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viral meningoencephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873445/deleterious-effect-of-usutu-virus-on-human-neural-cells
#1
Sara Salinas, Orianne Constant, Caroline Desmetz, Jonathan Barthelemy, Jean-Marc Lemaitre, Ollivier Milhavet, Nicolas Nagot, Vincent Foulongne, Florence E Perrin, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Sylvie Lecollinet, Philippe Van de Perre, Yannick Simonin
In the last decade, the number of emerging Flaviviruses described worldwide has increased considerably. Among them Zika virus (ZIKV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are African mosquito-borne viruses that recently emerged. Recently, ZIKV has been intensely studied due to major outbreaks associated with neonatal death and birth defects, as well as neurological symptoms. USUV pathogenesis remains largely unexplored, despite significant human and veterinary associated disorders. Circulation of USUV in Africa was documented more than 50 years ago, and it emerged in Europe two decades ago, causing massive bird mortality...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854990/the-uniform-cortex-sign-a-diagnostic-sign-of-diffuse-cortical-injury-on-mr-imaging-of-the-brain-at-1-5-t
#2
Andrew Leung, Apurva Patel, Basem Bahakeem, David Pelz, Donald Lee, Manas Sharma
BACKGROUND: To introduce the "uniform cortex sign" (UCS) and evaluate its performance as a diagnostic test for the presence of diffuse cortical injury (DCI). METHODS: The study was approved by our institutional review board. Three experienced neuroradiologists were given a tutorial on the UCS. They were subsequently presented with 14 cases (7 control patients and 7 DCI patients with the UCS) in random order and asked to determine whether the UCS was present. Each case consisted of selected DWI, T2-weighted, and FLAIR images from unenhanced 1...
August 31, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831740/expression-of-mir-155-associated-with-toll-like-receptors-3-7-and-9-transcription-in-the-olfactory-bulbs-of-cattle-naturally-infected-with-bhv5
#3
Bruna R S M Oliveira, Flavia V Vieira, Dielson de S Vieira, Sergio E L da Silva, Roberto Gameiro, Eduardo F Flores, Tereza C Cardoso
Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV5) infection of young cattle is frequently associated with fatal neurological disease and, as such, represents an attractive model for studying the pathogenesis of viral-induced meningoencephalitis. Following replication in the nasal mucosa, BHV5 invades the central nervous system (CNS) mainly through the olfactory pathway. The innate immune response triggered by the host face to virus replication through the olfactory route is poorly understood. Recently, an upregulation of conserved pathogen-associated molecular pattern, as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), has been demonstrated in the CNS of BHV5 experimentally infected cows...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830430/tick-borne-encephalitis-in-a-naturally-infected-sheep
#4
Brigitte Böhm, Benjamin Schade, Benjamin Bauer, Bernd Hoffmann, Donata Hoffmann, Ute Ziegler, Martin Beer, Christine Klaus, Herbert Weissenböck, Jens Böttcher
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral tick borne zoonosis in Europe. In Germany, about 250 human cases are registered annually, with the highest incidence reported in the last years coming from the federal states Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg. In veterinary medicine, only sporadic cases in wild and domestic animals have been reported; however, a high number of wild and domestic animals have tested positive for the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibody...
August 22, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804111/an-adult-case-of-group-a-streptococcus-meningitis-associated-with-steroid-responsive-meningoencephalitis
#5
Koji Shimozono, Yoshiko Hayashi, Tokuji Nishinaka, Sayaka Kobayashi
A previously healthy 80-year-old woman presented to our service in a comatose state. On examination the patient had fever and neck stiffness. Laboratory investigation showed polymorphonuclear pleocytosis in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). These findings prompted us to a diagnosis of bacterial or viral meningitis and combination therapy consisting of ceftriaxone, vancomycin and acyclovir was started immediately. Two days later, culture of blood yielded Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus; GAS). The antibiotic therapy was converted to intravenous ampicillin for 14 days...
