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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792173/impact-of-growth-ph-and-glucose-concentrations-on-the-cody-regulatory-network-in-streptococcus-salivarius
#1
Jianing Geng, Szu-Chuan Huang, Yueh-Ying Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Songnian Hu, Yi-Ywan M Chen
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius is an abundant isolate of the human oral microbiota. Since both pH and glucose availability fluctuate frequently in the oral cavity, the goal of this study was to investigate regulation by CodY, a conserved pleiotropic regulator of Gram positive bacteria, in response to these two signals. The chemostat culture system was employed to precisely control the growth parameters, and the transcriptomes of wild-type S. salivarius 57.I and its CodY-null derivative (ΔcodY) grown at pH 7 and 5...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791860/the-olfactory-logic-behind-fruit-odor-preferences-in-larval-and-adult-drosophila
#2
Hany K M Dweck, Shimaa A M Ebrahim, Tom Retzke, Veit Grabe, Jerrit Weißflog, Ales Svatoš, Bill S Hansson, Markus Knaden
Despite the comprehensive knowledge on odor coding, our understanding of the relationship between sensory input and behavioral output in Drosophila remains weak. Here, we measure the behavioral responses generated by larval and adult flies in response to 34 fruit odors and find that larval preference for fruit odors differs from that of adult flies. Next, we provide a functional analysis of the full repertoire of the peripheral olfactory system using the same comprehensive stimulus spectrum. We find that 90% and 53% of larval and adult olfactory receptors tested here, respectively, are involved in evaluating these fruit odors...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791853/p27-kip1-modulates-axonal-transport-by-regulating-%C3%AE-tubulin-acetyltransferase-1-stability
#3
Giovanni Morelli, Aviel Even, Ivan Gladwyn-Ng, Romain Le Bail, Michal Shilian, Juliette D Godin, Elise Peyre, Bassem A Hassan, Arnaud Besson, Jean-Michel Rigo, Miguel Weil, Bert Brône, Laurent Nguyen
The protein p27Kip1 plays roles that extend beyond cell-cycle regulation during cerebral cortex development, such as the regulation of neuronal migration and neurite branching via signaling pathways that converge on the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. Microtubule-dependent transport is essential for the maturation of neurons and the establishment of neuronal connectivity though synapse formation and maintenance. Here, we show that p27Kip1 controls the transport of vesicles and organelles along the axon of mice cortical projection neurons in vitro...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791568/assessing-the-association-between-hypoxia-during-craniofacial-development-and-oral-clefts
#4
Erika Calvano Küchler, Lea Assed da Silva, Paulo Nelson-Filho, Ticiana M Sabóia, Angela M Rentschler, José Mauro Granjeiro, Driely Oliveira, Patricia N Tannure, Raquel Assed da Silva, Leonardo Santos Antunes, Michael Tsang, Alexandre R Vieira
Objectives To evaluate the association between hypoxia during embryo development and oral clefts in an animal model, and to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in the HIF-1A gene with oral clefts in human families. Material and Methods The study with the animal model used zebrafish embryos at 8 hours post-fertilization submitted to 30% and 50% hypoxia for 24 hours. At 5 days post-fertilization, the larvae were fixed. The cartilage structures were stained to evaluate craniofacial phenotypes. The family-based association study included 148 Brazilian nuclear families with oral clefts...
2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791052/high-performance-liquid-chromatography-quantification-of-enantiomers-of-a-dihydroxylated-tetrahydrofuran-natural-product
#5
Ke Li, Skye D Fissette, Tyler J Buchinger, Zoe E Middleton, Alistair Boyer, Weiming Li
Both enantiomers of petromyroxol are putative pheromones in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Here, we describe the separation and quantification of the petromyroxol enantiomers using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The separation was tested on a wide range of chiral columns with normal phases, and effects of the chromatographic parameters such as mobile phase and temperature on the separation were optimized. The AD-H column showed the best separation of enantiomers with n-hexane and ethanol as the mobile phase...
