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Immunosuppressive agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944899/smilax-glabra-rhizoma-affects-the-pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-of-methotrexate-by-increasing-the-p%C3%A2-glycoprotein-mrna-expression-in-rats-after-oral-administration
#1
Yang Li, Shigui Deng, Ya Ζhao, Lijuan Liu, Ruizhi Zhao
Methotrexate (MTX) is a widely used immunosuppressant and anticancer agent with high toxicity. Smilax glabra Rhizoma (SGR) has the effect of detoxification and immunoregulation, and has been used as both food and folk medicine in many countries. Co‑administration of MTX and SGR occurs in several diseases. However, whether they work synergistically or are incompatible remains unknown. In the present study, MTX was administrated to rats alone or combined with SGR. Blood and tissue samples were collected at designated times...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944125/extensive-pyoderma-gangrenosum-a-challenging-diagnosis-and-literature-review-of-management
#2
Faizan Yasin, Salman Assad, Mehr Zahid, Shuja A Malik
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a very rare, non-infectious leukocytic dermatosis, which is often associated with an underlying systemic disease. It is usually diagnosed based on the apparent clinical findings and by excluding other causes of ulcerative skin diseases. Treatment modality includes the use of systemic steroids and oral steroids. Immunosuppressive agents, such as cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil, can also be added if it fails to respond to steroids. We report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum in an 85-year-old female who presented in the inpatient facility with rapidly enlarging necrotic, ulcerative lesions with accompanying fever...
July 18, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943384/infection-and-malignancy-outweigh-cardiovascular-mortality-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-favorit-trial
#3
Larry A Weinrauch, John A D'Elia, Matthew R Weir, Suphamai Bunnapradist, Peter V Finn, Jiankang Liu, Brian Claggett, Anthony P Monaco
INTRODUCTION: Now that long term survival after successful renal transplantation is no longer limited by excessive cardiovascular risk, the primary care physician should consider that infection and malignancy are leading non-cardiovascular causes of death even in the recipient with diabetes. METHODS: We accessed the NIH sponsored FAVORIT study population (4010 renal transplant recipients with elevated homocysteine levels) studied to determine whether folate and B12 supplementation would reduce cardiovascular endpoints...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942074/immunosuppression-for-the-uveitides
#4
REVIEW
Douglas A Jabs
The uveitides are a collection of more than 30 diseases characterized by intraocular inflammation. Many cases of juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis, many cases of intermediate uveitis, and most cases of posterior and panuveitides requiring treatment are treated with corticosteroids and immunosuppression. Disease-specific, time-updated modeling of clinical data for several uveitides suggests superior prevention of ocular complications and visual outcomes with immunosuppression. These studies also suggest that oral corticosteroids at doses low enough for safe long-term therapy (i...
September 20, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941627/-childhood-steroid-dependent-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome-predictive-factors-for-the-need-of-immunosuppressive-treatment
#5
M Golay, A Douillard, N Nagot, M Fila, L Ichay, F Dalla Vale, J Tenenbaum, D Morin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: More than half of the children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome become steroid-dependent (or frequent relapsers) and will later require the use of complementary treatment aiming to reduce steroids' side effects and to limit the number of proteinuria relapses. It appears important to identify these children as early as possible in order to adapt their treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the population of children, under 18 years of age, diagnosed between 1/01/2000 and 31/05/2015 with an idiopathic nephrotic syndrome and followed at the Montpellier University Hospital to search for criteria predictive of steroid-sparing agent use...
September 20, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941161/from-clinical-observations-and-molecular-dissection-to-novel-therapeutic-strategies-for-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Hans D Ochs, Daniel Petroni
The field of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) is rapidly expanding with more than 300 genetically defined disorders that have been clinically described and molecularly analyzed. The molecular dissection of these entities has led to the discovery of new immunologic pathways and to novel and effective disease-specific therapies. This review provides a summary of these primary immune defects categorized by clinical phenotype and molecular similarity as defined by the International Union of Immunologic Societies (IUIS) Expert Committee for PID...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940570/encouraging-experience-using-multi-transgenic-xenografts-in-a-pig-to-baboon-cardiac-xenotransplantation-model
#7
Joshua L Chan, Avneesh K Singh, Philip C Corcoran, Marvin L Thomas, Billeta Gt Lewis, David L Ayares, Todd Vaught, Keith A Horvath, Muhammad M Mohiuddin
BACKGROUND: Innovations in transgenic technology have facilitated improved xenograft survival. Additional gene expression appears to be necessary to overcome the remaining immune and biologic incompatibilities. We report for the first time the novel use of six-gene modifications within a pig-to-baboon cardiac xenotransplantation model. METHODS: Baboons (8-15 kg) underwent heterotopic cardiac transplantation using xenografts obtained from genetically engineered pigs...
