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viral meningoencephalitis

Abir Monastiri, Badereddine Mechri, Ana Vázquez-González, Meriadeg Ar Gouilh, Mohamed Chakroun, Chawki Loussaief, Maha Mastouri, Najet Dimassi, Lamjed Boughzala, Mahjoub Aouni, Jordi Serra-Cobo
A West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak occurred in Tunisia between mid-July and December 2012. To assess the epidemiological features of the WNV transmission cycle, human cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with suspected cases (n = 79), Culex pipiens mosquitoes (n = 583) and serum specimens from domestic and migratory birds (n = 70) were collected for 4 years (2011-2014) in the Tunisian Sahel region. Viral testing was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The WNV genome was detected in 7 patients (8...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Zhenjian He, Jiahui Chen, Shu An, Xinhuai Dong, Jianchen Yu, Shihao Zhang, Yun Wu, Ge Li, Yu Zhang, Jueheng Wu, Xun Zhu, Mengfeng Li
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that has been identified as a cause of several severe disease manifestations, including congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis and myelitis. Previous studies showed that ZIKV-infected patients exhibited elevated plasma levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), indicating that ZIKV may activate inflammasomes. However, the molecular basis for its viral pathogenesis remains poorly understood. In this current study, we found that ZIKV infection caused severe inflammatory pathological changes and promoted IL-1β production in vitro as well as in vivo...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Eleonora M Lad, Sally S Ong, Alan D Proia
Purpose: To describe the ophthalmic symptoms and histopathological findings in a human case of Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). Observations: The patient was a septuagenarian male whose presentation and clinical course were thought to be most consistent with viral meningoencephalitis. ELISA suggested recent infection with EEE virus. Microscopic analysis of the brain demonstrated perivascular lymphohistiocytic cuffing which was consistent with viral type encephalitis...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Ming-Hong Yen, Ching-I Huang, Min-Sheng Lee, Ya-Ping Cheng, Chia Jung Hsieh, Lien-Chai Chiang, Jung-San Chang
Artemisia capillaris (A. capillaris) is a common herbal drug used for thousands years in ancient China. A. capillaris has been empirically used to manage hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), which is commonly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). EV71 can cause meningoencephalitis with mortality and neurologic sequelae without effective management. It is presently unknown whether A. capillaris is effective against EV71 infection. To test the hypothesis that it could protect cells from EV71-induced injury, a hot water extract of A...
March 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Ji-Ae Kim, Rak-Kyun Seong, Mukesh Kumar, Ok Sarah Shin
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged as a new public health threat. ZIKV infections have caused a wide spectrum of neurological diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis, meningoencephalitis, and congenital microcephaly. No effective therapies currently exist for treating patients infected with ZIKV. Herein, we evaluated the anti-viral activity of favipiravir (T-705) and ribavirin against Asian and African strains of ZIKV using different cell models, including human neuronal progenitor cells (hNPCs), human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) and Vero cells...
February 9, 2018: Viruses
Anna Nagy, Orsolya Nagy, Katalin Tarcsai, Ágnes Farkas, Mária Takács
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the endemic flaviviruses in Hungary, which is responsible for human infections every year. Neurological involvement in the disease is characterized by meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis which can result in long-term neurological and neuropsychiatric sequelae. Microbiological diagnosis of acute cases is predominantly based on serological tests due to the limited duration of viremia and long incubation period, however, the application of molecular methods can also supplement the serological diagnosis and provides epidemiological data...
January 10, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Sian K Alexander, Maria Di Cicco, Ute Pohl, Alberto Cifelli
A 73-year-old man presented with three episodes of dysphasia and disinhibited behaviour, a single seizure and transient ischaemic attack-like events characterised by right arm and/or leg weakness. These episodes were separated by month-long asymptomatic intervals. Medical history included rheumatoid arthritis, which was clinically quiescent on leflunomide.Repeated cerebrospinal fluid examination showed a persistent lymphocytosis with mildly reduced glucose and elevated protein; oligoclonal bands and viral PCR were negative...
