disease-in-eight-children-pitfalls-and-challenges
#4
Valerie Li-Thiao-Te, Florence Uettwiller, Pierre Quartier, Florence Lacaille, Brigitte Bader-Meunier, Valentine Brousse, Mariane de Montalembert
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) present a defective activation of the alternate complement pathway that increases the risk of infection and is thought to predispose to autoimmune disease (AID). However, coexisting AID and SCD is rarely reported, suggesting possible underdiagnosis due to an overlapping of the symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: Among 603 patients with SCD followed between 1999 and June 2016, we retrospectively searched for patients with coexisting SCD and AID...
January 17, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341230/successful-treatment-of-rituximab-and-steroid-resistant-nephrotic-syndrome-with-leukocytapheresis
#5
Maiko Takakura, Masaki Shimizu, Mao Mizuta, Natsumi Inoue, Yuko Tasaki, Kazuhide Ohta, Kengo Furuichi, Takashi Wada, Akihiro Yachie
Although rituximab (RTX) is a promising therapeutic agent for treating steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) resistant to various immunosuppressive agents, some patients have shown resistance to RTX. We report the case of a patient with RTX-resistant nephrotic syndrome and SRNS who was successfully treated with leukocytapheresis (LCAP). After LCAP, there was a significant reduction in proteinuria and in the total number of lymphocytes, T cells, and HLA-DR+- activated T cells. Moreover, the patient became sensitive to steroids and RTX...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340619/recurrent-serious-infections-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-results-from-the-british-society-for-rheumatology-biologics-register
#6
Sujith Subesinghe, Andrew Ian Rutherford, Rachel Byng-Maddick, Kimme Leanne Hyrich, James Benjamin Galloway
Objectives: To establish the rate of recurrent infection in RA patients recruited to the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register - Rheumatoid Arthritis. Secondary objectives were to establish whether the organ class of index infection predicted future serious infection (SI). Methods: Using data from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register - Rheumatoid Arthritis, a prospective observational cohort, we identified patients with at least one episode of SI...
January 10, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338551/the-regulatory-roles-of-b-cell-subsets-in-transplantation
#7
Zhulang Chu, Weilong Zou, Yanan Xu, Qiquan Sun, Yong Zhao
B cells mediate allograft rejection through antigen presentation, and production of cytokines and antibodies. More and more immunosuppressive agents specifically targeting B cells and plasma cells have been applied in clinical transplantation. However, recent studies have indicated the regulatory roles of B cells. Therefore, it is vital to clarify the different effects of B cell subsets in organ transplantation so that we can completely understand the diverse functions of B cells in transplantation. Areas covered: This review focuses on the regulatory roles of B cells in transplantation...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337566/cationic-polymeric-nanoparticle-delivering-ccr2-sirna-to-inflammatory-monocytes-for-tumor-microenvironment-modification-and-cancer-therapy
#8
Song Shen, Yue Zhang, Kai-Ge Chen, Ying-Li Luo, Jun Wang
Accumulating evidence has confirmed that malignant tumors have a complex microenvironment, which consists of a heterogeneous collection of tumor cells and other cell subsets (including the full gamut of immune cells). Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), derived from circulating Ly6Chi monocytes, constitute the most substantial fraction of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in nearly all cancer types and contribute to tumor progression, vascularization, metastasis, immunosuppression and therapeutic resistance...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336271/anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-herbs-with-special-emphasis-on-herbal-medicines-for-countering-inflammatory-diseases-and-disorders-a-review
#9
Mohd Iqbal Yatoo, Arumugam Gopalakrishnan, Archana Saxena, Oveas Rafiq Parray, Noore Alam Tufani, Sandip Chakraborty, Ruchi Tiwari, Kuldeep Dhama, Hafiz M N Iqbal
BACKGROUND: Diseases with inflammatory etiopathology have increased in incidence in recent times. Drugs used for therapeutic management of such inflammatory diseases are relieving the ailment but at the same time also countering serious life-threatening consequences. Moreover, they are costly and rarely available at all places. In this context, research and development on medicinal herbs have opened a new era in the prophylactic and therapeutic management of inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance of anti-inflammatory medicine-synthetic drugs and natural herbs, their constituents, mechanism of action, benefits, side effects and future prospects...
