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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922960/aural-myiasis-in-an-infant
#1
Nurdoğan Ata, Fatih Güzelkara
Myiasis is the parasitic invasion of tissues and organs of human beings by fly larvae. When ear is invaded by the parasitic larvae of flies, this condition is called aural myiasis. Wohlfahrtia magnifica is frequently encountered species in aural myiasis. The authors report a 4-month-old infant from a rural area with aural myiasis caused by W magnifica.
December 5, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921996/the-cns-connectome-of-a-tadpole-larva-of-ciona-intestinalis-l-highlights-sidedness-in-the-brain-of-a-chordate-sibling
#2
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiyuan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Left-right asymmetries in brains are usually minor or cryptic. We report brain asymmetries in the tiny, dorsal tubular nervous system of the ascidian tadpole larva, Ciona intestinalis. Chordate in body plan and development, the larva provides an outstanding example of brain asymmetry. Although early neural development is well studied, detailed cellular organization of the swimming larva's CNS remains unreported. Using serial-section EM we document the synaptic connectome of the larva's 177 CNS neurons. These formed 6618 synapses including 1772 neuromuscular junctions, augmented by 1206 gap junctions...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921995/think-small
#3
Luis A Bezares-Calderón, Gáspár Jékely
The tadpole larva of a sea squirt is only the second animal to have its entire nervous system mapped out, and the results confirm that there is still much to learn from the smallest brains.
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921519/different-responses-of-drosophila-subobscura-isofemale-lines-to-extremely-low-frequency-magnetic-field-50%C3%A2-hz-0-5%C3%A2-mt-fitness-components-and-locomotor-activity
#4
Danica Zmejkoski, Branka Petković, Sofija Pavković-Lučić, Zlatko Prolić, Marko Anđelković, Tatjana Savić
PURPOSE: Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields as essential ecological factor may induce specific responses in genetically different lines. The subject of this study was to investigate the impact of ELF magnetic field on fitness components and locomotor activity of five Drosophila subobscura isofemale (IF) lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each D. subobscura IF line, arbitrarily named: B16/1, B24/4, B39/1, B57/2 and B69/5, was maintained in five full-sib inbreeding generations...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921244/towards-green-oviposition-deterrents-effectiveness-of-syzygium-lanceolatum-myrtaceae-essential-oil-against-six-mosquito-vectors-and-impact-on-four-aquatic-biological-control-agents
#5
Giovanni Benelli, Mohan Rajeswary, Marimuthu Govindarajan
Essential oils (EOs) from plants may be alternative sources of molecules toxic against mosquito vectors of public health relevance. Most of researches in this field focused on EOs as larvicides or ovicides, while limited efforts focused on the exploitation of EOs as oviposition deterrents. In the present study, the larvicidal and oviposition deterrent activity of Syzygium lanceolatum leaf EO was evaluated against six mosquito species, Anopheles stephensi, An. subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Cx...
December 5, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920194/experimental-validation-of-the-avivet-trap-a-tool-to-quantitatively-monitor-the-dynamics-of-dermanyssus-gallinae-populations-in-laying-hens
#6
G A Lammers, R G G Bronneberg, J C M Vernooij, J A Stegeman
Dermanyssus gallinae (D.gallinae) infestation causes economic losses due to impaired health and production of hens and costs of parasite control across the world. Moreover, infestations are associated with reduced welfare of hens and may cause itching in humans. To effectively implement control methods it is crucially important to have high quality information about the D.gallinae populations in poultry houses in space and time. At present no validated tool is available to quantitatively monitor the dynamics of all four stages of D...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920150/heterotrimeric-kinesin-2-together-with-kinesin-1-steers-vesicular-acetylcholinesterase-movements-toward-the-synapse
#7
Anuttama Kulkarni, Yasmin Khan, Krishanu Ray
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is implicated in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, is distributed along the axon and enriched at the presynaptic basal lamina. It hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which inhibits synaptic transmission. Aberrant AChE activity and ectopic axonal accumulation of the enzyme are associated with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism that underlies AChE transport is still unclear. Here, we show that expression of Drosophila AChE tagged with photoactivable green fluorescent protein and m-Cherry (GPAC) in cholinergic neurons compensates for the RNA interference-mediated knockdown of endogenous AChE activity...
