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Optic pathway tumors

Peng Mi, Fang Wang, Nobuhiro Nishiyama, Horacio Cabral
Several imaging modalities have been widely applied for the detection of cancer and its pathological activity in combination with probes capable of improving the contrast between healthy and cancerous tissues. Biocompatible polymeric nanoassemblies have been developed for precise detection of malignant tumors by enhancing the selectivity and sensitivity of the imaging. Exploiting the compartmentalized structure of the nanoassemblies advantageously allows delivering both imaging and therapeutic agents for cancer multifunctional imaging and theranostics, i...
October 14, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Giuseppe Minniti, Mattia Falchetto Osti, Maximillian Niyazi
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) delivered as either single-fraction or multi-fraction SRS (2-5 fractions) is frequently employed in patients with residual or recurrent pituitary adenoma. The most common delivery systems used for SRS include the cobalt-60 system Gamma Knife, the CyberKnife (CK) robotic radiosurgery system, or a modified conventional radiotherapy machine (linear accelerator, LINAC). Tumor control and normalization of hormone hypersecretion have been reported in 75-100 % and 25-80 % of patients, respectively...
October 11, 2016: Radiation Oncology
Tao Liang, Xiao-Yong Hu, Yong-Hui Li, Bin-Qiang Tian, Zuo-Wei Li, Qiang Fu
MicroRNA-21 (miRNA-21), a kind of short, noncoding RNAs, functioned as a tumor marker and was upregulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the underlying mechanisms of miRNA-21 in RCC were uncertain. Therefore, the effects and mechanisms of miRNA-21 on the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of cultured human RCC cells were further investigated in this study. After slicing miRNA-21 in RCC cells, the viability, mRNA expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ, caspase 3 activity, and protein expression of mTOR, STAT3, and pSTAT3 were determined...
2016: Oncology Research
Hua He, Zhencai Wang, Tiantian Cheng, Xu Liu, Xiaojuan Wang, Junying Wang, Hao Ren, Yawei Sun, Yanzhuo Song, Jiang Yang, Yongqing Xia, Shengjie Wang, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Fang Huang
Fluorescence imaging requires bio-selective, sensitive, nontoxic molecular probes to detect precise location of lesions for fundamental research and clinical applications. Typical inorganic semiconductor nanomaterials with large sizes (> 10 nm) can offer high-quality fluorescence imaging due to their fascinating optical properties, but are limited to low selectivity as well as slow clearance pathway. We here report an N- and O-rich carbogenic small molecular complex (SMC, MW < 1000 Da) that exhibit high quantum yield (up to 80%), nucleic acid-binding enhanced excitation-dependent fluorescence (EDF) and a near infrared (NIR) emission peaked at 850 nm with an ultra-large Stokes shift (~ 500 nm)...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Arvin R Wali, David R Santiago-Dieppa, Jeffrey A Steinberg, Ali Alattar, Vincent J Cheung, Royya Modir, Alexander A Khalessi, J Scott Pannell
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is associated with systemic vascular disease, and it can also affect intracranial vasculature in a small percentage of patients. Very rarely, NF1 may co-present with hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Prior reports have documented NF1 with bilateral optic gliomas and a unilateral hypoplastic internal carotid artery; however, we report a case with the aforementioned findings in addition to a right-sided lentiform mass. This case report further suggests a common congenital pathway related to neurofibromin loss of function resulting in both nerve sheath tumors and cerebrovascular anomalies...
August 26, 2016: Curēus
Zhou Xing, Minling Zeng, Huixian Hu, Hui Zhang, Zhuofang Hao, Yuesheng Long, Shengqiang Chen, Hang Su, Zhongmin Yuan, Meng Xu, Jingqi Chen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression and astrocytoma characteristics. METHODS: Pathologic grade and expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67 (proliferation marker), and FMRP were determined in astrocytoma specimens from 74 patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was undertaken. Pathologic grade and protein levels of FMRP were determined in 24 additional patients with astrocytoma and 6 controls (cerebral trauma)...
