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Optic pathway tumors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009226/report-of-effective-trametinib-therapy-in-2-children-with-progressive-hypothalamic-optic-pathway-pilocytic-astrocytoma-documentation-of-volumetric-response
#1
Catherine Miller, Daniel Guillaume, Kathryn Dusenbery, H Brent Clark, Christopher Moertel
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor in childhood, and astrocytomas account for the largest proportion of these tumors. Increasing sophistication in genetic testing has allowed for the detection of specific mutations within tumor subtypes that may represent targets for individualized tumor treatment. The mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and, more specifically, BRAF mutations have been shown to be prevalent in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and may represent one such area to target...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001089/the-role-of-the-immune-system-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-associated-nervous-system-tumors
#2
Souvik Karmakar, Karlyne M Reilly
With the recent development of new anticancer therapies targeting the immune system, it is important to understand which immune cell types and cytokines play critical roles in suppressing or promoting tumorigenesis. The role of mast cells in promoting neurofibroma growth in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients was hypothesized decades ago. More recent experiments in mouse models have demonstrated the causal role of mast cells in neurofibroma development and of microglia in optic pathway glioma development...
December 21, 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923908/estrogen-activation-of-microglia-underlies-the-sexually-dimorphic-differences-in-nf1-optic-glioma-induced-retinal-pathology
#3
Joseph A Toonen, Anne C Solga, Yu Ma, David H Gutmann
Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) develop low-grade brain tumors throughout the optic pathway. Nearly 50% of children with optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) experience visual impairment, and few regain their vision after chemotherapy. Recent studies have revealed that girls with optic nerve gliomas are five times more likely to lose vision and require treatment than boys. To determine the mechanism underlying this sexually dimorphic difference in clinical outcome, we leveraged Nf1 optic glioma (Nf1-OPG) mice...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903182/single-session-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-optic-pathway-hypothalamic-gliomas
#4
Amr M N El-Shehaby, Wael A Reda, Khaled M Abdel Karim, Reem M Emad Eldin, Ahmed M Nabeel
OBJECTIVE Because of their critical and central location, it is deemed necessary to fractionate when considering irradiating optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas. Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy is considered safer when dealing with gliomas in this location. In this study, the safety and efficacy of single-session stereotactic radiosurgery for optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas were reviewed. METHODS Between December 2004 and June 2014, 22 patients with optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas were treated by single-session Gamma Knife radiosurgery...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894359/can-morphological-mri-differentiate-between-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-and-glioblastoma
#5
H Malikova, E Koubska, J Weichet, J Klener, A Rulseh, R Liscak, Z Vojtech
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare, aggressive brain neoplasm that accounts for roughly 2-6% of primary brain tumors. In contrast, glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and severe glioma subtype, accounting for approximately 50% of diffuse gliomas. The aim of the present study was to evaluate morphological MRI characteristics in histologically-proven PCNSL and GBM at the time of their initial presentation. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated standard diagnostic MRI examinations in 54 immunocompetent patients (26 female, 28 male; age 62...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886557/upconversion-optical-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-small-tumor-detection-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-tri-modal-bioimaging-based-on-high-performance-luminescent-nanorods
#6
Zhenluan Xue, Zhigao Yi, Xiaolong Li, Youbin Li, Mingyang Jiang, Hongrong Liu, Songjun Zeng
In this work, we demonstrated multifunctional NaYbF4: Tm(3+)/Gd(3+) upconversion (UC) nanorods (UCNRs) with near-infrared (NIR)-to-NIR emission and controlled phase and size for UC optical and T1/T2 dual-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided small tumor detection and tri-modal bioimaging. Cell toxicity and post-injection histology results revealed that our designed UCNRs present low biotoxicity and good biocompatibility in living animals. Real-time tracking based on UCNRs in living mice demonstrated that the UCNRs were mainly accumulated in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and excreted through the hepatic pathway...
January 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885957/visual-pathway-impairment-by-pituitary-adenomas-quantitative-diagnostics-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#7
Ylva Lilja, Oscar Gustafsson, Maria Ljungberg, Göran Starck, Bertil Lindblom, Thomas Skoglund, Henrik Bergquist, Karl-Erik Jakobsson, Daniel Nilsson
OBJECTIVE Despite ample experience in surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas, little is known about objective indices that may reveal risk of visual impairment caused by tumor growth that leads to compression of the anterior visual pathways. This study aimed to explore diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a means for objective assessment of injury to the anterior visual pathways caused by pituitary adenomas. METHODS Twenty-three patients with pituitary adenomas, scheduled for transsphenoidal tumor resection, and 20 healthy control subjects were included in the study...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867085/optically-active-stereoisomers-of-5-1-iodoethyl-4-4-isopropylphenyl-dihydrofuran-2-one-the-effect-of-the-configuration-of-stereocenters-on-apoptosis-induction-in-canine-cancer-cell-lines
#8
Aleksandra Pawlak, Witold Gładkowski, Marcelina Mazur, Marta Henklewska, Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz, Andrzej Rapak
Four stereoisomers of δ-iodo-γ-lactones with p-isopropylphenyl substituent at β-position: cis-(4R,5R,6S)-1, cis-(4S,5S,6R)-2, trans-(4R,5S,6R)-3, trans-(4S,5R,6S)-4 with proved antiproliferative activity were subjected to in vitro tests for a better understanding of their anticancer activity. The subject of our interest was a possible relationship between a configuration of chiral centers of the studied lactones and their anticancer potency against a panel of canine cell lines representing hematopoietic (CLBL-1, GL-1, CL-1, CLB70) and mammary gland cancers (P114, CMT-U27, CMT-U309)...
