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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340053/does-the-regulatory-environment-for-e-cigarettes-influence-the-effectiveness-of-e-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation-longitudinal-findings-from-the-itc-four-country-survey
#1
Hua-Hie Yong, Sara C Hitchman, K Michael Cummings, Ron Borland, Shannon M L Gravely, Ann McNeill, Geoffrey T Fong
Introduction: To date, no studies have explored how different regulatory environments may influence the effectiveness of ECs as a smoking cessation aid. Objective: This study compares the real-world effectiveness of adult smokers using ECs for quitting compared with quitting unassisted or quitting with NRT and/or prescription medications in two countries with restrictive policies towards ECs (i.e., Canada and Australia) versus two countries with less restrictive policies (i...
March 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339432/bipolar-versus-unipolar-intraarticular-pulsed-radiofrequency-thermocoagulation-in-chronic-knee-pain-treatment-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#2
Ersel Gulec, Hayri Ozbek, Sinan Pektas, Geylan Isik
BACKGROUND: Chronic knee pain is a major widespread problem causing significant impairment of daily function. Pulsed radiofrequency has been shown to reduce severe chronic joint pain as a non-pharmacological and less invasive treatment method. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the effectiveness of unipolar and bipolar intraarticular pulsed radiofrequency methods in chronic knee pain control. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind study...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338992/identification-of-the-eucalyptus-grandis-chitinase-gene-family-and-expression-characterization-under-different-biotic-stress-challenges
#3
Peri A Tobias, Nanette Christie, Sanushka Naidoo, David I Guest, Carsten Külheim
Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) is an Australian Myrtaceae tree grown for timber in many parts of the world and for which the annotated genome sequence is available. Known to be susceptible to a number of pests and diseases, E. grandis is a useful study organism for investigating defense responses in woody plants. Chitinases are widespread in plants and cleave glycosidic bonds of chitin, the major structural component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons. They are encoded by an important class of genes known to be up-regulated in plants in response to pathogens...
March 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338802/cross-species-genome-wide-identification-of-evolutionary-conserved-microproteins
#4
Daniel Straub, Stephan Wenkel
MicroProteins are small single-domain proteins that act by engaging their targets into different, sometimes non-productive protein complexes. In order to identify novel microProteins in any sequenced genome of interest, we have developed miPFinder, a program that identifies and classifies potential microProteins. In the past years, several microProteins have been discovered in plants where they are mainly involved in the regulation of development by fine-tuning transcription factor activities. The miPFinder algorithm identifies all up to date known plant microProteins and extends the microProtein concept beyond transcription factors to other protein families...
March 2, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338596/operation-versus-antibiotics-the-appendicitis-conundrum-continues-a-meta-analysis
#5
Joseph V Sakran, Konstantinos S Mylonas, Alexandros Gryparis, Stanislaw P Stawicki, Christopher J Burns, Maher M Matar, Konstantinos P Economopoulos
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis continues to constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing nonoperative versus surgical management of uncomplicated acute appendicitis in adult patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases was performed with respect to the PRISMA statement (end-of-search date: January 29, 2017). Data on the study design, interventions, participants, and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338345/challenges-and-driving-forces-for-business-plans-in-biobanking
#6
Tanja Macheiner, Berthold Huppertz, Michaela Bayer, Karine Sargsyan
BACKGROUND: Due to increased utilization of biospecimens for research and emergence of new technologies, the availability and quality of biospecimens and their collection are coming more and more into focus. However, the long-term economic situation of biobanks is still mostly unclear. Also, the common sustainable utilization of various international biobanks is challenging due to local differences in sample processing, law and ethics. AIM: This article discusses possible strategies to achieve a sustainable utilization of biospecimens as part of the business plan of biobanks...