August 11, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762591/ean-consensus-review-on-prevention-diagnosis-and-management-of-tick-borne-encephalitis
#6
REVIEW
P Taba, E Schmutzhard, P Forsberg, I Lutsar, U Ljøstad, Å Mygland, I Levchenko, F Strle, I Steiner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and transmitted by ticks, with a variety of clinical manifestations. The incidence of TBE in Europe is increasing due to an extended season of the infection and the enlargement of endemic areas. Our objectives are to provide recommendations on the prevention, diagnosis and management of TBE, based on evidence or consensus decisions. METHODS: For systematic evaluation, the literature was searched from 1970 to 2015 (including early online publications of 2016), and recommendations were based on evidence or consensus decisions of the Task Force when evidence-based data were not available...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718069/neurological-involvement-in-patients-with-acute-recent-hiv-1-infection-a-case-control-study
#7
Juan Ambrosioni, Francisca Artigues, David Nicolás, Judit Peñafiel, Fernando Agüero, Christian Manzardo, María Mar Mosquera, Sonsoles Sánchez-Palomino, Elisa De Lazzari, María A Marcos, Montserrat Plana, José M Miró
Primary HIV-1 infection is a relevant period for its virological and epidemiological consequences. Most patients present a symptomatic disease that can be potentially serious, but neurological involvement during primary HIV-1 infection has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of primary HIV-1 infection patients presenting neurological symptoms and to compare them with primary HIV-1 infection patients without neurological involvement. Retrospective case-control study (1:3) comparing primary HIV-1 infection patients with and without neurological involvement enrolled in the Acute/Recent Hospital Clinic PHI Cohort between 1997 and 2016...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700057/neurological-manifestations-of-dengue-in-central-brazil
#8
Marianna Peres Tassara, Adriana Oliveira Guilarde, Benigno Alberto Moraes da Rocha, Valéria Christina de Rezende Féres, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of dengue has increased throughout the 2000s with a consequent global increase in atypical clinical forms. METHODS: This study reports a series of cases of neurological dengue out of 498 confirmed cases of laboratory dengue in Goiânia, Brazil. Cases were confirmed based on viral RNA detection via polymerase chain reaction or IgM antibody capture. RESULTS: Neurological symptoms occurred in 5.6% of cases, including paresthesia (3...
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655291/naturally-acquired-canine-herpesvirus-associated-meningoencephalitis
#9
Mason C Jager, Erica A Sloma, Morgan Shelton, Andrew D Miller
Canid alphaherpesvirus 1 (CHV) causes morbidity and mortality in susceptible puppies. While the neuropathology of experimentally infected puppies has been detailed, characterization of naturally acquired infections is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the histologic, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization features of CHV encephalitis in the dog. Six female and 11 male puppies ranging in age from stillborn to 57 days old were included. Histologically, lesions included multifocal glial nodules (16/17, 94%), meningeal infiltrates (15/17, 88%), and cerebellar cortical necrosis (6/9, 67%); however, robust inflammation was not a significant feature in any of the cases...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636287/the-spectrum-of-aseptic-central-nervous-system-infections-in-southern-germany-demographic-clinical-and-laboratory-findings
#10
M Kaminski, V Grummel, D Hoffmann, A Berthele, B Hemmer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aseptic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are frequently observed in Germany. However, no study has systematically addressed the spectrum of aseptic CNS infections in Germany. METHODS: Data on 191 adult patients diagnosed from January 2007 to December 2014 with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis/meningoencephalitis at our hospital were collected by chart review and analyzed for demographic, clinical and laboratory findings. Patients were stratified according to the causative virus and findings were compared between groups...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632511/zika-virus-a-cause-of-concern-in-transplantation
#11
Marilyn E Levi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Worldwide, the number of countries reporting Zika virus (ZKV) infection continues to increase. Although 80% of cases are asymptomatic, ZKV has been identified as a neurotropic virus associated with congenital microcephaly, Guillain-Barre' syndrome, and meningoencephalitis. Until recently, infection in transplant recipients has not been identified. This study will review the existing literature on ZKV infection, laboratory testing, and management in transplant recipients...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632298/patient-med-tbe-f%C3%A3-rb%C3%A3-ttrades-snabbt-vid-behandling-med-kortison-evidens-saknas-dock-f%C3%A3-r-v%C3%A3-rdet-av-immunmodulerande-terapi
#12
Carl Wengse, Jesper Ericsson, Susanna Hallberg, Johan Ursing
Rapid improvement of tick-borne encephalitis after treatment with corticosteroids Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral disease transmitted by ticks. The virus is divided into three subtypes named Western, Siberian and Far Eastern TBE virus (TBEV). Western TBEV is endemic in parts of Europe and Sweden and typically causes a biphasic illness with influenza-like symptoms followed by neurological symptoms ranging from mild meningitis to severe meningoencephalitis and death. Despite an effective vaccine, TBE is increasing in Sweden and Europe...
June 16, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630845/multi-foci-salmonella-enteritis-osteomyelitis-of-thoracic-spine-with-pleural-effusion-and-fatal-outcome-a-unique-case-presentation-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Ioannis Papaioannou, Andreas Baikousis, Panagiotis Korovessis
INTRODUCTION: A case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis due to Salmonella enteritis (SE) in an immunocompetent patient is reported. This is the third case in the literature of SE thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis, but the first one with this multi-foci presentation and finally fatal outcome due to meningoencephalitis. Further data that makes our case unique are the absence of fever (body temperature: 37.4°C) and gastrointestinal disorders. CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old male patient initially presented with thoracic pain, dyspnea, and knee pain...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628941/a-novel-cause-of-chronic-viral-meningoencephalitis-cache-valley-virus
#14
Michael R Wilson, Dan Suan, Andrew Duggins, Ryan D Schubert, Lillian M Khan, Hannah A Sample, Kelsey C Zorn, Aline Rodrigues Hoffman, Anna Blick, Meena Shingde, Joseph L DeRisi
OBJECTIVE: Immunodeficient patients are particularly vulnerable to neuroinvasive infections that can be challenging to diagnose. Metagenomic next generation sequencing can identify unusual or novel microbes and is therefore well suited for investigating the etiology of chronic meningoencephalitis in immunodeficient patients. METHODS: We present the case of a 34-year-old man with X-linked agammaglobulinemia from Australia suffering from 3 years of meningoencephalitis that defied an etiologic diagnosis despite extensive conventional testing, including a brain biopsy...