January 5, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857781/delayed-hemorrhage-after-surgery-and-radiation-in-suprasellar-pilocytic-astrocytomas
#9
REVIEW
Mazda K Turel, Tim-Rasmus Kiehl, Fred Gentili
Delayed intracranial hemorrhage is a rare complication of treatment for central nervous system tumors. This may be secondary to malignant transformation of the tumor or vasculopathy related to radiation therapy (RT). While most reports on radiation-induced vasculopathy in children with optic pathway gliomas are associated with ischemic complications, there are only two reports of hemorrhagic complications in these patients. In both cases, the hemorrhage was asymptomatic and remote from the site of the original tumor but within the field of irradiation...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815398/optic-pathway-glioma-volume-predicts-retinal-axon-degeneration-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#10
Robert A Avery, Awais Mansoor, Rabia Idrees, Carmelina Trimboli-Heidler, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Roger J Packer, Marius George Linguraru
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether tumor size is associated with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, a measure of axonal degeneration and an established biomarker of visual impairment in children with optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) secondary to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). METHODS: Children with NF1-OPGs involving the optic nerve (extension into the chiasm and tracts permitted) who underwent both volumetric MRI analysis and optical coherence tomography (OCT) within 2 weeks of each other were included...
December 6, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793766/poor-prognosis-and-challenging-treatment-of-optic-nerve-malignant-gliomas-literature-review-and-case-report-series
#11
Mohannat Alireza, Aymeric Amelot, Dorian Chauvet, Louis-Marie Terrier, Guillaume Lot, Olivier Bekaert
BACKGROUND: Malignant optic glioma of adulthood is a rare, invasive neoplasm of the anterior visual pathway. In this article, the clinical features of a case series of 3 malignant optic nerve glioblastomas (World Health Organization grade IV) are presented, and the modalities of treatment and their associated survivals are discussed through a review of the existing literature to date. METHODS: A retrospective case series study was led for 3 patients diagnosed with primary optic nerve and chiasm glioblastoma, coming from 2 referral neurosurgical centers...
October 25, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792048/primary-gliosarcoma-of-the-optic-nerve-a-unique-adult-optic-pathway-glioma
#12
Patrick J Cimino, Yevgeniy V Sychev, Luis F Gonzalez-Cuyar, Raghu C Mudumbai, C Dirk Keene
A 90-year-old woman presented with 1-year history of right-sided progressive proptosis, neovascular glaucoma, blindness, and worsening ocular pain. No funduscopic examination was possible because of a corneal opacity. Head CT scan without contrast demonstrated a heterogeneous 4.1 cm (anterior-posterior) by 1.7 cm (transverse) cylindrical mass arising in the right optic nerve and extending from the retrobulbar globe to the optic canal. She underwent palliative enucleation with subtotal resection of the orbital optic nerve and tumor...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777154/a-retrospective-analysis-of-vision-impairing-tumors-among-467-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-2
#13
Peng Li, Zhenmin Wang, Qiangyi Zhou, Shiwei Li, Jing Zhang, Ying Wang, Xingchao Wang, Bo Wang, Fu Zhao, Pinan Liu, Zhijun Yang
BACKGROUND: Vision is extremely important for patients with hearing loss due to neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Tumors adjacent to the anterior visual pathway can potentially impair the vision. To date, only a few case reports and small-series studies have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features of tumors adjacent to the anterior visual pathway in a large series of NF2 patients. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with potentially vision-impairing tumors were carefully screened from among 467 NF2 patients...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773919/high-dose-intravenous-vitamin-c-treatment-of-a-child-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-and-optic-pathway-glioma-a-case-report
#14
Nina Mikirova, Ronald Hunnunghake, Ruth C Scimeca, Charles Chinshaw, Faryal Ali, Chris Brannon, Neil Riordan
BACKGROUND In neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) disease, the loss of the tumor suppressor function of the neurofibromin gene leads to proliferation of neural tumors. In children, the most frequently identified tumor is the optic pathway glioma. CASE REPORT We describe the case of a 5-year-old child who was diagnosed with NF1 and optic pathway tumor onset at the age of 14 months. Because of the tumor progression, chemotherapy with carboplatin and vincristine was prescribed at this early age and continued for one year...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739631/molecular-cancer-imaging-with-polymeric-nanoassemblies-from-tumor-detection-to-theranostics
#15
Peng Mi, Fang Wang, Nobuhiro Nishiyama, Horacio Cabral
Several imaging modalities have been widely applied for the detection of cancer and its pathological activity in combination with probes capable of improving the contrast between healthy and cancerous tissues. Biocompatible polymeric nanoassemblies have been developed for precise detection of malignant tumors by enhancing the selectivity and sensitivity of the imaging. Exploiting the compartmentalized structure of the nanoassemblies advantageously allows delivering both imaging and therapeutic agents for cancer multifunctional imaging and theranostics, i...
