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Optic pathway tumors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396719/challenges-in-the-management-of-childhood-low-grade-glioma-in-a-developing-country
#1
Khalid Abdalla, Shaker Abdullah, Abeer Almehdar, Naglla Elimam, Mohammed Burhan Abrar, Wasil Jastaniah
BACKGROUND: Treatment modality impacts outcome of childhood low-grade glioma (LGG). Optimizing management in developing countries can be challenging. This study evaluates the clinical characteristics, treatment, and factors influencing outcome of childhood LGG in Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively evaluated 59 children consecutively diagnosed with LGG between January 2001 and June 2016. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 6...
February 2, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392423/marked-functional-recovery-and-imaging-response-of-refractory-optic-pathway-glioma-to-brafv600e-inhibitor-therapy-a-report-of-two-cases
#2
Santhosh A Upadhyaya, Giles W Robinson, Julie H Harreld, Paul D Klimo, Mary Ellen Hoehn, Brent A Orr, Ibrahim A Qaddoumi
BACKGROUND: Despite appropriate therapeutic interventions, progressive optic pathway glioma (OPG) in children may result in loss of vision and other neurologic morbidities. Molecularly targeted therapy against the MAP kinase pathway holds promise in improving outcomes while resulting in lower treatment-related toxicities. We report two children with refractory OPG who had a substantial and early reversal of their neurologic deficits and an impressive imaging response of their tumor to BRAFV600E inhibition therapy...
February 1, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384062/melatonin-differentially-modulates-nf-%C3%B0-b-expression-in-breast-and-liver-cancer-cells
#3
Jucimara F Colombo, Bruna Victorasso Jardim-Perasssi, Joao Paulo Senna Ferreira, Cristine Zampieri Braga, Nathalia Martins Sonehara, Rubens de Paula Júnior, Marina Gobbe Moschetta, Ana Paula Girol, Debora Aparecida Pires De Campos Zuccari
Background NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa B) is a transcription factor composed of two subunits, p50 and p65, which plays a key role in the inflammatory process. Melatonin has oncostatic, antiangiogenic and antimetastatic properties, and some recent studies have indicated an inhibitory effect of melatonin on NF-kB in some types of cancer. This work aims to investigate the effects of melatonin treatment on the expression of NF-kB in breast and liver cancer models. Methods The breast cancer xenographic model was performed using female Balb/c nude athymic mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells...
January 30, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333854/cucurbit-8-uril-based-giant-supramolecular-vesicles-highly-stable-versatile-carriers-for-photoresponsive-and-targeted-drug-delivery
#4
Cuihua Hu, Ningning Ma, Fei Li, Yu Fang, Yao Liu, Linlu Zhao, Shanpeng Qiao, Xiumei Li, Xiaojia Jiang, Tiezhu Li, Fangzhong Shen, Yibing Huang, Quan Luo, Junqiu Liu
Highly stable giant supramolecular vesicles were constructed by hierarchical self-assembly of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8])-based supra-amphiphiles for photoresponsive and targeted intracellular drug delivery. These smart vesicles can encapsulate the model drugs with high loading efficiencies, and then release them by manipulating photoswitchable CB[8] heteroternary complexation to regulate the formation and dissociation of supra-amphiphiles that cause dramatic morphological changes of the assemblies to achieve remote optically-controlled drug delivery...
