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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934559/psychological-perspectives-on-interrogation
#1
Aldert Vrij, Christian A Meissner, Ronald P Fisher, Saul M Kassin, Charles A Morgan, Steven M Kleinman
Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933005/human-papillomavirus-in-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-south-eastern-norway-prevalence-genotype-and-survival
#2
Guro Haugen Fossum, Agnes Kathrine Lie, Peter Jebsen, Lars Erik Sandlie, Jon Mork
The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) and survival in all oropharyngeal cancer (OPSCC) patients in a Norwegian population cohort in 2010-2011. Clinical data were retrieved from hospital records. Biopsies from 166 patients were tested for the presence of HR HPV by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). p16 immunohistochemistry was performed in 138 cases. Survival was compared between groups of patients with tumors positive for HPV16 and other HR HPV genotypes, and patients with HPV negative tumors...
September 20, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932008/h-reflex-changes-in-adolescents-with-idiopathic-scoliosis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Mohamed Salaheldien Mohamed Alayat, Ehab Mohamed Abdel-Kafy, Ashraf Mohamed Abdelaal
[Purpose] To detect H-reflex asymmetry and investigate the effect of direction sensitive exercise therapy protocol among patients with thoracolumbar and/or lumbar scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty patients (10-17 years), Cobb's angle 10-20 degrees with thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis participated in the study. Soleus H-reflex was tested on both sides during prone lying position and standing position. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups. Group I received direction sensitive exercise therapy while the participants in group II received traditional exercise...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931729/colour-and-luminance-contrasts-predict-the-human-detection-of-natural-stimuli-in-complex-visual-environments
#4
Thomas E White, Bibiana Rojas, Johanna Mappes, Petri Rautiala, Darrell J Kemp
Much of what we know about human colour perception has come from psychophysical studies conducted in tightly-controlled laboratory settings. An enduring challenge, however, lies in extrapolating this knowledge to the noisy conditions that characterize our actual visual experience. Here we combine statistical models of visual perception with empirical data to explore how chromatic (hue/saturation) and achromatic (luminant) information underpins the detection and classification of stimuli in a complex forest environment...
September 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924688/the-barrier-to-informed-choice-in-cancer-screening-statistical-illiteracy-in-physicians-and-patients
#5
Odette Wegwarth, Gerd Gigerenzer
An efficient health care requires both informed doctors and patients. Our current healthcare system falls short on both counts. Most doctors and patients do not understand the available medical evidence. To illustrate the extent of the problem in the setting of cancer screening: In a representative sample of some 5000 women in nine European countries, 92% overestimated the reduction of breast cancer mortality by mammography by a factor of 10-200, or did not know. For a similar sample of about 5000 men with respect to PSA screening, this number was 89%...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920897/automated-analysis-of-unregistered-multi-view-mammograms-with-deep-learning
#6
Gustavo Carneiro, Jacinto Nascimento, Andrew P Bradley
We describe an automated methodology for the analysis of unregistered cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) mammography views in order to estimate the patient's risk of developing breast cancer. The main innovation behind this methodology lies in the use of deep learning models for the problem of jointly classifying unregistered mammogram views and respective segmentation maps of breast lesions (i.e., masses and micro-calcifications). This is a holistic methodology that can classify a whole mammographic exam, containing the CC and MLO views and the segmentation maps, as opposed to the classification of individual lesions, which is the dominant approach in the field...
September 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920009/raman-under-water-nonlinear-and-nearfield-approaches-for-electrochemical-surface-science
#7
REVIEW
Natalia Martín Sabanés, Katrin F Domke
Electrochemistry is re-gaining attention among scientists because the complex interplay between electronic and chemical interfacial processes lies at the bottom of a broad range of important research disciplines like alternative energy conversion or green catalysis and synthesis. While rapid progress has been made in recent years regarding novel technological applications, the community increasingly recognizes that the understanding of the molecular processes that govern macroscopic device properties is still rather limited - which hinders a systematic and more complete exploration of novel material and functionality space...