January 15, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336204/continuous-infusion-of-phenelzine-cyclosporine-a-or-the-combination-evaluation-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-oxidative-damage-and-cytoskeletal-degradation-following-severe-controlled-cortical-impact-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#10
Jacqueline Renee Kulbe, Indrapal N Singh, Juan Wang, John E Cebak, Edward D Hall
To date, all monotherapy clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI) trials have failed, and there are currently no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for the acute treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Due to the complex secondary injury cascade following injury, there is a need to develop multi-mechanistic combinational neuroprotective approaches for the treatment of acute TBI. As central mediators of the TBI secondary injury cascade, both mitochondria and lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes make promising therapeutic targets...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334967/risk-factors-and-treatment-of-pneumothorax-secondary-to-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-a-clinical-analysis-of-25-cases
#11
REVIEW
Xuhua Shi, Yongfeng Zhang, Yuewu Lu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk factors and treatment strategies for pneumothorax secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). METHOD: Retrospective analysis of cases with pneumothorax secondary to GPA from our own practice and published on literature. RESULTS: A total of 25 patients, 18 males and 7 females, mean age 44 ± 15.7 years, were analyzed. Diagnosis included pneumothorax (11 cases), hydropneumothorax (n = 5), empyema (n = 8) and hemopneumothorax (n = 1)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334337/durable-responses-in-refractory-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-with-alemtuzumab
#12
Renee K McAlister, Mahsa S Talbott, Nishitha M Reddy
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia occurs due to an interaction of IgG antibodies with protein antigens expressed on red blood corpuscles. Glucocorticoids are the mainstay of treatment for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. For patients not responding to initial therapy, other agents such as rituximab, immunosuppressive therapy, or splenectomy are considered. When refractory to these treatment options, alemtuzumab is an alternative agent. However, long-term outcomes of patients supporting its use are lacking. We present three patients with refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia treated with alemtuzumab...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333572/possible-protective-effect-of-the-algae-spirulina-against-nephrotoxicity-induced-by-cyclosporine-a-and-or-gamma-radiation-in-rats
#13
Maha M Aziz, Nihad I Eid, Ahmed S Nada, Nour El-Din Amin, Afaf A Ain-Shoka
The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible protective role of the algae spirulina (Sp) against nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress which are the main secondary effects induced by the immunosuppressant drug CSA and/or ionizing radiation. In this study, male rats were given Sp (1 g/kg) either for 15 days before irradiation (6.5 Gy) or 5 days before and 10 days concomitant with CSA (25 mg/kg). Markers used to assess renal injury included serum creatinine, urea, glucose, albumin, protein, and lipid profile as well as kidney content of reduced glutathione (GSH); lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)); nitrite and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331332/hiv-infection-and-its-effects-on-the-development-of-autoimmune-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Luis E Vega, Luis R Espinoza
More than 35 years have elapsed since the initial outbreak of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the status of a considerable number of patients has changed from a fatal disorder to a chronic one where comorbidities including sarcoidosis and autoimmune diseases have become relevant and dominant. HIV targets the immune system leading to a state of immunodeficiency in a setting of immune activation in which CD4+ T cell depletion plays a critical role. The onset, natural history and course of HIV-associated autoimmune disease has dramatically changed according to the stage of HIV infection and since the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy...