January 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290338/genotype-phenotype-correlation-in-nf1-evidence-for-a-more-severe-phenotype-associated-with-missense-mutations-affecting-nf1-codons-844-848
#5
Magdalena Koczkowska, Yunjia Chen, Tom Callens, Alicia Gomes, Angela Sharp, Sherrell Johnson, Meng-Chang Hsiao, Zhenbin Chen, Meena Balasubramanian, Christopher P Barnett, Troy A Becker, Shay Ben-Shachar, Debora R Bertola, Jaishri O Blakeley, Emma M M Burkitt-Wright, Alison Callaway, Melissa Crenshaw, Karin S Cunha, Mitch Cunningham, Maria D D'Agostino, Karin Dahan, Alessandro De Luca, Anne Destrée, Radhika Dhamija, Marica Eoli, D Gareth R Evans, Patricia Galvin-Parton, Jaya K George-Abraham, Karen W Gripp, Jose Guevara-Campos, Neil A Hanchard, Concepcion Hernández-Chico, LaDonna Immken, Sandra Janssens, Kristi J Jones, Beth A Keena, Aaina Kochhar, Jan Liebelt, Arelis Martir-Negron, Maurice J Mahoney, Isabelle Maystadt, Carey McDougall, Meriel McEntagart, Nancy Mendelsohn, David T Miller, Geert Mortier, Jenny Morton, John Pappas, Scott R Plotkin, Dinel Pond, Kenneth Rosenbaum, Karol Rubin, Laura Russell, Lane S Rutledge, Veronica Saletti, Rhonda Schonberg, Allison Schreiber, Meredith Seidel, Elizabeth Siqveland, David W Stockton, Eva Trevisson, Nicole J Ullrich, Meena Upadhyaya, Rick van Minkelen, Helene Verhelst, Margaret R Wallace, Yoon-Sim Yap, Elaine Zackai, Jonathan Zonana, Vickie Zurcher, Kathleen Claes, Yolanda Martin, Bruce R Korf, Eric Legius, Ludwine M Messiaen
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common genetic disorder with a birth incidence of 1:2,000-3,000, is characterized by a highly variable clinical presentation. To date, only two clinically relevant intragenic genotype-phenotype correlations have been reported for NF1 missense mutations affecting p.Arg1809 and a single amino acid deletion p.Met922del. Both variants predispose to a distinct mild NF1 phenotype with neither externally visible cutaneous/plexiform neurofibromas nor other tumors. Here, we report 162 individuals (129 unrelated probands and 33 affected relatives) heterozygous for a constitutional missense mutation affecting one of five neighboring NF1 codons-Leu844, Cys845, Ala846, Leu847, and Gly848-located in the cysteine-serine-rich domain (CSRD)...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246098/optic-pathway-gliomas-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#6
Cynthia J Campen, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common brain tumor predisposition syndromes, in which affected children are prone to the development of low-grade gliomas. While NF1-associated gliomas can be found in several brain regions, the majority arise in the optic nerves, chiasm, tracts, and radiations (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Owing to their location, 35-50% of affected children present with reduced visual acuity. Unfortunately, despite tumor stabilization following chemotherapy, vision does not improve in most children...
January 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243332/extrinsic-and-intrinsic-blood-supply-to-the-optic-chiasm
#7
Céline Salaud, Stéphane Ploteau, Pauline Blery, Paul Pilet, Olivier Armstrong, Antoine Hamel
Although there have been many studies of the arterial cerebral blood supply, only seven have described the optic chiasm (OC) blood supply and their results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyze the extrinsic and intrinsic OC blood supply on cadaveric specimens using dissections and microcomputer tomography (Micro-CT). Thirteen human specimens were dissected and the internal or common carotid arteries were injected with red latex, China Ink with gelatin or barium sulfate. Three Micro-CTs were obtained to reveal the intrinsic blood supply to the OC...
December 15, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239332/ramulus-cinnamomi-extract-attenuates-neuroinflammatory-responses-via-downregulating-tlr4-myd88-signaling-pathway-in-bv2-cells
#8
Huan Yang, Xiao Cheng, Ying-Lin Yang, Yue-Hua Wang, Guan-Hua Du
Ramulus Cinnamomi (RC), a traditional Chinese herb, has been used to attenuate inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RC extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells and the underlying mechanisms involved. BV2 cells were incubated with normal medium (control group), LPS, LPS plus 30 μg/mL RC extract, or LPS plus 100 μg/mL RC extract. The BV2 cell morphology was observed under an optical microscope and cell viability was detected by MTT assay...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231347/-study-on-electroacupuncture-along-the-visual-conductive-pathway-for-ocular-cell-apoptosis-in-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#9
Ying Wang, Hui Guo, Zide Zhao, Lina Yu, Peng Bai
OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effect of electroacupuncture (EA) along the visual conductive pathway for the optic nerve tissue of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) in terms of the structure and apoptosis. METHODS: The AION model of right eye was established with laser in 48 New Zealand white ear rabbits. All rabbits were randomly divided into a model group, an acupuncture group and an acupuncture combined with EA group, 16 rabbits in each one. Other 16 normal left eyes were selected as a blank group...
