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viral meningoencephalitis review

Fabiele Baldino Russo, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
The recent outbreak of ZIKV in Brazil called the attention of the world because the effects of viral infection in the brain under development in fetuses. Consequences of vertical infection comprise brain malformation, especially microcephaly, eye and musculoskeletal abnormalities, among others. In adults, outcomes of infection include meningoencephalitis and Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Recent data specific suggest that neural progenitor cells are the main targets of ZIKV infection, causing massive cellular death and impairment in the neurogenesis process...
January 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Manas Pratim Roy, Ratan Gupta, Meenakshi Bhatt, Kailash Chander Aggarwal
Retrospective analysis was done for 3817 children aged 5-12 years admitted in a tertiary-care, public hospital in New Delhi between January to December, 2015. Mortality rate was 5.8%. About 47.1% deaths were due to central nervous system involvement; viral meningoencephalitis being the predominant cause. Overall, infectious diseases caused >80% of deaths. Public health interventions to reduce child mortality need to review such data for effective measures.
January 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
Hussein Algahtani, Ashjan Alkhotani, Bader Shirah
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an immune-mediated chorioretinal disease that causes acute visual symptoms with characteristic ophthalmoscopic findings. Neurological complications are rarely reported in the literature. Here we report two new cases of APMPPE that presented with neurological manifestations, one of which was associated with peripheral neuropathy, which has not been described before. METHODS: A retrospective database review of all patients with a diagnosis of APMPPE was performed...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurology
C Hoyer, P Eisele, A D Ebert, S Schneider, A Gass, M Fatar, K Szabo, A Alonso
BACKGROUND: The term "aseptic meningitis" encompasses cases of meningitis with negative bacterial CSF culture, which predominantly are of viral etiology. While the clinical course is usually benign, complications such as encephalitic involvement resulting in a more severe clinical course may occur. Dysfunction of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), which is a prerequisite for viral entry into the brain parenchyma, can be approximated using the CSF/serum albumin ratio, readily obtainable in routine CSF analysis...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
S Grisariu, I Vaxman, M Gatt, S Elias, B Avni, A Arad, O Pasvolsky, P Raanani, O Paltiel
In recent years, anti-CD20 antibodies have been increasingly used to treat lymphoproliferative and immune disorders. Chronic viral infections are infrequently reported in patients receiving these therapies. Enteroviral infection can cause life-threatening meningoencephalitis and other systemic chronic syndromes in immune deficient patients. We describe the clinical courses and outcomes of 6 patients from 2 tertiary care institutions who developed chronic enteroviral infection with neurological manifestations, after combined chemoimmunotherapy with rituximab for B-cell lymphoma...
October 13, 2016: Hematological Oncology
G W Kang, H L Hong, I H Lee, K S Ahn, J D Kim, D L Choi
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in patients with liver transplantation (LT) remains a highly prevalent complication with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. However, CMV-associated meningoencephalitis is rarely diagnosed, and treatment is very difficult. The aim of the present report is to review the experience of successful treatment with combined ganciclovir and foscarnet of CMV-associated meningoencephalitis refractory to ganciclovir alone in a hemodialysis (HD) patient after LT. A 54-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease on HD developed a seizure with loss of consciousness...
May 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Thibaut Renard, Benjamin Daumas-Duport, Elisabeth Auffray-Calvier, Romain Bourcier, Hubert Desal
INTRODUCTION: There is paucity of studies analyzing DWI in MRI sequences when imaging cytomegalovirus (CMV) meningoencephalitis. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate that DWI sequence is mandatory when imaging immunocompromised patients presenting with encephalitic symptoms, as this sequence can reveal very peculiar lesions in the setting of CMV encephalitis. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Three CSF PCR CMV positive cases were identified in a 13-year retrospective study with MRI scans including T1, FLAIR, DWI with automated ADC calculation, and T1 with contrast injection, and were reviewed by a senior neuroradiologist...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Amy Lynn A Teleron, Brandon K Rose, David M Williams, Suzanne E Kemper, James E McJunkin
BACKGROUND: La Crosse viral encephalitis is well described in children, but to date, there are only 2 adult cases described in the literature. Despite the fact that pediatric infection can be life threatening and typically presents as a febrile meningoencephalitis often complicated by seizures and mental status changes, little is known about the presentation and course of adult infection. We report the largest case series of adult La Crosse encephalitis. METHODS: Inpatient data were reviewed between 2001 and 2012 to identify adults (≥18 years of age) with possible La Crosse encephalitis...
August 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Jing Wu, Li Shen, Jianguo Chen, Huaxi Xu, Lingxiang Mao
The genus Enterovirus, a member of the Picornavirus family, are RNA viruses that can cause poliomyelitis, hand-food-mouth disease, viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis, viral myocarditis and so on. MicroRNAs are a class of highly conserved, small noncoding RNAs recognized as important regulators of gene expression. Recent studies found that MicroRNAs play a significant role in the infection of Enterovirus, such as enterovirus 71, coxsackievirus B3 and other Enterovirus. Enteroviral infection can alter the expression of cellular MicroRNAs, and cellular MicroRNAs can modulate viral pathogenesis and replication by regulating the expression level of viral or host's genes...
September 2015: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Vipin M Vashishtha, Sangeeta Yadav, Aashima Dabas, C P Bansal, Rohit C Agarwal, Vijay N Yewale, Naveen Thacker, S S Kamath, Pravin J Mehta
JUSTIFICATION: Mumps, despite being a widely prevalent disease in the country, is considered as an insignificant public health problem mainly because of poor documentation of clinical cases and lack of published studies. In the absence of adequate published data on disease burden, Government of India has recently decided to introduce measles-rubella (MR) vaccine in its National Immunization Program and neglected mumps component. PROCESS: Following an IAP ACVIP meeting on December 6 and 7, 2014, a detailed review of burden of mumps in India along with vaccination strategies to control the disease was prepared...