September 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Ilknur Tugal-Tutkun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary systemic vasculitides represent a spectrum of rare but life-threatening conditions that may also affect the eye in various forms. This article reviews recently published data on ocular manifestations of systemic vasculitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Early diagnosis and timely treatment has led to better visual outcomes in giant cell arteritis (GCA). Gene expression from orbital tissues could distinguish granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) from sarcoidosis and Graves disease, but not from idiopathic orbital inflammation...
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Daniel San-Juan, Manuel Escanio Cortés, Martha Tena-Suck, Adolfo Josué Orozco Garduño, Jesús Alejandro López Pizano, Jonathan Villanueva Domínguez, Maricarmen Fernández Gónzalez-Aragón, Juan Luis Gómez-Amador
This paper reports the case of a patient with optic nerve schwannoma and the first use of neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potentials during the removal of such tumor with no postoperative visual damage. Schwannomas are benign neoplasms of the peripheral nervous system arising from the neural crest-derived Schwann cells, these tumors are rarely located in the optic nerve and the treatment consists on surgical removal leading to high risk of damage to the visual pathway. Case report of a thirty-year-old woman with an optic nerve schwannoma...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Stephanie M Morris, Courtney L Monroe, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a common neurogenetic disorder characterized by significant clinical variability. As such, numerous studies have focused on identifying clinical, radiographic, or molecular biomarkers that predict the occurrence or progression of specific clinical features in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1. One of these clinical biomarkers, macrocephaly, has been proposed as a prognostic factor for optic pathway glioma development. In the current study, the authors demonstrate that macrocephaly is not associated with the development of these brain tumors or the need to institute treatment for clinical progression...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
O J Old, M Isabelle, H Barr
Staging esophageal cancer provides a standardized measure of the extent of disease that can be used to inform decisions about therapy and guide prognosis. For esophageal cancer, the treatment pathways vary greatly depending on stage of disease, and accurate staging is therefore crucial in ensuring the optimal therapy for each patient. For early esophageal cancer (T1 lesions), endoscopic resection can be curative and simultaneously gives accurate staging of depth of invasion. For tumors invading the submucosa or more advanced disease, comprehensive investigation is required to accurately stage the tumor and assess suitability for curative resection...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Alvaro Lassaletta, Katrin Scheinemann, Shayna M Zelcer, Juliette Hukin, Beverley A Wilson, Nada Jabado, Anne Sophie Carret, Lucie Lafay-Cousin, Valerie Larouche, Cynthia E Hawkins, Gregory Russell Pond, Ken Poskitt, Daniel Keene, Donna L Johnston, David D Eisenstat, Rahul Krishnatry, Matthew Mistry, Anthony Arnoldo, Vijay Ramaswamy, Annie Huang, Ute Bartels, Uri Tabori, Eric Bouffet
PURPOSE: Vinblastine monotherapy has shown promising activity and a low-toxicity profile in patients with pediatric low-grade glioma (PLGG) who experienced treatment failure after initial treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiation. The aim of this study was to assess the activity of vinblastine in therapy-naïve children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients < 18 years old with unresectable and/or progressive therapy-naïve PLGG were eligible. Vinblastine was administered once per week at a dose of 6 mg/m(2) intravenously over a period of 70 weeks...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Or Cohen-Inbar
Despite advances in neurosurgical technique, postoperative morbidity continues to taint open complete removal of many benign cranial base tumors (meningioma, pituitary adenomas, schwannomas). The incidence of temporary and permanent cranial nerve deficits is reported to be as high as 44% and 56% respectively, with postoperative mortality rates as high as 9%. As a consequence, many neurosurgeons choose to perform partial resections in order to preserve neurological functions. Progression rates after partial removal of a meningioma with no radiosurgery have been reported to be as high as 70%, compared to > 90% post-radiosurgical progression free survival rates...