March 24, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337887/up-regulation-of-mir-888-5p-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-lines-and-its-effect-on-malignant-characteristics-of-cells
#7
E Hao, J Yu, S Xie, W Zhang, G Wang
MicroRNA (miRNA) expression has been linked to the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aberrant expression of miRNA is involved in the processes of tumorigenesis and cancer progression. According to the latest research, miR-888-5p is associated with strong cancer-promoting effect. For instance, miR-888-5p is up-regulated in prostate cancer and breast cancer. Nevertheless, the role of miR-888-5p in HCC has not been investigated to date. In this study, we found that miR-888-5p levels in four HCC cell lines (SMMC7721, HepG2, Huh-7 and Bel7402) were significantly up-regulated compared with human hepatocyte cell line (HHL-5)...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337384/topoisomerase-i-top1-a-major-target-of-fl118-for-its-antitumor-efficacy-or-mainly-involved-in-its-side-effects-of-hematopoietic-toxicity
#8
EDITORIAL
Fengzhi Li, Xiang Ling, Danni L Harris, Jianqun Liao, Yuping Wang, David Westover, Guohui Jiang, Bo Xu, Patrick M Boland, Chunyang Jin
FL118 is a novel camptothecin (CPT) analogue that possesses exceptional antitumor efficacy in human tumor animal models. To date, two CPT analogues, irinotecan and topotecan, have been approved by the FDA for cancer treatment. FL118 exhibits superior antitumor activity over irinotecan and topotecan, and effectively overcomes the irinotecan- or topotecan-resistant human tumors in animal models. Accordingly, FL118 selectively inhibits the expression of multiple cancer-associated proteins (survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP, cIAP2, MdmX)...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336787/probabilistic-divergence-time-estimation-without-branch-lengths-dating-the-origins-of-dinosaurs-avian-flight-and-crown-birds
#9
G T Lloyd, D W Bapst, M Friedman, K E Davis
Branch lengths-measured in character changes-are an essential requirement of clock-based divergence estimation, regardless of whether the fossil calibrations used represent nodes or tips. However, a separate set of divergence time approaches are typically used to date palaeontological trees, which may lack such branch lengths. Among these methods, sophisticated probabilistic approaches have recently emerged, in contrast with simpler algorithms relying on minimum node ages. Here, using a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for Mesozoic dinosaurs, we apply two such approaches to estimate divergence times for: (i) Dinosauria, (ii) Avialae (the earliest birds) and (iii) Neornithes (crown birds)...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336746/understanding-dutch-practice-nurses-adherence-to-evidence-based-smoking-cessation-guidelines-and-their-needs-for-web-based-adherence-support-results-from-semistructured-interviews
#10
D de Ruijter, E S Smit, H de Vries, L Goossens, C Hoving
OBJECTIVES: Practice nurses in general practices suboptimally adhere to smoking cessation guidelines. Since the effectiveness of their smoking cessation support is greatest when full adherence to these guidelines is achieved, interventions need to be developed to improve practice nurses' guideline adherence, for example, by tailoring their content to adherence determinants. However, the sociocognitive determinants explaining adherence have not yet been investigated. Therefore, this qualitative needs assessment aimed to explore practice nurses' current counselling practices, as well as their sociocognitive beliefs related to their smoking cessation guideline adherence and their needs regarding web-based adherence support...
March 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336738/single-stage-osseointegrated-reconstruction-and-rehabilitation-of-lower-limb-amputees-the-osseointegration-group-of-australia-accelerated-protocol-2-ogaap-2-for-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Munjed Al Muderis, William Lu, Kevin Tetsworth, Belinda Bosley, Jiao Jiao Li
INTRODUCTION: Lower limb amputations have detrimental influences on the quality of life, function and body image of the affected patients. Following amputation, prolonged rehabilitation is required for patients to be fitted with traditional socket prostheses, and many patients experience symptomatic socket-residuum interface problems which lead to reduced prosthetic use and quality of life. Osseointegration has recently emerged as a novel approach for the reconstruction of amputated limbs, which overcomes many of the socket-related problems by directly attaching the prosthesis to the skeletal residuum...
March 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336374/developments-and-future-clinical-outlook-of-taxane-nanomedicines
#12
REVIEW
Benoit Louage, Olivier De Wever, Wim E Hennink, Bruno G De Geest
Taxanes are highly valuable drugs for cancer treatment. Low water-solubility however puts a major challenge in obtaining formulations that are stable and easy-to-use in clinical practice. Initially, solubilization and lowering toxicity of taxanes has been the main research focus. However, emerging passive and active targeting strategies, especially in the field of nanomedicine, have been capital incentives to further broaden therapeutic index by improving efficacy. This review provides an up-to-date clinical track record of taxane nanomedicines in view of the current state-of-the-art in anti-cancer drug delivery...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336085/the-dual-effect-of-vegetation-green-up-date-and-strong-wind-on-the-return-period-of-spring-dust-storms
#13
Jieling Feng, Ning Li, Zhengtao Zhang, Xi Chen
Vegetation phenology changes have been widely applied in the disaster risk assessments of the spring dust storms, and vegetation green-up date shifts have a strong influence on dust storms. However, the effect of earlier vegetation green-up dates due to climate warming on the evaluation of dust storms return periods remains an important, but poorly understood issue. In this study, we evaluate the spring dust storm return period (February to June) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, using 165 observations of severe spring dust storm events from 16 weather stations, and regional vegetation green-up dates as an integrated factor from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), covering a period from 1982 to 2007, by building the bivariate Copula model...