June 2015: Indian Pediatrics
Jana Precechtelova, Maria Borsanyiova, Sona Sarmirova, Shubhada Bopegamage
We review type 1 diabetes and host genetic components, as well as epigenetics and viruses associated with type 1 diabetes, with added emphasis on the enteroviruses, which are often associated with triggering the disease. Genus Enterovirus is classified into twelve species of which seven (Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, Enterovirus C, and Enterovirus D and Rhinovirus A, Rhinovirus B, and Rhinovirus C) are human pathogens. These viruses are transmitted mainly by the fecal-oral route; they may also spread via the nasopharyngeal route...
2014: Journal of Pathogens
David Kotzbauer, Deborah Andresen, Nancy Doelling, Steve Shore
We reviewed the characteristics of infants <3 months of age with central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection at our institution. Twenty-six cases were identified. The age range was 4-73 days. Most infants presented with fever, seizure activity and skin lesions. The blood herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction was positive in 91% of patients tested. Suppressive oral acyclovir therapy was likely helpful in preventing disease recurrence.
November 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Maria A Nagel, Don Gilden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation results in zoster, which may be complicated by postherpetic neuralgia, myelitis, meningoencephalitis, and VZV vasculopathy. This review highlights the clinical features, laboratory abnormalities, imaging changes, and optimal treatment of each of those conditions. Because all of these neurological disorders produced by VZV reactivation can occur in the absence of rash, the virological tests proving that VZV caused disease are discussed...
June 2014: Current Opinion in Neurology
Saroj Kumar Patnaik, Vimal Upreti, Pawan Dhull
AIM: Steroid responsive encephalopathy with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) is a clinically and electrographically heterogeneous steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with thyroid autoantibodies. We report an adolescent with SREAT and review PubMed literature relating to childhood. METHODS: A 14-year-old boy, without any preceding history of trauma, meningoencephalitis or seizures, was admitted in a comatose state. A similar episode of loss of consciousness 2 months prior with normal neuroimaging and electroencephalogram (EEG) had been followed by behavioral alterations...
July 2014: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Rui Li, Xiaonan Zhong, Wei Qiu, Aimin Wu, Yongqiang Dai, Zhengqi Lu, Xueqiang Hu
BACKGROUND: A number of reports have described the presence of tuberculosis (TB) in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients. However, a definite association between the two conditions has not been conclusively demonstrated. METHODS: To investigate the association between NMO and TB in a Chinese population, we performed a retrospective review of hospital records of NMO patients, control patients and tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) patients from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2011...
February 20, 2014: BMC Neurology
Burke A Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a life-threatening infectious disease requiring prompt antimicrobial therapy. ABM must be differentiated from systemic disorders with CNS manifestations that may mimic ABM. ABM should also be differentiated from acute meningoencephalitis (AME) and acute viral encephalitis (AVE). Nonviral causes of AME are treatable. Among the causes of AVE, Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is treatable. This article reviews the clinical diagnostic approach to ABM, AME and AVE...
July 2013: Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics
Jian-guo Liu, Wen-ying Qiao, Qin-wen Dong, Hai-ling Zhang, Kui-hong Zheng, Hai-rong Qian, Xiao-kun Qi
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical features and neuroimaging findings of the patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) involved in corpus callosum (CC) so as to distinguish it from other diseases. METHODS: A total of 12 ADEM patients with the involvement of CC during the period of 2010-2012 were recruited. There were 9 males and 3 females with a mean age of 31±14 years (range: 10-54). Their clinical and neuroimaging features were retrospectively reviewed and all data analyzed by SPSS 18...
November 20, 2012: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Masahiro Watanabe, Kazuhide Suyama, Koichi Hashimoto, Masatoki Sato, Shinichiro Ohara, Yusaku Abe, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Seiji Yamaguchi, Masayuki Saijo, Mitsuaki Hosoya
We describe a fatal case of mumps virus-associated acute encephalopathy. In terms of the clinical course and cytokine as well as chemokine profiles, the pathogenesis in our case was different from that of mumps meningoencephalitis but was similar to that of influenza virus-associated acute encephalopathy.
February 2013: Journal of Child Neurology
Christina Lopez, Phillip Budge, Jimmy Chen, Suzanne Bilyeu, Ayesha Mirza, Haidee Custodio, Jose Irazuzta, Govinda Visvesvara, Kevin J Sullivan
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare but nearly always fatal disease caused by infection with Naegleria fowleri, a thermophilic, free-living ameba found in freshwater environments. Cases of N. fowleri infection have been reported from many of the southern-tier states in the United States, with Florida and Texas disproportionately represented among them. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis presents clinically in a fashion that may be indistinguishable from bacterial and viral meningitis. Unfortunately, because the disease is so rare, PAM is often excluded from the differential diagnosis of children with meningitis resulting in delayed diagnostic and therapeutic efforts...
March 2012: Pediatric Emergency Care
Yi-Chien Lee, Ching-Lan Lu, Chung-Chih Lai, Yu-Tzu Tseng, Hsin-Yun Sun, Chien-Ching Hung
Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection involves the central nervous system (CNS) less frequently than tuberculosis, and MAC-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) of the CNS in AIDS patients is even more rarely described. We report a case of MAC-related IRIS of the CNS in an HIV-infected patient who presented with meningoencephalitis and myelitis 2 months after discontinuation of antiMAC therapy, when he had achieved prolonged suppression of HIV replication and restoration of CD4 counts to >100 cells/μL for 1 year...
February 2013: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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