January 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Abhishek Bose, Rahul Basu, Mahua Maulik, Jayasri Das Sarma
Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection causes meningoencephalitis by disrupting the neuro-glial and glial-pial homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that MHV infection alters gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43)-mediated intercellular communication in brain and primary cultured astrocytes. In addition to astrocytes, meningeal fibroblasts also express high levels of Cx43. Fibroblasts in the meninges together with the basal lamina and the astrocyte endfeet forms the glial limitans superficialis as part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Megan E Gray, Brian Wispelwey, Christopher J Arnold
Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing syndrome (SUNCT) is a type of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. Its etiology is generally idiopathic, though rarely it has been associated with viral infections. We describe the fourth case reported in the literature of SUNCT in association with viral meningoencephalitis.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Michael Stephen Pohlen, Jonathan Sunwei Lin, Kevin Yuqi Wang, Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad, Christie M Lincoln
A 28-year-old man recently diagnosed with HIV (CD4 19 cells/mm3 , viral load 3.6 million copies/mL, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy on initial diagnosis at outside hospital), disseminated histoplasmosis, shingles and syphilis presented with paraplegia developing over 3 days. Spine MRI demonstrated a longitudinally extensive cord lesion extending from C3 to the tip of the conus. Brain MRI was consistent with meningoencephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid findings were notable for positive varicella zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCRs as well as a Venereal Disease Research Laboratory titre of 1:2...
December 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Thalita E S Oliveira, Mariana M Z Michelazzo, Thiago Fernandes, Admilton G de Oliveira, Raquel A Leme, Alice F Alfieri, Amauri A Alfieri, Selwyn A Headley
Epidemic Transient Neonatal Losses (ETNL) is a disease of piglets caused by Senecavirus A (SVA) in which the method of dissemination and associated lesions are not well-defined. This study investigated the possible SVA-induced lesions by examining spontaneous infections in newborn piglets. Histopathology revealed ballooning degeneration of transitional epithelium, nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, plexus choroiditis, and atrophic enteritis. RT-PCR identified SVA in all tissues evaluated and sequencing confirmed these results...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nadya Urakova, Valeriya Kuznetsova, David K Crossman, Arpine Sokratian, David B Guthrie, Alexander A Kolykhalov, Mark A Lockwood, Michael G Natchus, Michael R Crowley, George R Painter, Elena I Frolova, Ilya Frolov
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a representative member of the New World alphaviruses. It is transmitted by mosquito vectors and causes highly debilitating disease in humans, equides and other vertebrate hosts. Despite a continuous public health threat, very few compounds with anti-VEEV activity in cell culture and in mouse models have been identified to date, and rapid development of virus resistance to some of them has been recorded. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using a modified nucleoside analog, β-D-N(4)-hydroxycytidine (NHC), as an anti-VEEV agent and defined the mechanism of its anti-VEEV activity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
Kellie A Jurado, Laura J Yockey, Patrick W Wong, Sarah Lee, Anita J Huttner, Akiko Iwasaki
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging, mosquito-borne RNA virus. The rapid spread of ZIKV within the Americas has unveiled microcephaly 1 and Guillain-Barré syndrome 2,3 as ZIKV-associated neurological complications. Recent reports have also indicated other neurological manifestations to be associated with ZIKV, including myelitis 4 , meningoencephalitis 5 and fatal encephalitis 6 . Here, we investigate the neuropathogenesis of ZIKV infection in type I interferon receptor IFNAR knockout (Ifnar1 -/- ) mice, an infection model that exhibits high viral burden within the central nervous system...