September 22, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939510/characterization-and-protective-effect-of-polygonatum-sibiricum-polysaccharide-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-immunosuppression-in-balb-c-mice
#8
Na Liu, Zhonghua Dong, Xiaosong Zhu, Hongya Xu, Zhongxi Zhao
In this study, the polysaccharide from Polygonatum sibiricum (PSP) was evaluated for the immunomodulatory activity by the cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced immunosuppressed-model in vivo. The PSP has been analyzed in order to identify a variety of chemical properties such as monosaccharide compositions and structural confirmation. The results show that the main components of PSP were galactose and rhamnose. The PSP could significantly stimulate neutral red phagocytosis of RAW264.7 macrophages. Compared with the cyclophosphamide group, PSP accelerated recovery of spleen and thymus indexes, and enhanced T cell and B cell proliferation responses as well as peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938609/pegylated-arginine-deiminase-can-modulate-tumor-immune-microenvironment-by-affecting-immune-checkpoint-expression-decreasing-regulatory-t-cell-accumulation-and-inducing-tumor-t-cell-infiltration
#9
Elena Brin, Katherine Wu, Hsin-Tze Lu, Yudou He, Zhaoming Dai, Wei He
PEGylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) is being investigated in clinical studies in arginine auxotrophic cancers and is well-tolerated. The anti-tumor properties of ADI-PEG 20 have been extensively investigated - ADI-PEG 20 inhibits the growth of auxotrophic cancers in vitro and in vivo - however, its impact on immune cells is largely unknown. Here we report the potential impact of ADI-PEG 20 on the tumor immune microenvironment. ADI-PEG 20 induced immunosuppressive programmed death-ligand 1 expression on some cancer cells in vitro, but the magnitude of the increase was cell line dependent and in most relatively small...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937523/cytomegalovirus-retinitis-associated-with-occlusive-vasculopathy-in-an-elderly-human-immunodeficiency-virus-negative-man
#10
Kareem Moussa, Thuy Doan, Jay M Stewart, Jessica Shantha, John Gonzales, Nisha Acharya, Emmett T Cunningham
PURPOSE: To present a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis associated with occlusive vasculopathy presenting as sudden unilateral loss of vision in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative elderly man. METHODS: Clinical case report and literature review. RESULTS: An 84-year-old Chinese man with diabetes mellitus and primary open-angle glaucoma was seen in consultation by our uveitis service for evaluation of sudden vision loss in the right eye...
September 20, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934971/assessment-classification-and-treatment-of-calcinosis-as-a-complication-of-juvenile-dermatomyositis-a-survey-of-pediatric-rheumatologists-by-the-childhood-arthritis-and-rheumatology-research-alliance-carra
#11
A B Orandi, K W Baszis, V R Dharnidharka, A M Huber, M F Hoeltzel
BACKGROUND: There is no standardized approach to the management of JDM-associated calcinosis and its phenotypes. Current knowledge of treatment outcomes is confined to small series and case reports. We describe physician perspectives toward diagnostic approach, classification and treatment directly targeting calcinosis, independent of overall JDM therapy. METHODS: An electronic survey of 22 questions was organized into sections regarding individual practices of assessment, classification and treatment of calcinosis, including perceived successes of therapies...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934936/transitional-cell-carcinoma-involving-graft-kidney-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient-a-case-report
#12
Yu Ah Hong, Hyeon Seok Hwang, Hae Joung Sul, Suk Young Kim, Yoon Kyung Chang
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation (KT) is the treatment option for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) to prolong survival and improve quality of life. Although the use of potent immunosuppressive agents increases graft survival in kidney transplantation recipients (KTRs), it may lead to the development of malignancy, including transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). TCC developing in the pelvis of graft kidney is very rare in KTRs. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old male visited hospital with complaints of nausea, vomiting and gross hematuria...
