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Immunosuppressive agents

Dorota Suszek, Maria Majdan
Cryoglobulinemia is defined as the presence of cryoglobulins in the blood. Cryoglobulinemia is often observed in the course of many diseases (infection, hematological disorders, autoimmune disorders) or has an idiopathic character. The classification of cryoglobulinemia is based on the immunological analysis of cryoglobulins and the activity of the rheumatoid factor (RF). The presence of cryoglobulins may induce cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) which manifests with skin changes, arthritis and the dysfunction of internal organs...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
William S Kaufman, Christine S Ahn, William W Huang
Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common, self-limited cutaneous infection in immunocompetent individuals. However, in immunocompromised individuals the infection often has an atypical presentation and can be difficult to eradicate, making both the diagnosis and treatment challenging. Due to advancements in the management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancer, there is a growing population of immunosuppressed individuals, signaling the need for dermatologists to recognize and manage related skin diseases...
February 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Francisco Galeano-Valle, Pablo Demelo-Rodriguez, Luís Álvarez-Sala-Walther, Blanca Pinilla-Llorente, Miguel Jesús Echenagusia-Boyra, Hugo Rodriguez-Abella, Jorge Del-Toro-Cervera
Behçet's Disease (BD) is a rare multi-systemic inflammatory disorder classified as a systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology. Vascular involvement occurs in approximately 5-51.6% cases, affecting venous and arterial vessels. Cardiac involvement is rare in BD (6%). There have been published approximately 93 cases of BD associated with intracardiac thrombosis, with different treatments and courses. We present a case of a 35-year-old spanish male that, after a percutaneous pharmacomechanical thrombectomy with venous stent placement, developed high fever and extensive venous thrombosis despite anticoagulation including intracardiac thrombosis (ICT) in the right ventricle and pulmonary embolism that leaded to the diagnosis of BD...
February 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Jun-Yi Wu, Zhong-Xia Wang, Guang Zhang, Xian Lu, Guang-Hui Qiang, Wei Hu, An-Lai Ji, Jun-Hua Wu, Chun-Ping Jiang
Purpose: FTY720, known as fingolimod, is a new immunosuppressive agent with effective anticancer properties. Although it was recently confirmed that FTY720 inhibits cancer cell proliferation, FTY720 can also induce protective autophagy and reduce cytotoxicity. Blocking autophagy with Beclin 1 siRNA after treatment with FTY720 promotes apoptosis. The objective of this study was to enhance the anticancer effect of FTY720 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by targeted co-delivery of FTY720 and Beclin 1 siRNA using calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles (NPs)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Alfred Mitema, Sheila Okoth, Mohamed S Rafudeen
Toxigenic Aspergillus species produce mycotoxins that are carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and teratogenic immunosuppressing agents in both human and animals. Kenya frequently experiences outbreaks of aflatoxicosis with the worst occurring in 2010, which resulted in 215 deaths. We examined the possible reasons for these frequent aflatoxicosis outbreaks in Kenya by studying Aspergillus flavus diversity, phenotypes and mycotoxin profiles across various agricultural regions. Using diagonal transect random sampling, maize kernels were collected from Makueni, Homa Bay, Nandi, and Kisumu counties...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Amar Patel, Lawrence Fong
Immunotherapies have emerged as a revolutionary modality for cancer treatment, and a variety of immune-based approaches are currently being investigated in the field of prostate cancer. Despite the 2010 approval of sipuleucel-T, subsequent progress in prostate cancer immunotherapy development has been limited by disappointing results with novel vaccination approaches and by prostate cancer's general resistance to immune checkpoint blockade. Nevertheless, there remains strong preclinical and clinical evidence to suggest that prostate cancer is a susceptible target for immune therapies...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Natalie Wolkow, Frederick A Jakobiec, Michael K Yoon
A 56-year-old woman presented with periocular nodules that were clinically suspected to be neurofibromas. Histopathologic examination of excised nodules revealed a pronounced granulomatous reaction to a foreign material that was composed of glossy polygonal palely eosinophilic fragments. These fragments were outlined in red with Masson trichrome, stained gray with the elastic stain, and were uniformly red with Gomori methenamine silver staining. The histopathologic appearance was consistent with a granulomatous reaction to Dermalive facial filler...