May 23, 2018: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790944/the-reducing-clade-iib-polyketide-synthase-pks14-acts-as-a-virulence-determinant-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana
#6
Chettida Srisuksam, Juntira Punya, Songsak Wattanachaisaereekul, Wachiraporn Toopaang, Supapon Cheevadhanarak, Morakot Tanticharoen, Alongkorn Amnuaykanjanasin
pks14, a reducing clade IIb polyketide synthase gene, is preserved throughout the evolution of entomopathogenic fungi. We examined the functions of pks14 in Beauveria bassiana using targeted gene disruption. pks14 disruption was verified by Southern blot and PCR analyses. The radial growth, cell dry weight and conidial germination of Δpks14 were comparable to that of the wild type. Our sequence and gene expression analyses of the pks14 biosynthetic cluster demonstrated: (i) cotranscription and constitutive expression of nearly all genes of the aforementioned cluster including C2H2 zinc finger transcription regulator gene, but not pks14 and cytochrome P450 gene; (ii) expression of pks14 gene in insect-containing culture condition only; whereby (iii) a KAR9-like gene in direct proximity with pks14 is the only gene showing co-regulation...
May 22, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790312/cavitary-myiasis-and-its-management
#7
Shreya Gour, Gayathri Ramesh, Vijayendra Kumar, G K Thapliyal, Ramesh Nagarajappa
Myiasis is a parasitic disease of humans and vertebrates, caused by fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. Myiasis is classified into cutaneous and cavitary myiasis. Cavitary myiasis is rare and occurs more frequently in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and America associated with low economic status and poor hygiene. This article reviews current literature, provides general descriptions, and discusses life cycles of each species. It also gives diagnosis, treatment techniques and descriptions of each type of illness that result from interaction / infestation...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790270/metabolomics-reveals-the-key-role-of-oxygen-metabolism-in-the-heat-susceptibility-of-an-alpine-dwelling-ghost-moth-thitarodes-xiaojinensis-lepidoptera-hepialidae
#8
Wei Zhu, Qian Meng, Huan Zhang, Meng-Long Wang, Xuan Li, Hong-Tuo Wang, Gui-Ling Zhou, Lin Miao, Qi-Lian Qin, Ji-Hong Zhang
Ghost moths inhabiting the alpine meadows of the Tibetan Plateau are cold-adapted stenothermal organisms that are susceptible to heat (dead within 7 days of 27 °C exposure). Exploring the metabolic basis of their heat susceptibility would extend our understanding of the thermal biology of alpine dwelling invertebrates. Here, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was combined with physiological and transcriptional approaches to determine the metabolic mechanisms of heat susceptibility in Thitarodes xiaojinensis larvae...
May 23, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790257/functionalized-silk-fibers-from-transgenic-silkworms-for-wound-healing-applications-surface-presentation-of-bioactive-epidermal-growth-factor
#9
Michael Wöltje, Melanie Böbel, Michaela Bienert, Sabine Neuss, Dilibaier Aibibu, Chokri Cherif
Growth factors play a crucial role in wound healing in general and are promising tools for the treatment of chronic wounds as they can restore the physiological wound healing process. In growth factor-loaded wound dressings, human epidermal growth factor (EGF) is released in a burst and washed out quickly. The developed matrix consists of recombinant EGF produced in transgenic silkworms as a fusion protein with the fibroin light chain. The covalent linkage prevents EGF from draining into the surrounding tissue while presenting the growth factor on the surface...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790239/ocean-warming-has-a-greater-effect-than-acidification-on-the-early-life-history-development-and-swimming-performance-of-a-large-circumglobal-pelagic-fish
#10
Sue-Ann Watson, Bridie J M Allan, David E McQueen, Simon Nicol, Darren M Parsons, Stephen M J Pether, Stephen Pope, Alvin N Setiawan, Neville Smith, Carly Wilson, Philip L Munday
Ocean warming and acidification are serious threats to marine life; however, their individual and combined effects on large pelagic and predatory fishes are poorly understood. We determined the effects of projected future temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels on survival, growth, morphological development and swimming performance on the early life stages of a large circumglobal pelagic fish, the yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi. Eggs, larvae and juveniles were reared in cross-factored treatments of temperature (21 and 25°C) and pCO2 (500 and 985 μatm) from fertilisation to 25 days post hatching (dph)...