November 20, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Elizabeth R Wonderlich, Amy L Caroline, Cynthia M McMillen, Aaron W Walters, Douglas S Reed, Simon M Barratt-Boyes, Amy L Hartman
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an emerging arboviral disease of livestock and people. Although a mosquito-borne virus, humans are infected through contact with or inhalation of virus-laden particles from contaminated animal carcasses. Some individuals infected with RVF virus (RVFV) develop meningoencephalitis resulting in morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to neurologic sequelae, and thus animal models that represent human disease are needed. African green monkeys (AGM) exposed to aerosols containing RVFV develop a reproducibly lethal neurological disease that resembles human illness...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
Marco T Medina, Marco Medina-Montoya
Zika virus infection represents a new neuropathological agent with association to a wide spectrum of neurological complications: a) Congenital Zika Syndrome by affecting the neural stem cells of the human fetal brain; b) Guillain-Barré Syndrome by an autoimmune response against peripheral myelin and/or axonal components or probable direct inflammatory reaction; c) Encephalitis/meningoencephalitis and myelitis by a direct viral inflammatory process on the central nervous system; d) Sensory neuropathy by infecting directly the peripheral neurons and causing substantial cell death and pathogenic transcriptional dysregulation; e) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and optic neuropathy; f) Seizures and Epilepsy and g) childhood arterial ischemic stroke by probable inflammatory reaction and endothelial injury...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Abdennour Amroun, Stéphane Priet, Gilles Querat
Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne phlebovirus within the family Phenuiviridae in the order Bunyavirales. It seems to be an important agent of human meningoencephalitis in the warm season in the Mediterranean area. Because the polymerase of Bunyavirales lacks a capping activity, it cleaves short-capped RNA leaders derived from the host cell, and uses them to initiate viral mRNA synthesis. To determine the size and nucleotide composition of the host-derived RNA leaders, and to elucidate the first steps of TOSV transcription initiation, we performed a high-throughput sequencing of the 5' end of TOSV mRNAs in infected cells at different times post-infection...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Shrikiran Aroor, Kanaparthi Shravan, Suneel C Mundkur, C Jayakrishnan, Sai Sripad Rao
A status epilepticus which persists for 24 hours or more after starting treatment with anaesthesia or has recurred inspite of general anaesthesia is known as Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE). It includes cases where status epilepticus recurs on reduction or withdrawal of anaesthesia. SRSE, though infrequently seen, constitutes a medical emergency due to the associated high morbidity and mortality. No clear cut guidelines are available till date for the management of SRSE. Most of the published literature was case reports and expert opinion...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
L P Mesquita, R C Costa, M M Fusuma, F R P Bruhn, E Mori, E M Pituco, C M C Mori, R Weiblen, P C Maiorka
Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is an important pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in cattle. Few studies have used the mouse as a model for BoHV-5 infection. Despite the fact that BoHV-5 can infect mice with immune deficiencies, little is known about viral replication, immune response, and the course of infection in the central nervous system (CNS) of wild-type mice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the response in the CNS of BALB/c mice acutely infected with BoHV-5 at different days post-inoculation (dpi)...
December 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
Sara Salinas, Orianne Constant, Caroline Desmetz, Jonathan Barthelemy, Jean-Marc Lemaitre, Ollivier Milhavet, Nicolas Nagot, Vincent Foulongne, Florence E Perrin, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Sylvie Lecollinet, Philippe Van de Perre, Yannick Simonin
In the last decade, the number of emerging Flaviviruses described worldwide has increased considerably. Among them Zika virus (ZIKV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are African mosquito-borne viruses that recently emerged. Recently, ZIKV has been intensely studied due to major outbreaks associated with neonatal death and birth defects, as well as neurological symptoms. USUV pathogenesis remains largely unexplored, despite significant human and veterinary associated disorders. Circulation of USUV in Africa was documented more than 50 years ago, and it emerged in Europe two decades ago, causing massive bird mortality...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Andrew Leung, Apurva Patel, Basem Bahakeem, David Pelz, Donald Lee, Manas Sharma
BACKGROUND: To introduce the "uniform cortex sign" (UCS) and evaluate its performance as a diagnostic test for the presence of diffuse cortical injury (DCI). METHODS: The study was approved by our institutional review board. Three experienced neuroradiologists were given a tutorial on the UCS. They were subsequently presented with 14 cases (7 control patients and 7 DCI patients with the UCS) in random order and asked to determine whether the UCS was present. Each case consisted of selected DWI, T2-weighted, and FLAIR images from unenhanced 1...
August 31, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
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