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Fan Jiang, Jue Liu, Xinyue Zeng, Liqin Yu, Chunsheng Liu, Jianghua Wang
Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. Recently, the reproductive and developmental toxicology of TBOEP has been reported. However, fewer studies have assessed the neurotoxic effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. In this study, zebrafish embryos were subjected to waterborne exposure of TBOEP at 0, 50, 500, 1500 and 2500 μg/L from 2 to 144-h post-fertilization (hpf). Behavioral measurements showed that TBOEP exposure reduced embryonic spontaneous movement and decreased swimming speed of larvae in response to dark stimulation...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Laura Sanvicente-Añorve, Jorge Zavala-Hidalgo, Eugenia Allende-Arandía, Margarita Hermoso-Salazar
Most coral-associated decapod species have non-migratory adult populations and depend on their planktonic larvae for dispersal. This study examined the metapopulation structure of three decapod species with different pelagic larval duration (PLD) from twelve coral reef complexes of the Gulf of Mexico. The dispersion of larvae was analyzed through the use of a realistic numerical simulation of the Gulf of Mexico with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. To study the transport and dispersion of particles in near-surface waters, a particle-tracking subroutine was run using as input the currents from the model...
2018: PloS One
Daisuke Kobayashi, Katsunori Murota, Ryosuke Fujita, Kentaro Itokawa, Akira Kotaki, Meng Ling Moi, Hiroko Ejiri, Yoshihide Maekawa, Kohei Ogawa, Yoshio Tsuda, Toshinori Sasaki, Mutsuo Kobayashi, Tomohiko Takasaki, Haruhiko Isawa, Kyoko Sawabe
In 2014 in Japan, 162 autochthonous dengue cases were reported for the first time in nearly 70 years. Here, we report the results of the detection and isolation of dengue virus (DENV) from mosquitoes collected in Tokyo Metropolis in 2014 and 2015. The phylogenetic relationship among DENV isolates from mosquitoes and from patients based on both the entire envelope gene and whole coding sequences was evaluated. Herein, 2,298 female and 956 male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were collected at six suspected locations of DENV infection in Tokyo Metropolis from August to October in 2014 and grouped into 124 and 35 pools, respectively, for viral genome detection and DENV isolation...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Michael Sswat, Martina H Stiasny, Jan Taucher, Maria Algueró-Muñiz, Lennart T Bach, Fredrik Jutfelt, Ulf Riebesell, Catriona Clemmesen
Ocean acidification-the decrease in seawater pH due to rising CO2 concentrations-has been shown to lower survival in early life stages of fish and, as a consequence, the recruitment of populations including commercially important species. To date, ocean-acidification studies with fish larvae have focused on the direct physiological impacts of elevated CO2 , but largely ignored the potential effects of ocean acidification on food web interactions. In an in situ mesocosm study on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae as top predators in a pelagic food web, we account for indirect CO2 effects on larval survival mediated by changes in food availability...
March 19, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Philip Mercurio, Geoff Eaglesham, Stephen Parks, Matt Kenway, Victor Beltran, Florita Flores, Jochen F Mueller, Andrew P Negri
The toxicity of herbicide degradation (transformation) products is rarely taken into account, even though these are commonly detected in the marine environment, sometimes at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. Here we assessed the potential contribution of toxicity by transformation products of five photosystem II herbicides to coral symbionts (Symbiodinium sp.), the green algae Dunaliella sp., and prawn (Penaeus monodon) larvae. Concentration-dependent inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency (∆F/Fm ') was observed for all herbicides in both microalgal species...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lian-Xian Guo, Yue-Hui Hong, Qian-Zhi Zhou, Qing Zhu, Xiao-Ming Xu, Jiang-Hai Wang
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephen J Holland, Lesley M Berghuis, Justin J King, Lakshminarayan M Iyer, Katarzyna Sikora, Heather Fifield, Sarah Peter, Emma M Quinlan, Fumiaki Sugahara, Prashant Shingate, Inês Trancoso, Norimasa Iwanami, Elena Temereva, Christine Strohmeier, Shigeru Kuratani, Byrappa Venkatesh, Guillaume Evanno, L Aravind, Michael Schorpp, Mani Larijani, Thomas Boehm
Cytidine deaminases of the AID/APOBEC family catalyze C-to-U nucleotide transitions in mRNA or DNA. Members of the APOBEC3 branch are involved in antiviral defense, whereas AID contributes to diversification of antibody repertoires in jawed vertebrates via somatic hypermutation, gene conversion, and class switch recombination. In the extant jawless vertebrate, the lamprey, two members of the AID/APOBEC family are implicated in the generation of somatic diversity of the variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs). Expression studies linked CDA1 and CDA2 genes to the assembly of VLRA /C genes in T-like cells and the VLRB genes in B-like cells, respectively...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Francesca Forti, Dwayne R Roach, Marco Cafora, Maria E Pasini, David S Horner, Ersilia V Fiscarelli, Martina Rossitto, Lisa Cariani, Federica Briani, Laurent Debarbieux, Daniela Ghisotti