May 22, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790090/enhancement-of-broodstock-health-and-maternal-immunity-in-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-l-using-excelmos%C3%A2
#11
N M AbouShabana, R AbdelKader, S Abdel-Rahman, H S Abdel-Gawad, A M Abdel-Galil
The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of ExcelMOS® in enhancing the immune system of Sparus aurata broodstock and their impact on offspring health through displaying the maternal transfer of immunity. Broodstock were divided into two groups: one was injected intraperitoneally with ExcelMOS® 1 month before spawning, while the other group was used as a control (without injection). Comprehensive increase in survival rate was observed for larvae hatched from ExcelMOS®-injected broodstock than those of the control (P ≤ 0...
May 22, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789940/postembryonic-development-of-arostrilepis-microtis-gulyaev-et-chechulin-1997-eucestoda-hymenolepididae-in-springtails-collembola-entomobryidae
#12
Liudmila A Ishigenova, Olga G Berezina, Arseny A Makarikov
The development of the metacestode stages of Arostrilepis microtis (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) studied on the basis of an experimental infection of springtails (Collembola: Entomobryidae) is described for the first time. A complete description of the ontogeny from oncosphere to fully a developed metacestode is given. The postembryonic development within the intermediate host includes one invagination. Cysts are without an anterior invagination pore, and the cercomer does not separate after the full maturation of larva...
May 22, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789922/temperature-affects-phenological-synchrony-in-a-tree-killing-bark-beetle
#13
J A Lombardo, A S Weed, C F Aoki, B T Sullivan, M P Ayres
Phenological synchrony can promote population growth in species with positive density dependence. Variation among life stages in the thermal thresholds for development can foster phenological synchrony under thermal regimes that include frequent occurrence of temperatures between developmental thresholds. The southern pine beetle is an insect with positive density dependence that has recently undergone important shifts in population abundance at the northern extremes of their distribution. We evaluated the hypothesis that cooler winter temperatures in their northern range cause a convergence of the population life stage structure that leads to synchrony in spring flight phenology...
May 22, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789135/combined-effects-of-ocean-acidification-and-temperature-on-planula-larvae-of-the-moon-jellyfish-aurelia-coerulea
#14
Zhijun Dong, Tingting Sun
Rapidly rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have caused two environmental stressors, ocean acidification and seawater temperature increases, which represent major abiotic threats to marine organisms. Here, we investigated for the first time the combined effects of ocean acidification and seawater temperature increases on the behavior, survival, and settlement of the planula larvae of Aurelia coerulea, which is considered a nuisance species around the world. Three pH levels (8.1, 7.7 and 7.3) and two temperature levels (24 °C and 27 °C) were used in the present study...
May 16, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788257/molecular-modularity-and-asymmetry-of-the-molluscan-mantle-revealed-by-a-gene-expression-atlas
#15
Ines Herlitze, Benjamin Marie, Frédéric Marin, Daniel J Jackson
Background: Conchiferan molluscs construct a biocalcified shell that likely supported much of their evolutionary success. However beyond broad proteomic and transcriptomic surveys of molluscan shells and the shell-forming mantle tissue, little is known of the spatial and ontogenetic regulation of shell fabrication. In addition, most efforts have been focused on species that deposit nacre, which is at odds with the majority of conchiferan species that fabricate shells using a crossed lamellar microstructure, sensu lato...