December 5, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919701/evaluation-of-the-neurotoxic-effects-of-chronic-embryonic-exposure-with-inorganic-mercury-on-motor-and-anxiety-like-responses-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#8
Noraini Abu Bakar, Nurul Syafida Asma' Mohd Sata, Nurul Farhana Ramlan, Wan Norhamidah Wan Ibrahim, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Mohammad Noor Amal Azmai
Chronic exposure to mercury (Hg) can lead to cumulative impairments in motor and cognitive functions including alteration in anxiety responses. Although several risk factors have been identified in recent year, little is known about the environmental factors that either due exposure toward low level of inorganic mercury that may led to the developmental disorders. The present study investigated the effects of embryonic exposure of mercury chloride on motor function and anxiety-like behavior. The embryo exposed to 6 different concentrations of HgCl2 (7...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919647/the-functions-of-serpin-3-a-negative-regulator-involved-in-prophenoloxidase-activation-and-antimicrobial-peptides-expression-of-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#9
Xialu Wang, Kailin Wang, Yuanyuan He, Xinrui Lu, Daihua Wen, Chunfu Wu, Jinghai Zhang, Rong Zhang
Serpins are a superfamily of proteins engaged in various physiological processes in all kingdoms of life. To date, many striking results have demonstrated serpins are involved in the invertebrate immune system by regulating the proteolytic cascades. However, in most insect species, the immune functions of serpins in response against pathogen invasion remain obscure. In this study, we identified a full-length cDNA sequence of serpin, named serpin-3, from the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi. Sequence alignments have indicated that Apserpin-3 might regulate the melanization reaction via inhibiting prophenoloxidases-activating protease(s) in plasma...
December 2, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919529/three-step-effluent-chlorination-increases-disinfection-efficiency-and-reduces-dbp-formation-and-toxicity
#10
Yu Li, Xiangru Zhang, Mengting Yang, Jiaqi Liu, Wanxin Li, Nigel J D Graham, Xiaoyan Li, Bo Yang
Chlorination is extensively applied for disinfecting sewage effluents, but it unintentionally generates disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Using seawater for toilet flushing introduces a high level of bromide into domestic sewage. Chlorination of sewage effluent rich in bromide causes the formation of brominated DBPs. The objectives of achieving a disinfection goal, reducing disinfectant consumption and operational costs, as well as diminishing adverse effects to aquatic organisms in receiving water body remain a challenge in sewage treatment...
December 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919420/acute-toxicity-of-organic-antifouling-biocides-to-phytoplankton-nitzschia-pungens-and-zooplankton-artemia-larvae
#11
S M Jung, J S Bae, S G Kang, J S Son, J H Jeon, H J Lee, J Y Jeon, M Sidharthan, S H Ryu, H W Shin
The toxicity of the antifouling biocides Irgarol 1051, Diuron, Chlorothalonil, Dichlofluanid, Sea-nine 211, Copper pyrithione, Zinc pyrithione, Ziram and Zineb were evaluated on Nitzschia pungens and Artemia larvae. Results showed that EC50 for Irgarol 1051 was 0.586μgl(-1) was the strongest effect on N. pungens following by Copper pyrithione (4.908μgl(-1)), Ziram (5.421μgl(-1)), Zinc pyrithione (5.513μgl(-1)), Diuron (6.640μgl(-1)), Zineb (232.249μgl(-1)), Sea-nine 211(267.368μgl(-1)), Chlorothalonil (360...
December 2, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918706/effects-of-gaba-neural-regulation-and-intrinsic-cardiac-factors-on-heart-rate-variability-in-zebrafish-larvae
#12
Rafael Antonio Vargas
Heart rate (HR) is a periodic activity that is variable over time due to intrinsic cardiac factors and extrinsic neural control, largely by the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) is analyzed by measuring consecutive beat-to-beat intervals. This variability can contain information about the factors regulating cardiac activity under normal and pathological conditions, but the information obtained from such analyses is not yet fully understood. In this article, HRV in zebrafish larvae was evaluated under normal conditions and under the effect of substances that modify intrinsic cardiac activity and cardiac activity modulated by the nervous system...
December 5, 2016: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918645/redox-and-ph-dual-responsive-polymer-based-nanoparticles-for-in-vivo-drug-delivery
#13
Chung Yen Ang, Si Yu Tan, Cathleen Teh, Jia Min Lee, Mun Fei Eddy Wong, Qiuyu Qu, Li Qing Poh, Menghuan Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Vladimir Korzh, Yanli Zhao
Responsive nanomaterials have emerged as promising candidates as drug delivery vehicles in order to address biomedical diseases such as cancer. In this work, polymer-based responsive nanoparticles prepared by a supramolecular approach are loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) for the cancer therapy. The nanoparticles contain disulfide bonds within the polymer network, allowing the release of the DOX payload in a reducing environment within the endoplasm of cancer cells. In addition, the loaded drug can also be released under acidic environment...