The alarming diffusion of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains requires investigations on non-antibiotic therapies. Amongst them, the use of bacteriophages (phages) as antimicrobial agents, namely phage therapy, is a promising treatment strategy with support by recent successful compassionate treatments in Europe and the U.S.A. In this work, we combined host range and genomic information to design a 6-phage cocktail killing several clinical strains of P. aeruginosa , including those collected from Italian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyzed the cocktail performance...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Tairon Pannunzio Dias E Silva, Carolina Rodriguez Jimenez, Egon Ion Ieda, Adibe Luiz Abdalla, Helder Louvandini
This study was conducted to evaluate the metabolism and phosphorus (P) kinetics in lambs experimentally infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis using the isotope dilution technique and modelling. Fifteen male lambs (21.1 ± 1.50 kg) of the Santa Inês hair breed of approximately six months old, distributed in the treatments infected (I, n = 8) and control (C, n = 7) were used. The infected lambs received serial infections with 5000 T. colubriformis larvae, three times per week, for 3 weeks (45 000 T...
March 16, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Jeffrey A Harvey, Rieta Gols
Among parasitoids that develop inside the bodies of feeding, growing hosts (so-called 'koinobiont' endoparasitoids), two strategies have evolved to dispose of host resources. The larvae of one group consumes most host tissues before pupation, whereas in the other the parasitoid larvae consume only host hemolymph and fat body and at maturity emerge through the host cuticle to pupate externally. Here we compared development and survival (to adult emergence) of two related larval endoparasitoids (Braconidae: Microgastrinae) of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Wen-Jia Yang, Kang-Kang Xu, Xin Yan, Chun-Xu Chen, Yu Cao, Yong-Lu Meng, Can Li
Chitin deacetylases (CDAs) are chitin degradation enzymes that strictly regulate growth and development in insects. In this study, we identified and characterized a full-length cDNA of the CDA gene (SpCDA1) in the drugstore beetle, Stegobium paniceum. The open reading frame of SpCDA1 (1614 bp) encoded a 537 amino acid protein, which possessed typical domain structures of CDAs. Phylogenetic comparison to other insect CDAs revealed that SpCDA1 belongs to Group Ib CDAs. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SpCDA1 was highly expressed in late larval stages...
March 16, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Melissa A Nashat, Rodolfo J Ricart Arbona, Elyn R Riedel, Olga Francino, Lluis Ferrer, Kerith R Luchins, Neil S Lipman
Demodex mites are microscopic, cigar-shaped, follicular mites often regarded as commensal microfauna in mammals. Although Demodex spp. can cause dermatologic disease in any immunocompromised mammal, they are rarely reported in laboratory mice. Recent identification of Demodex musculi in a colony of immunodeficient mice with dermatitis afforded us the opportunity to investigate the comparative sensitivity of 4 antemortem diagnostic techniques to detect D. musculi-superficial skin scrape (SSS), tape impression (TI), fur pluck (FP), and deep skin scrape (DSS)-which we performed on 4 anatomic sites (face, interscapular region [IS], caudal ventrum [CV], and caudal dorsum [CD]) in 46 mice...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Graziana Da Rold, Silvia Ravagnan, Fabio Soppelsa, Elena Porcellato, Mauro Soppelsa, Federica Obber, Carlo Vittorio Citterio, Sara Carlin, Patrizia Danesi, Fabrizio Montarsi, Gioia Capelli
BACKGROUND: Northeastern Italy is a hotspot for several tick-borne pathogens, transmitted to animals and humans mainly by Ixodes ricinus. Here we compare the results of molecular monitoring of ticks and zoonotic TBPs over a six-year period, with the monitoring of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in an endemic area. RESULTS: In the period 2011-2016, 2,578 ticks were collected in 38 sites of 20 municipalities of Belluno Province. Individual adults (264), pooled larvae (n = 330) and nymphs (n = 1984) were screened for tick-borne encephalitis virus, Borrelia burgdorferi (s...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Frans Jongejan, Bi-Ling Su, Hsiang-Ju Yang, Laura Berger, Judith Bevers, Pin-Chen Liu, Jou-Chien Fang, Ya-Wen Cheng, Charlotte Kraakman, Nadine Plaxton