August 2017: ChemElectroChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919997/increased-infiltration-and-tolerised-antigen-specific-cd8-tem-cells-in-tumor-but-not-peripheral-blood-have-no-impact-on-survival-of-hcmv-glioblastoma-patients
#8
M Bahador, A Gras Navarro, M A Rahman, M Dominguez-Valentin, S Sarowar, E Ulvestad, G Njølstad, S A Lie, E K Kristoffersen, E Bratland, M Chekenya
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antigens in glioblastoma (GBM) present opportunities for personalised immunotherapy. However, their presence in GBM tissue is still under debate, and evidence of their impact on functional immune responses and prognosis is sparse. Here, we investigated the presence of pp65 (UL83) and immediate early 1 (IE-1) HCMV antigens in a cohort of Norwegian GBM patients (n = 177), using qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and serology. HCMV status was then used to investigate whether viral antigens influenced immune cell phenotype, infiltration, activation and patient survival...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918146/short-communication-automated-detection-of-behavioral-changes-from-respiratory-disease-in-pre-weaned-calves
#9
T H Swartz, A N Findlay, C S Petersson-Wolfe
Group housing of calves can pose a challenge in identifying respiratory disease; therefore, it is necessary to develop tools that can identify these disease events. In this experiment, pre-weaned calves (n = 30) were housed in groups with an automatic calf feeder and were fitted with an accelerometer. Step activity, lying behaviors, and feeding behaviors were recorded to determine the effect of respiratory disease. All calves were health scored twice daily, and calves with respiratory scores ≥5 were diagnosed with respiratory disease (n = 10)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917279/imri-during-transsphenoidal-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Prashant Chittiboina
A variety of intraoperative MRI (iMRI) systems are in use during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). The variations in iMRI systems include field strengths, magnet configurations, and room configurations. Most studies report that the primary utility of iMRI during TSS lies in detecting resectable tumor residuals following maximal resection with conventional technique. Stereotaxis, neuronavigation, and complication avoidance/detection are enhanced by iMRI use during TSS. The use of iMRI during TSS can lead to increased extent of resection for large tumors...
October 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915644/phytoagent-deoxyelephantopin-derivative-inhibits-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cell-activity-by-inducing-oxidative-stress-mediated-paraptosis-like-cell-death
#11
Jeng-Yuan Shiau, Kyoko Nakagawa-Goto, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Lie-Fen Shyur
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly metastatic cancer among the breast cancer subgroups. A thorny issue for clinical therapy of TNBC is lack of an efficient targeted therapeutic strategy. We previously created a novel sesquiterpene lactone analog (named DETD-35) derived from plant deoxyelephantopin (DET) which exhibits potent effects against human TNBC MDA-MB-231 tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Here we studied the mechanisms of both DET and DETD-35 against MDA-MB-231 cells. DETD-35 (3-fold decreased in IC50) exhibited better anti-TNBC cell activity than DET as observed through induction of reactive oxygen species production (within 2 h treatment) and damage to the ER structures, resulting in ER-derived cytoplasmic vacuolation and ubiquitinated protein accumulation in the treated cells...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913805/real-time-pcr-for-the-detection-of-precise-transgene-copy-number-in-wheat
#12
Angelica Giancaspro, Agata Gadaleta, Antonio Blanco
Despite the unceasing advances in genetic transformation techniques, the success of common delivery methods still lies on the behavior of the integrated transgenes in the host genome. Stability and expression of the introduced genes are influenced by several factors such as chromosomal location, transgene copy number and interaction with the host genotype. Such factors are traditionally characterized by Southern blot analysis, which can be time-consuming, laborious, and often unable to detect the exact copy number of rearranged transgenes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899670/definition-pathogenesis-and-management-of-that-cursed-dyspepsia
#13
REVIEW
Pramoda Koduru, Malcolm Irani, Eamonn M M Quigley
Dyspepsia is an umbrella term used to encompass a number of symptoms thought to originate from the upper gastrointestinal tract. These symptoms are relatively non-specific; not surprisingly, therefore, a myriad of conditions may present with any one or a combination of these symptoms. Therein lies the clinician's first challenge: detecting the minority who may have a potentially life-threatening disorder, such as gastric cancer, from a population whose symptoms are, for the most part, considered functional in origin...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899576/neuroscience-and-everyday-life-facing-the-translation-problem
#14
Jolien C Francken, Marc Slors
To enable the impact of neuroscientific insights on our daily lives, careful translation of research findings is required. However, neuroscientific terminology and common-sense concepts are often hard to square. For example, when neuroscientists study lying to allow the use of brain scans for lie-detection purposes, the concept of lying in the scientific case differs considerably from the concept in court. Furthermore, lying and other cognitive concepts are used unsystematically and have an indirect and divergent mapping onto brain activity...