March 14, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Vivek Murthy, Janna Minehart, Daniel H Sterman
Modern cancer immunotherapies represent a major shift in paradigm with respect to how we understand innate and adaptive responses to malignancy. Successful tumors co-opt normal immunosurveillance mechanisms by potent interactions between the tumor and local draining lymph nodes. Tumor cells mediate a complex and dynamic immunoediting procedure that results in increased vascular efflux into the draining lymphatics, an immunosuppressive microenvironment rich in regulatory T-lymphocytes, dysfunctional antigen presentation, and downregulation of normal effector lymphocyte responses...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Di Wang, Qian Li, Yidi Qu, Mengya Wang, Lanzhou Li, Yang Liu, Yu Li
Gloeostereum incarnatum , a precious edible mushroom, displays anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities; however, its immunomodulatory effect has not been studied yet. The present study aimed to investigate whether polysaccharide compositions of G. incarnatum polysaccharides (GIPS) possess immunomodulatory and immuno-enhancing effects in a Cyclophosphamide monohydrate (CTX)-induced BALB/c mice model. The 28-day GIPS administration at doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9 g/kg remarkably reversed the bodyweight loss, increased the thymic index and promoted T lymphocyte proliferation in CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
A J Ullmann, J M Aguado, S Arikan-Akdagli, D W Denning, A H Groll, K Lagrou, C Lass-Flörl, R E Lewis, P Munoz, P E Verweij, A Warris, F Ader, M Akova, M C Arendrup, R A Barnes, C Beigelman-Aubry, S Blot, E Bouza, R J M Brüggemann, D Buchheidt, J Cadranel, E Castagnola, A Chakrabarti, M Cuenca-Estrella, G Dimopoulos, J Fortun, J-P Gangneux, J Garbino, W J Heinz, R Herbrecht, C P Heussel, C C Kibbler, N Klimko, B J Kullberg, C Lange, T Lehrnbecher, J Löffler, O Lortholary, J Maertens, O Marchetti, J F Meis, L Pagano, P Ribaud, M Richardson, E Roilides, M Ruhnke, M Sanguinetti, D C Sheppard, J Sinkó, A Skiada, M J G T Vehreschild, C Viscoli, O A Cornely
The European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the European Respiratory Society Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on diagnosis and management of aspergillosis. Of the numerous recommendations, a few are summarized here. Chest computed tomography as well as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with suspicion of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA) are strongly recommended. For diagnosis, direct microscopy, preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jiajia Xi, Qian Huang, Lei Wang, Xiaodong Ma, Qipan Deng, Munish Kumar, Zhiyuan Zhou, Ling Li, Zhaoyang Zeng, Ken H Young, Mingzhi Zhang, Yong Li
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is one of the most abundant microRNAs in mammalian cells. It has been intensively studied for its role in regulating apoptosis and oncogenic transformation. However, the impact of miR-21 on host anti-tumor immunity remains unknown. Tumor-associated macrophages are a major leukocyte type that infiltrates tumors and predominantly develops into immunosuppressive, tumor-promoting M2-like macrophages. In contrast, the pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages have tumoricidal activity. In this study, we show that genetic deficiency of miR-21 promotes the polarization of macrophages toward an M1-like phenotype in vivo and in vitro in the presence of tumor cells; thus it confers host mice with enhanced anti-tumor immunity...
March 15, 2018: Oncogene
Liliana L Cubas-Gaona, Elisabet Diaz-Beneitez, Marina Ciscar, José F Rodríguez, Dolores Rodríguez
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the Birnaviridae family and is the etiological agent of a highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease (IBD) that affects domestic chickens ( Gallus gallus ). IBD or Gumboro disease leads to high morbidity and mortality of infected animals, and is responsible for major economic losses to the poultry industry world-wide. IBD is characterized by a massive loss of IgM-bearing B lymphocytes and the destruction of the bursa of Fabricius. The molecular bases of the IBDV pathogenicity are still poorly understood, nonetheless, an exacerbated cytokine immune response and B cell depletion due to apoptosis are considered main factors contributing to the severity of the disease...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
María Cecilia Gimenez, Flavia Adriana Zanetti, Mauricio R Terebiznik, María Isabel Colombo, Laura Ruth Delgui
Birnaviruses are unconventional members of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses group that are characterized by the lack of a transcriptionally active inner core. Instead, the birnaviral particles organize their genome in ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) composed by dsRNA segments, the dsRNA-binding VP3 protein, and the viral encoded RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). This and other structural features suggests that birnaviruses may follow a completely different replication program from that followed by members of the Reoviridae family, supporting the hypothesis that birnaviruses are the evolutionary link between single-stranded positive RNA (+ssRNA) and dsRNA viruses...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Shimpei Shirai, Megumi Hara, Yasuhisa Sakata, Nanae Tsuruoka, Koji Yamamoto, Ryo Shimoda, Yasuyuki Gomi, Hironori Yoshii, Kazuma Fujimoto, Ryuichi Iwakiri
Background and Aims: No reports have described the immunogenicity and boosting effect of the quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (QIV) in adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Adults with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis were randomly assigned to a single vaccination group or booster group, and a QIV was administered subcutaneously. Serum samples were collected before vaccination, 4 weeks after vaccination, and after the influenza season in the single vaccination group...