December 5, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918451/bioactivities-of-a-new-pyrrolidine-alkaloid-from-the-root-barks-of-orixa-japonica
#14
Xin Chao Liu, Daowan Lai, Qi Zhi Liu, Ligang Zhou, Qiyong Liu, Zhi Long Liu
A new pyrrolidine alkaloid named (Z)-3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one was isolated from the ethanol extract of the root barks of Orixa japonica. The structure of the new alkaloid was elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS analysis. The compound exhibited larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (LC50 = 232.09 μg/mL), Anopheles sinensis (LC50 = 49.91 μg/mL), and Culex pipiens pallens (LC50 = 161.10 μg/mL). The new alkaloid also possessed nematicidal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (LC50 = 391...
December 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918418/insecticide-effect-of-zeolites-on-the-tomato-leafminer-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#15
Caroline De Smedt, Veerle Van Damme, Patrick De Clercq, Pieter Spanoghe
(1) Background: The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key tomato insect pest. At present, it is considered to be a serious threat in various countries in Europe, North Africa, and Middle East. The extensive use and the developed resistance of T. absoluta to spinosad causes some concern, which leads to the need for alternative products. (2) Materials and Methods: Several laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the ovicidal properties of a zeolite particle film on T. absoluta...
December 2, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918417/efficacy-of-nitric-oxide-fumigation-for-controlling-codling-moth-in-apples
#16
Yong-Biao Liu, Xiangbing Yang, Gregory Simmons
Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality...
December 2, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918123/chrysomya-bezziana-diptera-calliphoridae-infestation-case-report-of-three-dogs-in-malaysia-treated-with-spinosad-milbemycin
#17
Hock Siew Han, Reuben Sharma, John Jeffery, Chiara Noli
BACKGROUND: Infestation of wounds with the larvae of Callophorid flies is relatively common in countries where these parasites are found. The most common species associated with infections in Southeast Asia is Chrysomya bezziana (Ch. bezziana), the Old World screw worm. Treatment consists of either subcutaneous injection of ivermectin or oral administration of nitenpyram combined with aggressive tissue debridement under general anaesthesia. OBJECTIVES: To describe the treatment of cutaneous myiasis in three dogs caused by the larvae of Ch...
December 5, 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918112/validation-of-adam10-metalloprotease-as-a-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry3aa-toxin-functional-receptor-in-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#18
V M Ruiz-Arroyo, I García-Robles, C Ochoa-Campuzano, G A Goig, E Zaitseva, G Baaken, A C Martínez-Ramírez, C Rausell, M D Real
Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) are insecticidal pore-forming toxins that bind to specific receptor molecules on the brush border membrane of susceptible insect midgut cells to exert their toxic action. In the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), a coleopteran pest, we previously proposed that interaction of Cry3Aa toxin with a CPB ADAM10 metalloprotease is an essential part of the mode of action of this toxin. Here, we annotated the gene sequence encoding an ADAM10 metalloprotease protein (CPB-ADAM10) in the CPB genome sequencing project, and using RNA interference gene silencing we demonstrated that CPB-ADAM10 is a Cry3Aa toxin functional receptor in CPB...
December 5, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917321/effects-of-arachidonic-acid-supplementation-in-maturation-diet-on-female-reproductive-performance-and-larval-quality-of-giant-river-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#19
Chanpim Kangpanich, Jarunan Pratoomyot, Nisa Siranonthana, Wansuk Senanan
The giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is one of the most farmed freshwater crustaceans in the world. Its global production has been stalling in the past decade due to the inconsistent quality of broodstock and hatchery-produced seeds. A better understanding of the role of nutrition in maturation diets will help overcome some of the production challenges. Arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6, ARA) is a fatty acid precursor of signaling molecules important for crustacean reproduction, prostaglandins E and F of the series II (PGE2 and PGF2α), and is often lacking in maturation diets of shrimp and prawns...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917202/comparing-concentration-methods-parasitrap%C3%A2-versus-kato-katz-for-studying-the-prevalence-of-helminths-in-bengo-province-angola
#20
Clara Mirante, Isabel Clemente, Graciette Zambu, Catarina Alexandre, Teresa Ganga, Carlos Mayer, Miguel Brito
BACKGROUND: Helminth intestinal parasitoses are responsible for high levels of child mortality and morbidity. Hence, the capacity to diagnose these parasitoses and consequently ensure due treatment represents a factor of great importance. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study involves comparing two methods of concentration, parasitrap and Kato-Katz, for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitoses in faecal samples. METHODS: Sample processing made recourse to two different concentration methods: the commercial parasitrap® method and the Kato-Katz method...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
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