March 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336077/out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-concise-review-of-strategies-to-improve-outcome
#14
REVIEW
Richard J Jabbour, Sayan Sen, Ghada W Mikhail, Iqbal S Malik
Despite decades of research, cardiac arrest remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, with frustratingly poor survival rates of approximately 10% to hospital discharge. Various strategies have been shown to improve survival, but differing degrees of implementation have led to a disparity in survival rates. These improvements, however, are balanced against the increasing age of patients presenting with out of hospital cardiac arrest and decreasing incidence of ventricular fibrillation, the rhythm with the best outcome...
March 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335820/exploring-the-tensions-of-being-and-becoming-a-medical-educator
#15
Ahsan Sethi, Rola Ajjawi, Sean McAleer, Susie Schofield
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified tensions medical faculty encounter in their roles but not specifically those with a qualification in medical education. It is likely that those with postgraduate qualifications may face additional tensions (i.e., internal or external conflicts or concerns) from differentiation by others, greater responsibilities and translational work against the status quo. This study explores the complex and multi-faceted tensions of educators with qualifications in medical education at various stages in their career...
March 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335772/production-of-s-2-aminobutyric-acid-and-s-2-aminobutanol-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#16
Nora Weber, Anaëlle Hatsch, Ludivine Labagnere, Harald Heider
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) has great potential as a whole-cell biocatalyst for multistep synthesis of various organic molecules. To date, however, few examples exist in the literature of the successful biosynthetic production of chemical compounds, in yeast, that do not exist in nature. Considering that more than 30% of all drugs on the market are purely chemical compounds, often produced by harsh synthetic chemistry or with very low yields, novel and environmentally sound production routes are highly desirable...
March 23, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335755/the-incidence-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-diabetic-retinopathy-in-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-people-age-50%C3%A2-years-and-over-in-nakuru-kenya
#17
Andrew Bastawrous, Wanjiku Mathenge, Kevin Wing, Madeleine Bastawrous, Hillary Rono, Helen A Weiss, David Macleod, Allen Foster, Tunde Peto, Peter Blows, Matthew Burton, Hannah Kuper
BACKGROUND: The epidemic rise of diabetes carries major negative public health and economic consequences particularly for low and middle-income countries. The highest predicted percentage growth in diabetes is in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region where to date there has been no data on the incidence of diabetic retinopathy from population-based cohort studies and minimal data on incident diabetes. The primary aims of this study were to estimate the cumulative six-year incidence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and DR (Diabetic Retinopathy), respectively, among people aged ≥50 years in Kenya...
March 23, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335743/reasons-for-discontinuation-of-subcutaneous-interferon-%C3%AE-1a-three-times-a-week-among-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-real-world-cohort-study
#18
Meritxell Sabidó-Espin, Rick Munschauer
BACKGROUND: Continuation of interferon (IFN) β-based therapies is important for maximum treatment effectiveness in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few real-world data are available on discontinuation from IFN β. The aim of this cohort analysis was to estimate real-world discontinuation rates up to 3 years among MS patients in the United States taking subcutaneous (sc) IFN β-1a three times a week (tiw) and to identify whether the factors associated with discontinuation change over time...
March 23, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335014/impact-of-high-intensity-polio-eradication-activities-on-children-s-routine-immunization-status-in-northern-india
#19
Marco J Haenssgen
The objective of this article is to analyse and quantify the side effects of the Polio Eradication Initiative on routine immunization performance in India. Past studies have faced methodological challenges in assessing these side effects. This article offers a methodological alternative for health policy analysts. The research uses secondary household survey data from the Indian District-Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS), focusing on children aged 10-30 months in the Northern Indian states of Uttar Pradesh (n = 34 327) and Bihar (n = 20 525)...
March 16, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334718/sex-differences-do-not-exist-in-outcomes-among-stroke-patients-with-intracranial-atherosclerosis-in-china-subgroup-analysis-from-the-chinese-intracranial-atherosclerosis-study
#20
Yuehua Pu, Na Wei, Dandan Yu, Yilong Wang, Xinying Zou, Yannie O Y Soo, Yuesong Pan, Thomas W H Leung, Lawrence K S Wong, Yongjun Wang, Liping Liu
BACKGROUND: To date, sex difference in outcomes among patients with intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) has rarely been discussed in China as well as in the world. This study aimed to estimate the sex difference in outcomes among patients with ICAS in Chinese cerebral ischemia patients. METHODS: We analyzed 1,335 men and women with ICAS who were enrolled in the Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis study. They were followed-up for ischemic stroke recurrence, any cause of death, cerebral vascular events (including transient ischemic attack, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke), combined end points (including cerebral vascular events, angina or myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, peripheral vascular events), and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin scale score of 3-6) at 1 year...
March 24, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
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