September 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892381/low-temperature-dynamics-of-chain-labeled-lipids-in-ester-and-ether-linked-phosphatidylcholine-membranes
#15
Erika Aloi, Maria Oranges, Rita Guzzi, Rosa Bartucci
Continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and two-pulse echo detected spectra of chain-labeled lipids are used to study the dynamics of frozen lipid membranes over the temperature range 77-260 K. Bilayers of ester-linked dihexadecanoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) with noninterdigitated chains and ether-linked dihexadecyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) with interdigitated chains are considered. Rapid stochastic librations of small angular amplitude are found in both lipid matrices. In noninterdigitated DPPC bilayers, the mean-square angular amplitude, [Formula: see text], of the motion increases with temperature and it is larger close to the chain termini than close to the polar/apolar interface...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879513/high-contrast-sensitivity-for-visually-guided-flight-control-in-bumblebees
#16
Aravin Chakravarthi, Almut Kelber, Emily Baird, Marie Dacke
Many insects rely on vision to find food, to return to their nest and to carefully control their flight between these two locations. The amount of information available to support these tasks is, in part, dictated by the spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity of their visual systems. Here, we investigate the absolute limits of these visual properties for visually guided position and speed control in Bombus terrestris. Our results indicate that the limit of spatial vision in the translational motion detection system of B...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878088/the-effect-of-polymorphisms-at-codon-146-of-the-goat-prnp-gene-on-susceptibility-to-challenge-with-classical-scrapie-by-different-routes
#17
Penelope Papasavva-Stylianou, Marion Mathieson Simmons, Angel Ortiz-Pelaez, Otto Windl, John Spiropoulos, Soteria Georgiadou
This report presents the results of experimental challenges of goats with scrapie by both the intracerebral and oral routes, exploring the effects of polymorphisms at codon 146 of the goat PRNP gene on resistance to disease. The results of these studies illustrate that while goats of all genotypes can be infected by intracerebral (ic) challenge, the survival distribution of the animals homozygous for asparagine at codon 146 was significantly shorter than for all other genotypes (chi2 =10.8. P=0.001). In contrast, only those animals homozygous for asparagine at codon 146 (NN) succumb to oral challenge...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877219/a-new-approach-to-chromosome-wide-analysis-of-x-linked-markers-identifies-new-associations-in-asian-and-european-case-parent-triads-of-orofacial-clefts
#18
Øivind Skare, Håkon K Gjessing, Miriam Gjerdevik, Øystein A Haaland, Julia Romanowska, Rolv T Lie, Astanand Jugessur
BACKGROUND: GWAS discoveries on the X-chromosome are underrepresented in the literature primarily because the analytical tools that have been applied were originally designed for autosomal markers. Our objective here is to employ a new robust and flexible tool for chromosome-wide analysis of X-linked markers in complex traits. Orofacial clefts are good candidates for such analysis because of the consistently observed excess of females with cleft palate only (CPO) and excess of males with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873447/flat-and-complex-temperate-reefs-provide-similar-support-for-fish-evidence-for-a-unimodal-species-habitat-relationship
#19
Avery B Paxton, Emily A Pickering, Alyssa M Adler, J Christopher Taylor, Charles H Peterson
Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873423/an-immunosignature-test-distinguishes-trypanosoma-cruzi-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-and-west-nile-virus-seropositivity-among-asymptomatic-blood-donors
#20
Michael Rowe, Jonathan Melnick, Robert Gerwien, Joseph B Legutki, Jessica Pfeilsticker, Theodore M Tarasow, Kathryn F Sykes
BACKGROUND: The complexity of the eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma (T.) cruzi manifests in its highly dynamic genome, multi-host life cycle, progressive morphologies and immune-evasion mechanisms. Accurate determination of infection or Chagas' disease activity and prognosis continues to challenge researchers. We hypothesized that a diagnostic platform with higher ligand complexity than previously employed may hold value. METHODOLOGY: We applied the ImmunoSignature Technology (IST) for the detection of T...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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