August 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198746/valproic-acid-attenuates-inflammation-of-optic-nerve-and-apoptosis-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-optic-neuritis
#10
Qiang Liu, Haining Li, Juan Yang, Xiaoyan Niu, Chunmei Zhao, Li Zhao, Zhenhai Wang
AIMS: Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory disease of the optic nerve, which often occurs in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and leads to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and even severe visual loss. Valproic acid (VPA) is a short-chain branched fatty acid with anti-epileptic, neuro-protective and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we examined the effects of VPA in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: EAE was induced by subcutaneous injection with myelin basic protein, emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra into the Lewis rats...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163208/circadian-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-hypothalamic-glioma
#11
José M Duhart, Lucila Brocardo, Carlos S Caldart, Luciano Marpegan, Diego A Golombek
The mammalian circadian system is controlled by a central oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus, in which glia appears to play a prominent role. Gliomas originate from glial cells and are the primary brain tumors with the highest incidence and mortality. Optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas account for 4-7% of all pediatric intracranial tumors. Given the anatomical location, which compromises both the circadian pacemaker and its photic input pathway, we decided to study whether the presence of gliomas in the hypothalamic region could alter circadian behavioral outputs...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159315/l-arginine-biosensors-a-comprehensive-review
#12
REVIEW
Neelam Verma, Ashish Kumar Singh, Minni Singh
Arginine has been considered as the most potent nutraceutics discovered ever, due to its powerful healing property, and it's been known to scientists as the Miracle Molecule. Arginine detection in fermented food products is necessary because, high level of arginine in foods forms ethyl carbamate (EC) during the fermentation process. Therefore, L-arginine detection in fermented food products is very important as a control measure for quality of fermented foods, food supplements and beverages including wine. In clinical analysis arginine detection is important due to their enormous inherent versatility in various metabolic pathways, topmost in the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor growth...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155113/small-cell-glioblastoma-of-the-sella-turcica-region-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Shuanglin Deng, Linlin Liu, Danhua Wang, Dan Tong, Gang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas in the sellar region are very rare; in most cases, the tumor originates from the optic nerve/optic chiasm. Only 4 cases of sellar glioblastoma with a non-optic origin have been reported. We present such a case with detailed clinical, imaging and histopathological information. A review of similar published cases is also presented. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old woman presented with endocrinological abnormalities including, amenorrhea and lactation, symptoms of diabetes insipidus and signs of elevated ICP...
November 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129771/effects-of-antarctic-krill-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-mcf-7-cell-migration-and-invasion-induced-by-the-interaction-of-cd95-with-caveolin-1
#14
Weilong Zheng, Jingda Li, Xudong Wang, Yanping Yuan, Jianing Zhang, Zhilong Xiu
Tumor metastasis leads to a poor prognosis in breast cancer, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) extracted from Antarctic krill is an optical isomer of common DHA and has a much stronger anti-neoplastic effect. In this work, the migration and invasion abilities of MCF-7 cells treated with low concentrations of Antarctic krill DHA were evaluated. Low concentrations of Antarctic krill DHA significantly reduced the numbers of migrating and invasive MCF-7 cells, whereas the cell numbers decreased slowly in the CD95-silenced MCF-7 cells, which implies that CD95 might be involved in cell migration and invasion...
November 9, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118304/pediatric-optic-pathway-hypothalamic-glioma
#15
Yasuo Aihara, Kentaro Chiba, Seiichiro Eguchi, Kosaku Amano, Takakazu Kawamata
Optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas (OP/HGs) are rare astrocytic tumors that appear more commonly among young children and often are unresectable. They comprise approximately 2% of all central nervous system tumors and account for 3-5% of pediatric intracranial tumors. Initial manifestations are often visual disturbances, endocrinopathies and hypothalamic dysfunction such as the diencephalic syndrome, and sometimes hydrocephalus due to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow obstruction. In many cases, the tumors are diagnosed late in the clinical course because they silently enlarge...