BACKGROUND: Babesia gibsoni is the predominant tick-borne protozoan blood parasite affecting dogs throughout the Oriental region. Babesia gibsoni is transmitted by Haemaphysalis longicornis, whereas a similar role has been suggested for Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Haemaphysalis longicornis does not occur in Taiwan, but R. sanguineus is widely distributed on dogs. However, clinical cases of babesiosis are mainly restricted to the northern part of the island. The discrepancy between tick distribution and clinical cases stimulated us to investigate the tick species distribution on dogs in northern Taiwan, with the aim to identify the local vector for canine babesiosis...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jumpei Suzuki, Masahiro Imamura, Daisuke Nakano, Ryosuke Yamamoto, Masafumi Fujita
Anthropogenic water turbidity derived from suspended solids (SS) is caused by reservoir sediment management practices such as drawdown flushing. Turbid water induces stress in many aquatic organisms, but the effects of turbidity on oxidative stress responses in aquatic insects have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we examined antioxidant responses, oxidative damage, and energy reserves in caddisfly (Stenopsyche marmorata) larvae exposed to turbid water (0 mg SS L-1 , 500 mg SS L-1 , and 2000 mg SS L-1 ) at different temperatures...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sara Villa, Valeria Di Nica, Tanita Pescatore, Francesco Bellamoli, Francesco Miari, Antonio Finizio, Valeria Lencioni
Several studies have indicated the presence of contaminants in Alpine aquatic ecosystems. Even if measured concentrations are far below those that cause acute effects, continuous exposure to sub-lethal concentrations may have detrimental effects on the aquatic species present in these remote environments. This may lead to a cascade of indirect effects at higher levels of the ecological hierarchy (i.e., the community). To improve the determination of ecologically relevant risk endpoints, behavioural alterations in organisms due to pollutants are increasingly studied in ecotoxicology...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jinhua Jiang, Yan Shi, Ruixian Yu, Liping Chen, Xueping Zhao
Azoxystrobin (AZ) is a broad-spectrum systemic fungicide that widely used in the world. The present study investigated the toxicity effects on zebrafish after short-term exposure of AZ. Results demonstrated that the larval stage was most susceptible to AZ in the multiple life stages of zebrafish, with 96 h-LC50 value of 0.777 mg/L. Zebrafish larvae were exposed to different AZ concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 μg/L) and examined on 24, 48 and 72 h. It was found that AZ induced ROS accumulation, increased GST, GPX and POD activity and the transcriptions of antioxidant and stress response related genes, while the opposite trend occurred for SOD and CAT activity in 24-h or 48-h exposure period...
March 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Juliana Miron Vani, Maria Tereza Ferreira Duenhas Monreal, Sarah Alves Auharek, Andréa Luiza Cunha-Laura, Eduardo José de Arruda, Alessandra Ramos Lima, Cicera Maria da Silva, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado Antoniolli-Silva, Dênis Pires de Lima, Adilson Beatriz, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira
Dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus are epidemics in Brazil that are transmitted by mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. The liquid from shells of cashew nuts is attractive for its important biological and therapeutic activities, which include toxicity to mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. The present study evaluated the effects of a mixture of surfactants from natural cashew nutshell liquid and castor oil (named TaLCC-20) on the mortality of larvae and on the reproductive performance, embryonic and fetal development and genetic stability of Swiss mice...
2018: PloS One
C Ross, N D Fogarty, R Ritson-Williams, V J Paul
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is involved in the regulation of numerous reproductive and morphogenic processes across an array of taxa. Extracellular H2 O2 can be widespread in oceanic waters, and elevated sea surface temperatures can cause increased levels of intracellular H2 O2 within cnidarian tissue, but it remains unclear how this compound affects early life-history processes in corals, such as fertilization, metamorphosis, and settlement. To evaluate the effects of H2 O2 on multiple stages of recruitment, experiments were conducted using Caribbean corals with various reproductive modes, including the brooders Porites astreoides and Favia fragum and the broadcast-spawning species Acropora palmata and Orbicella franksi...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
Kate Basley, Dave Goulson
Arable field margins are often sown with wildflowers to encourage pollinators and other beneficial or desirable insects such as bees and butterflies. Concern has been raised that these margins may be contaminated with systemic pesticides such as neonicotinoids used on the adjacent crop, and that this may negatively impact beneficial insects. The use of neonicotinoids has been linked to butterfly declines, and species such as the common blue butterfly ( Polyommatus icarus) that feed upon legumes commonly sown in arable field margins, may be exposed to such toxins...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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