May 2016: Harefuah
Kirill A Lyapichev, Amade Bregy, Adrienne Cassel, Chelsea Handfield, Jose Velazquez-Vega, Matthew D Kay, Gregory Basil, Ricardo J Komotar
BACKGROUND: Malignant optic and chiasmatic gliomas are extremely rare, and are classified pathologically as anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Approximately 40 cases of optic GBM in adults have been reported in the literature, and only five of them were described to originate from the optic chiasm. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 82-year-old male patient with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus type 2, melanoma, and bladder cancer presented with gradual vision loss of the left eye in a period of 1 month...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Stephen P Cavnar, Annie Xiao, Anne E Gibbons, Andrew D Rickelmann, Taylor Neely, Kathryn E Luker, Shuichi Takayama, Gary D Luker
Malignant cells from breast cancer and other common cancers such as prostate and melanoma may persist in bone marrow as quiescent, non-dividing cells that remain viable for years or even decades before resuming proliferation to cause recurrent disease. This phenomenon, referred to clinically as tumor dormancy, poses tremendous challenges to curing patients with breast cancer. Quiescent tumor cells resist chemotherapy drugs that predominantly target proliferating cells, limiting success of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant therapies...
June 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
Reinhard E Friedrich, Michael A Nuding
UNLABELLED: Optic pathway glioma (OPG) is a rare neoplasm and a defining feature of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a tumor suppressor genetic disorder. OPG predominantly arises during childhood. In contrast to sporadic OPG, this neoplasm frequently appears to show a more favorable course. Outcome appears to depend on localization of tumor; however, the correlation of imaging findings and visual acuity is in general low. Treatment for symptomatic OPG is not well standardized. Furthermore, determination of visual acuity as the most important parameter of follow-up control is often difficult to determine, particularly in children...
August 2016: Anticancer Research
Ana Banc, Cristina Stan, Ioan Stefan Florian
The objective of this systematic literature review is to assess the role of retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the evaluation of patients with tumors of the visual pathway. We performed a PubMed database search according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The search was restricted to articles published in English between 2000 and 2016, with at least 10 human adult participants enrolled. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. All studies investigated tumors of the anterior visual pathway...
July 28, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Olivier Reynaud, Kerryanne Veronica Winters, Dung Minh Hoang, Youssef Zaim Wadghiri, Dmitry S Novikov, Sungheon Gene Kim
Solid tumor microstructure is related to the aggressiveness of the tumor, interstitial pressure and drug delivery pathways, which are closely associated with treatment response, metastatic spread and prognosis. In this study, we introduce a novel diffusion MRI data analysis framework, pulsed and oscillating gradient MRI for assessment of cell size and extracellular space (POMACE), and demonstrate its feasibility in a mouse tumor model. In vivo and ex vivo POMACE experiments were performed on mice bearing the GL261 murine glioma model (n = 8)...
October 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Helena Lee, Frank A Proudlock, Irene Gottlob
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of adult retinal and optic nerve disease. Children were deprived of this technology until the recent development of handheld spectral-domain OCT (HH-SDOCT). In this article, we review the applications of OCT imaging in pediatric ophthalmology. METHODS: This study was a review of the literature. RESULTS: The acquisition and interpretation of pediatric tomograms differ significantly from those for adults, with adjustments needed to account for the shorter axial lengths, higher refractive errors, and ongoing retinal and optic nerve development in the pediatric eye...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Abhijit Sarkar, Shatadal Ghosh, Sayantani Chowdhury, Bhawna Pandey, Parames C Sil
BACKGROUND: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been promising vehicles for drug delivery. Quercetin (Q), a natural flavonoid, has been reported to have many useful effects. However, poor water solubility as well as less bioavailability has confined its use as a suitable anti-cancer drug. Therefore, profound approach is required to overcome these drawbacks. METHODS: We have synthesized folic acid (FA) armed mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN-FA-Q) loaded with quercetin and then characterized it by DLS, SEM, TEM and FTIR...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Won Hyung A Ryu, Yves Starreveld, Jodie M Burton, Junjie Liu, Fiona Costello
BACKGROUND: Pituitary tumors are one of the most common types of intracranial neoplasms, and can cause progressive visual loss. An ongoing challenge in the management of patients with pituitary tumors is the cost, availability, and reliability of current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to capture clinically significant incremental tumor growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the various MRI-based structural analyses and to explore the relationship between measures of structure and function in the afferent visual pathway of patients with pituitary tumors...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
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