March 9, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Liaoran Wang, David K C Cooper, Lars Burdorf, Yi Wang, Hayato Iwase
There has recently been considerable progress in the results of pig organ transplantation in nonhuman primates (NHPs), largely associated with the availability of (i) pigs genetically-engineered to overcome coagulation dysregulation, and (ii) novel immunosuppressive agents. The barriers of thrombotic microangiopathy and/or consumptive coagulation were believed to be associated with (i) activation of the graft vascular endothelial cells (VECs) by a low level of anti-pig antibody binding and/or complement deposition and/or innate immune cell activity, and (ii) molecular incompatibilities between the NHP and pig coagulation-anticoagulation systems...
March 10, 2018: Transplantation
Shin Hwang, Chul-Soo Ahn, Ki-Hun Kim, Deok-Bog Moon, Tae-Yong Ha, Gi-Won Song, Dong-Hwan Jung, Gil-Chun Park, Sung-Gyu Lee
Backgrounds/Aims: Long-term immunosuppression regimens after liver transplantation (LT) are rarely reported in detail. We aimed to provide information on actual long-term immunosuppression regimens through this cross-sectional study. Methods: Our institutional LT database was searched for adult patients who underwent primary LT operation from 2000 to 2016. We identified 3620 live recipients with actual information on immunosuppressive agent use for 1-17 years. Results: The study cohort was divided into 7 groups according to posttransplantation period...
February 2018: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
Muhammad Naeem, Junhwan Bae, Murtada A Oshi, Min-Soo Kim, Hyung Ryong Moon, Bok Luel Lee, Eunok Im, Yunjin Jung, Jin-Wook Yoo
Background: Colon-targeted oral nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as an ideal, safe, and effective therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC) owing to their ability to selectively accumulate in inflamed colonic mucosa. Cyclosporine A (CSA), an immunosuppressive agent, has long been used as rescue therapy in severe steroid-refractory UC. In this study, we developed CSA-loaded dual-functional polymeric NPs composed of Eudragit® FS30D as a pH-sensitive polymer for targeted delivery to the inflamed colon, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as a sustained-release polymer...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Sakeen W Kashem, Colleen K Correll, Richard K Vehe, Patricia M Hobday, Bryce A Binstadt, Sheilagh M Maguiness
BACKGROUND: Morphea, or 'localized scleroderma', is an inflammatory disorder resulting in fibrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Joint contractures, arthralgias and functional compromise are recognized associations of pediatric morphea. The co-existence of inflammatory arthritis and morphea is not well-described in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between pediatric morphea and inflammatory arthritis with regards to cutaneous, musculoskeletal and laboratory findings and treatment regimens...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Marjorie M Walker, Michael Potter, Nicholas J Talley
Under normal physiological conditions, eosinophils are present throughout the gastrointestinal tract distal to the squamous oesophagus. Increases in their numbers signify primary and secondary eosinophilic conditions. The rare primary eosinophilic diseases eosinophilic gastroenteritis and eosinophilic colitis affect fewer than ten in 100 000 people, and are characterised by numerous mucosal eosinophils, distributed in sheets and sometimes extending from the mucosa into the submucosa. Pathogenesis of these diseases is poorly understood, but food allergies and intestinal dysbiosis have been implicated...
April 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Lucy Meunier, Jose Ursic-Bedoya, Georges-Philippe Pageaux, Dominique Larrey
BACKGROUND: Although very rare, pantoprazole can result in acute hepatitis. It has yet to be reported, however, that it can also cause chronic autoimmune hepatitis. AIM, METHOD, AND RESULTS: We report the case of a patient in whom pantoprazole administration for two months was followed by acute liver injury with severe jaundice and features of autoimmunity. A liver biopsy revealed acute hepatocellular lesions associated with cholestasis, acute cholangitis, and polymorphous inflammatory infiltration suggestive of drug-induced liver injury...
March 12, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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