May 17, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787378/larval-hemolymph-of-rhinoceros-beetle-allomyrina-dichotoma-enhances-insulin-secretion-through-atf3-gene-expression-in-ins-1-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#16
Seung-Whan Kim, Hyun-Woo Suh, Bo-Kyung Yoo, Kisang Kwon, Kweon Yu, Ji-Young Choi, O-Yu Kwon
In this study, we show that INS-1 pancreatic β-cells treated for 2 h with hemolymph of larvae of rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, secreted about twice as much insulin compared to control cells without such treatment. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was the highest upregulated gene in DNA chip analysis. The A. dichotoma hemolymph dose-dependently induced increased expression levels of genes encoding ATF3 and insulin. Conversely, treatment with ATF3 siRNA inhibited expression levels of both genes and curbed insulin secretion...
May 22, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786863/acute-ammonia-toxicity-to-the-larvae-glochidia-of-the-tropical-australian-freshwater-mussel-velesunio-spp-using-a-modified-toxicity-test-protocol
#17
Linda S Kleinhenz, Melanie A Trenfield, Thomas J Mooney, Christopher L Humphrey, Rick A van Dam, Dayanthi Nugegoda, Andrew J Harford
Ammonia is recognised as a major pollutant worldwide, originating from natural and anthropogenic sources. Studies have reported that freshwater mussels are amongst the most sensitive taxa to ammonia, but there is a lack of data available on ammonia toxicity for the early life stages of freshwater mussels from tropical regions. This paper reports the modification of a 24-h acute toxicity test protocol for tropical freshwater mussels and application of the test using ammonia. Velesunio spp. from three different sites were used to assess the toxicity of ammonia at a targeted pH of 6...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786769/do-fatal-infectious-diseases-eradicate-host-species
#18
Alex P Farrell, James P Collins, Amy L Greer, Horst R Thieme
In simple SI epidemic and endemic models, three classes of incidence functions are identified for their potential to be associated with host extinction: weakly upper density-dependent incidences are never associated with host extinction. Power incidences that depend on the number of susceptibles and infectives by powers strictly between 0 and 1 are associated with initial-constellation-dependent host extinction for all parameter values. Homogeneous incidences, of which frequency-dependent incidence is a very particular case, and power incidences are associated with global host extinction for certain parameter constellations and with host survival for others...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786147/timing-and-frequency-of-sublethal-exposure-modifies-the-induction-and-retention-of-increased-insecticide-tolerance-in-wood-frogs-lithobates-sylvaticus
#19
Devin K Jones, Erika K Yates, Brian M Mattes, William D Hintz, Matthew S Schuler, Rick A Relyea
While the paradigm for increased tolerance to pesticides has been by selection on constitutive (naïve) traits, recent research has shown it can also occur through phenotypic plasticity. However, the time period in which induction can occur, the duration of induced tolerance, and the influence of multiple induction events remain unknown. We hypothesized that the induction of increased pesticide tolerance is limited to early sensitive periods, the magnitude of induced tolerance depends on the number of exposures, and the retention of induced tolerance depends on the time elapsed after an exposure and the number of exposures...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785896/survey-of-trematodes-in-intertidal-snails-from-patagonia-argentina-new-larval-forms-and-diversity-assessment
#20
C Gilardoni, G Di Giorgio, E Bagnato, F Cremonte
Larval trematodes are the main parasites of snails, and they play a crucial role because they usually castrate their snail hosts and can thus alter their population and community dynamics. This study involved a survey of seven gastropod species (Crepipatella dilatata, Fissurella radiosa, Nacella magellanica, Pareuthria fuscata, Siphonaria lessonii, S. lateralis and Trophon geversianus) parasitized by 12 trematode species (one hemiurid, one gymnophallid, two lepocreadiids, two microphallids, one notocotylid, two renicolids, one philophtalmid, one schistosomatid and one zoogonid) from southern Patagonia (47°S, 65°W), Argentina...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
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