November 9, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118162/does-mutated-k-ras-oncogene-attenuate-the-effect-of-sulindac-in-colon-cancer-chemoprevention
#16
Photini F S Rice, Kevin G Ehrichs, Mykella S Jones, Hwudarw Chen, Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, Edward R Abril, Raymond B Nagle, David G Besselsen, Jennifer K Barton, Natalia A Ignatenko
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Sulindac has been successfully used alone or in combination with other agents to suppress colon tumorigenesis in patients with genetic predisposition, and also showed its efficacy in prevention of sporadic colon adenomas. At the same time, some experimental and clinical reports suggest that a mutant K-RAS oncogene may negate Sulindac anti-tumor efficacy. To directly assess Sulindac activity at suppressing premalignant lesions carrying K-RAS mutation, we utilized a novel mouse model with an inducible colon-specific expression of the mutant K-ras oncogene (K-ras G12D)...
November 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100949/plasticity-of-the-human-visual-brain-after-early-cortical-lesion
#17
K Mikellidou, R Arrighi, G Aghakhanyan, F Tinelli, F Frijia, S Crespi, F De Masi, D Montanaro, M C Morrone
In adults, partial damage to V1 or optic radiations abolishes perception in the corresponding part of the visual field, causing a scotoma. However, it is widely accepted that the developing cortex has superior capacities to reorganize following an early lesion to endorse adaptive plasticity. Here we report a single patient case (G.S.) with near normal central field vision despite a massive unilateral lesion to the optic radiations acquired early in life. The patient underwent surgical removal of a right hemisphere parieto-temporal-occipital atypical choroid plexus papilloma of the right lateral ventricle at four months of age, which presumably altered the visual pathways during in utero development...
October 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049847/neurofibromatosis-type-1-and-optic-pathway-glioma-molecular-interplay-and-therapeutic-insights
#18
REVIEW
Soumen Khatua, David H Gutmann, Roger J Packer
Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are predisposed to develop central nervous system neoplasms, the most common of which are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). The absence of human NF1 associated LGG-derived cell lines, coupled with an inability to generate patient-derived xenograft models, represents barriers to profile molecularly targeted therapies for these tumors. Thus, genetically engineered mouse models have been identified to evaluate the interplay between Nf1-deficient tumor cells and nonneoplastic stromal cells to evaluate potential therapies for these neoplasms...
October 19, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986229/analysis-of-survival-prognosis-for-children-with-symptomatic-optic-pathway-gliomas-who-received-surgery
#19
Yuhan Liu, Xiaolei Hao, Wei Liu, Chunde Li, Jian Gong, Zhenyu Ma, Yongji Tian
OBJECTIVE: The feasibility and prognosis of surgical treatment for children with optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) is controversial. Therefore this study attempted to evaluate the effects of surgery and discuss prognostic factors related to the survival of children with symptomatic OPGs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred twenty-five children diagnosed with OPGs underwent surgery in the Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital from 2003-2016. In this retrospective study, their demographics, clinical characteristics, treatments, and survival outcomes were investigated and summarized...
October 3, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984541/isolated-optic-nerve-gliomas-a-multicenter-historical-cohort-study
#20
Ben Shofty, Liat Ben-Sira, Anat Kesler, George Jallo, Mari L Groves, Rajiv R Iyer, Alvaro Lassaletta, Uri Tabori, Eric Bouffet, Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale, Pablo Hernáiz Driever, Shlomi Constantini
OBJECTIVE Isolated optic nerve gliomas (IONGs) constitute a rare subgroup of optic pathway gliomas (OPGs). Due to the rarity of this condition and the difficulty in differentiating IONGs from other types of OPGs in most clinical series, little is known about these tumors. Currently, due to lack of evidence, they are managed the same as any other OPG. METHODS The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study aimed at determining the natural history of IONGs. Included were patients with clear-cut glioma of the optic nerve without posterior (chiasmatic/hypothalamic) involvement...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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