October 14, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729088/target-delineation-and-optimal-radiosurgical-dose-for-pituitary-tumors
#16
REVIEW
Giuseppe Minniti, Mattia Falchetto Osti, Maximillian Niyazi
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) delivered as either single-fraction or multi-fraction SRS (2-5 fractions) is frequently employed in patients with residual or recurrent pituitary adenoma. The most common delivery systems used for SRS include the cobalt-60 system Gamma Knife, the CyberKnife (CK) robotic radiosurgery system, or a modified conventional radiotherapy machine (linear accelerator, LINAC). Tumor control and normalization of hormone hypersecretion have been reported in 75-100 % and 25-80 % of patients, respectively...
October 11, 2016: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712594/microrna-21-regulates-the-proliferation-differentiation-and-apoptosis-of-human-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells-by-the-mtor-stat3-signaling-pathway
#17
Tao Liang, Xiao-Yong Hu, Yong-Hui Li, Bin-Qiang Tian, Zuo-Wei Li, Qiang Fu
MicroRNA-21 (miRNA-21), a kind of short, noncoding RNAs, functioned as a tumor marker and was upregulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the underlying mechanisms of miRNA-21 in RCC were uncertain. Therefore, the effects and mechanisms of miRNA-21 on the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of cultured human RCC cells were further investigated in this study. After slicing miRNA-21 in RCC cells, the viability, mRNA expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ, caspase 3 activity, and protein expression of mTOR, STAT3, and pSTAT3 were determined...
2016: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704754/visible-and-near-infrared-dual-emission-carbogenic-small-molecular-complex-with-high-rna-selectivity-and-renal-clearance-for-nucleolus-and-tumor-imaging
#18
Hua He, Zhencai Wang, Tiantian Cheng, Xu Liu, Xiaojuan Wang, Junying Wang, Hao Ren, Yawei Sun, Yanzhuo Song, Jiang Yang, Yongqing Xia, Shengjie Wang, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Fang Huang
Fluorescence imaging requires bio-selective, sensitive, nontoxic molecular probes to detect precise location of lesions for fundamental research and clinical applications. Typical inorganic semiconductor nanomaterials with large sizes (> 10 nm) can offer high-quality fluorescence imaging due to their fascinating optical properties, but are limited to low selectivity as well as slow clearance pathway. We here report an N- and O-rich carbogenic small molecular complex (SMC, MW < 1000 Da) that exhibit high quantum yield (up to 80%), nucleic acid-binding enhanced excitation-dependent fluorescence (EDF) and a near infrared (NIR) emission peaked at 850 nm with an ultra-large Stokes shift (~ 500 nm)...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688987/hypoplastic-internal-carotid-artery-co-presenting-with-neurofibromatosis-and-intracranial-masses
#19
Arvin R Wali, David R Santiago-Dieppa, Jeffrey A Steinberg, Ali Alattar, Vincent J Cheung, Royya Modir, Alexander A Khalessi, J Scott Pannell
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is associated with systemic vascular disease, and it can also affect intracranial vasculature in a small percentage of patients. Very rarely, NF1 may co-present with hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Prior reports have documented NF1 with bilateral optic gliomas and a unilateral hypoplastic internal carotid artery; however, we report a case with the aforementioned findings in addition to a right-sided lentiform mass. This case report further suggests a common congenital pathway related to neurofibromin loss of function resulting in both nerve sheath tumors and cerebrovascular anomalies...
August 26, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683117/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-promotes-astrocytoma-proliferation-via-the-mek-erk-signaling-pathway
#20
Zhou Xing, Minling Zeng, Huixian Hu, Hui Zhang, Zhuofang Hao, Yuesheng Long, Shengqiang Chen, Hang Su, Zhongmin Yuan, Meng Xu, Jingqi Chen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression and astrocytoma characteristics. METHODS: Pathologic grade and expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67 (proliferation marker), and FMRP were determined in astrocytoma specimens from 74 patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was undertaken. Pathologic grade and protein levels of FMRP were determined in 24 additional patients with astrocytoma and 6 controls (cerebral trauma)...
September 23, 2016: Oncotarget
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