September 21, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932195/hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-attenuates-the-apoptosis-of-peripheral-blood-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-a-murine-model-of-sepsis
#13
Jinping Wang, Ping Wang, Shuiqing Gui, Yun Li, Runhua Chen, Renqing Zeng, Peiyan Zhao, Hanwei Wu, Zheyu Huang, Jianlong Wu
Sepsis is generally considered as a severe condition of inflammation that leads to lymphocyte apoptosis and multiple organ dysfunction. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in infectious diseases. However, the therapeutic effect of HSYA on polymicrobial sepsis remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic effects and the mechanisms of action of HSYA on immunosuppression in a murine model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931757/vista-comp-an-engineered-checkpoint-receptor-agonist-that-potently-suppresses-t-cell-mediated-immune-responses
#14
Aaron Prodeus, Aws Abdul-Wahid, Amanda Sparkes, Nicholas W Fischer, Marzena Cydzik, Nicholas Chiang, Mays Alwash, Alessandra Ferzoco, Nathalie Vacaresse, Michael Julius, Reginald M Gorczysnki, Jean Gariépy
V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is a recently discovered immune checkpoint ligand that functions to suppress T cell activity. The therapeutic potential of activating this immune checkpoint pathway to reduce inflammatory responses remains untapped, largely due to the inability to derive agonists targeting its unknown receptor. A dimeric construct of the IgV domain of VISTA (VISTA-Fc) was shown to suppress the activation of T cells in vitro. However, this effect required its immobilization on a solid surface, suggesting that VISTA-Fc may display limited efficacy as a VISTA-receptor agonist in vivo...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929282/anoperineal-lesions-in-crohn-s-disease-french-recommendations-for-clinical-practice
#15
REVIEW
D Bouchard, L Abramowitz, G Bouguen, C Brochard, A Dabadie, V de Parades, M Eléouet-Kaplan, N Fathallah, J-L Faucheron, L Maggiori, Y Panis, F Pigot, P Rouméguère, A Sénéjoux, L Siproudhis, G Staumont, J-M Suduca, B Vinson-Bonnet, J-D Zeitoun
BACKGROUND: Anoperineal lesion (APL) occurrence is a significant event in the evolution of Crohn's disease (CD). Management should involve a multidisciplinary approach combining the knowledge of the gastroenterologist, the colorectal surgeon and the radiologist who have appropriate experience in this area. Given the low level of evidence of available medical and surgical strategies, the aim of this work was to establish a French expert consensus on management of anal Crohn's disease. These recommendations were led under the aegis of the Société Nationale Française de Colo-Proctologie (SNFCP)...
September 19, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928840/a-cytokine-signal-inhibitor-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-enhances-cancer-metastasis-via-depletion-of-nk-cells-in-an-experimental-lung-metastasis-mouse-model-of-colon-cancer
#16
Hideki Shimaoka, Shinsuke Takeno, Kenji Maki, Takahide Sasaki, Suguru Hasegawa, Yuichi Yamashita
Current therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) relies on global suppression of the immune response or specific blockade of inflammatory cytokines. However, it is unclear how immunosuppressants affect patients with cancer. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of three biological agents, tofacitinib, anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1) and etanercept, which are used for the treatment of RA diseases, on a tumor-bearing mouse model was investigated. The effect of the three agents was examined using a mouse lung-metastasis model with the murine colon 26 cancer cell line...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922662/treatment-of-autoimmune-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-astrocytopathy-follow-up-in-7-cases
#17
Xinguang Yang, Junyan Liang, Qingmei Huang, Huiming Xu, Cong Gao, Youming Long, Xiaoyu Xiao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to report an autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy with long-term follow-up in 7 patients. METHODS: Antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay and patient data were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Seven patients (4 female, 3 male) with ≥1 year follow-up were included. All patients had positive GFAP antibodies in their cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Their median age at disease onset was 56 years (range 27-69) and the median disease duration was 1 year (range 1-4)...
September 19, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918421/macrophage-activation-syndrome-at-the-onset-of-glucocorticoid-resistant-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-case-report
#18
Delia Tulbă, Marius Balea, Cristian Băicuș
INTRODUCTION: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory state mediated by uncontrolled cytokine storm and haemophagocytosis. Although rarely reported, MAS might occur in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), notably as an inaugural manifestation. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the cornerstone of SLE therapy. However, in some cases high doses of GCs are required to achieve remission (i.e. glucocorticoid-resistance), leading to significant side effects. CASE REPORT: A 28-year-old Romani male was admitted to our hospital for polyarthralgia, polyserositis and fatigability...
September 16, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917404/clinical-course-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-mooren-ulcer-who-had-cataract-surgery
#19
Shilpa Das, Ashik Mohamed, Virender S Sangwan
PURPOSE: To report outcomes of cataract surgery in patients with Mooren ulcer. SETTING: L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: The medical records of patients with Mooren ulcer who had cataract surgery between 2000 and 2015 were assessed. The main outcome measures were the role of preoperative immunosuppression and disease inactivity, cataract surgery safety, visual outcomes, and postoperative ulcer recurrence...
August 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917247/the-optimism-surrounding-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-and-immunomodulation
#20
Hannah Tharmalingam, Peter J Hoskin
In recent years, rapidly evolving radiation techniques have enabled the precise delivery of very high doses of radiation to local targets with stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR). In addition to its direct cytotoxicity, radiation and in particular SABR has powerful immunomodulatory effects resulting in immunogenic cell death and potentiation of the anti-tumour immune response. However, due to the immunosuppressive nature of non-irradiated sites of metastases, radiotherapy alone is seldom sufficient to induce the systemic response required for distant tumour rejection...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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