July 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482001/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-in-humanized-mice-reveals-glial-cells-as-primary-targets-of-neurological-infection
#15
Jessica R Spengler, M Kelly Keating, Anita K McElroy, Marko Zivcec, JoAnn D Coleman-McCray, Jessica R Harmon, Brigid C Bollweg, Cynthia S Goldsmith, Éric Bergeron, James G Keck, Sherif R Zaki, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic disease seen exclusively in humans. Central nervous system (CNS) infection and neurological involvement have also been reported in CCHF. Here we inoculated NSGTM-SGM3 mice engrafted with human hematopoietic CD34+ stem cells with low passage CCHF virus strains isolated from human patients. Humanized mice develop lethal disease characterized by histopathological change in the liver and brain. To date, targets of neuroinfection and neuropathology have not been investigated in CCHF...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480282/pediatric-drug-nitazoxanide-a-potential-choice-for-control-of-zika
#16
Rui-Yuan Cao, Yong-Fen Xu, Tian-Hong Zhang, Jing-Jing Yang, Ye Yuan, Pei Hao, Yi Shi, Jin Zhong, Wu Zhong
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can be the cause of congenital malformations, including microcephaly in infants and can cause other disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, and myelitis, which can also occur in some infected adults. However, at this time, there is no drug approved to treat ZIKV infection. Drug repurposing is the promptest way to obtain an effective drug during a global public health emergency such as the spread of Zika virus. In this study, we report a US Food and Drug Admistration-approved drug that is safe for pediatric use...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458823/herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-encephalitis-in-an-adolescent-presenting-with-acute-hydrocephalus
#17
Marios S Themistocleous, Elias Antoniades, Dimitrios Giakoumettis, Aristoteles V Kalyvas, Andreas Mitsios, George Sfakianos
Herpes simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) is a human neurotropic virus causing encephalitis, corneal blindness or several peripheral nervous system disorders. Herpes Simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most devastating clinical syndrome with severe morbidity and mortality. Hydrocephalus associated with viral meningoencephalitis is an extremely rare entity with only few documented cases, predominantly due to HSV-2 infection. HSV-1 infection of central nervous system present in the majority of the cases as encephalitis...
February 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438128/viral-aetiologies-of-acute-encephalitis-in-a-hospital-based-south-asian-population
#18
Janarthani Lohitharajah, Neelika Malavige, Carukshi Arambepola, Jithangi Wanigasinghe, Ranjanie Gamage, Padma Gunaratne, Pyara Ratnayake, Thashi Chang
BACKGROUND: The aetiological spectrum of acute encephalitis shows inter- and intra-geographical variations. We aimed to identify the viruses that cause infectious encephalitis in Sri Lanka, which represents a South Asian population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 99 patients with encephalitis/meningoencephalitis admitted to two tertiary-care hospitals in Colombo. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum were tested for conventional and emerging encephalitogenic viruses...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425387/zebra-borne-neurotropic-equid-herpesvirus-1-meningoencephalitis-in-a-thomson-s-gazelle-eudorcas-thomsonii
#19
Kanako Sakaguchi, Kenneth Kim, Ingeborg Langohr, Annabel G Wise, Roger K Maes, Gordon Pirie, Tokuma Yanai, Mohie Haridy, Lorrie Gaschen, Fabio Del Piero
We describe the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of a case of meningoencephalitis in a Thomson's gazelle ( Eudorcas thomsonii) naturally infected with zebra-borne equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and the implications for the molecular detection of zebra-borne EHV-1. A 4-y-old female Thomson's gazelle was submitted for postmortem examination; no gross abnormalities were noted except for meningeal congestion. Microscopic evaluation demonstrated multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with intranuclear eosinophilic and amphophilic inclusion bodies and EHV-9 antigen in neurons...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382855/natural-infections-with-pigeon-paramyxovirus-serotype-1-pathologic-changes-in-eurasian-collared-doves-streptopelia-decaocto-and-rock-pigeons-columba-livia-in-the-united-states
#20
M Isidoro-Ayza, C L Afonso, J B Stanton, S Knowles, H S Ip, C L White, H Fenton, M G Ruder, A C Dolinski, J Lankton
Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves ( Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons ( Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States...
July 2017: Veterinary Pathology
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