January 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330709/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-iclaprim-a-diaminopyrimidine-compound-and-potential-therapeutic-alternative-against-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#15
E M Aliouat, E Dei-Cas, N Gantois, M Pottier, C Pinçon, S Hawser, A Lier, D B Huang
Pneumocystis pneumonia is a serious complication that may affect immunosuppressed patients. The absence of reliable and safe therapeutic alternatives to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) justifies the search for more effective and less toxic agents. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-Pneumocystis jirovecii activity of iclaprim, a diaminopyrimidine compound that exerts its antimicrobial activity through the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), as does TMP, was evaluated alone or in combination with SMX...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329489/mycophenolic-acid-and-its-metabolites-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-semimechanistic-enterohepatic-circulation-model-to-improve-estimating-exposure
#16
Malek Okour, Pamala A Jacobson, Mariam A Ahmed, Ajay K Israni, Richard C Brundage
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an approved immunosuppressive agent widely prescribed to prevent rejection after kidney transplantation. Wide between-subject variability (BSV) in MPA exposure exists which in part may be due to variability in enterohepatic recirculation (EHC). Several modeling strategies were developed to evaluate EHC as part of MPA pharmacokinetics, however mechanistic representation of EHC is limited. These models have not provided a satisfactory representation of the physiology of EHC in their modeling assumptions...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327401/daclatasvir-and-reduced-dose-sofosbuvir-an-effective-and-pangenotypic-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-in-patients-with-egfr-30-ml-min
#17
Amit Goel, Dharmendra Singh Bhadauria, Anupma Kaul, Prashant Verma, Mayank Mehrotra, Amit Gupta, Raj Kumar Sharma, Praveer Rai, Rakesh Aggarwal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sofosbuvir is a key agent for HCV treatment. It is not recommended for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min. We report real-life experience of treating a cohort of CKD patients with eGFR <30 mL/min using daclatasvir and half-daily dose of sofosbuvir. METHODS: Adults patients who (i) had eGFR<30 ml/min and detectable HCV RNA and (ii) were treated with interferon and ribavirin free, DAA based regimens were included...
January 12, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327109/a-novel-biologic-platform-elicits-profound-t-cell-costimulatory-activity-and-antitumor-immunity-in-mice
#18
Joseph M Ryan, Payal Mittal, Antoine Menoret, Julia Svedova, Jeffrey S Wasser, Adam J Adler, Anthony T Vella
Combination immunotherapies utilizing complementary modalities that target distinct tumor attributes or immunosuppressive mechanisms, or engage different arms of the antitumor immune response, can elicit greater therapeutic efficacy than the component monotherapies. Increasing the number of agents included in a therapeutic cocktail can further increase efficacy, however, this approach poses numerous challenges for clinical translation. Here, a novel platform to simplify combination immunotherapy by covalently linking immunotherapeutic agonists to the costimulatory receptors CD134 and CD137 into a single heterodimeric drug, "OrthomAb", is shown...
January 11, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325724/rheumatoid-arthritis-disease-modifying-agents-and-periprosthetic-joint-infection-what-does-a-joint-surgeon-need-to-know
#19
REVIEW
Mehrnoush H Yeganeh, Michael M Kheir, Alisina Shahi, Javad Parvizi
The incidence of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is 1.6× greater than in patients undergoing the same procedure for osteoarthritis. This higher risk "may" be due to the immunosuppressive therapies for RA patients including corticosteroids, such as prednisone, and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as methotrexate. There is a debate about the role of DMARDs in increasing the incidence of subsequent PJI. Studies show conflicting results, with some demonstrating no significant increase in the rates of PJI and some finding otherwise...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325272/-advances-in-the-treatment-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#20
Y M Li, Q X Wang, X Ma
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease mainly involving intrahepatic interlobular bile ducts and can progress to liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and even liver failure. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the first-line therapeutic drug for PBC and can delay disease progression, but as high as 40% of patients have suboptimal response to UDCA. Obeticholic acid, a farnesoid X receptor agonist, has been approved by FDA in May 2016 for patients who have no response to UDCA treatment or cannot tolerate such treatment...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
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