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Sodium homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548387/a-quantitative-systems-physiology-model-of-renal-function-and-blood-pressure-regulation-model-description
#1
K M Hallow, Y Gebremichael
Renal function plays a central role in cardiovascular, kidney, and multiple other diseases, and many existing and novel therapies act through renal mechanisms. Even with decades of accumulated knowledge of renal physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology, the dynamics of renal function remain difficult to understand and predict, often resulting in unexpected or counterintuitive therapy responses. Quantitative systems pharmacology modeling of renal function integrates this accumulated knowledge into a quantitative framework, allowing evaluation of competing hypotheses, identification of knowledge gaps, and generation of new experimentally testable hypotheses...
May 26, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536536/rna-seq-comparison-of-larval-and-adult-malpighian-tubules-of-the-yellow-fever-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-reveals-life-stage-specific-changes-in-renal-function
#2
Yiyi Li, Peter M Piermarini, Carlos J Esquivel, Hannah E Drumm, Faye D Schilkey, Immo A Hansen
Introduction: The life history of Aedes aegypti presents diverse challenges to its diuretic system. During the larval and pupal life stages mosquitoes are aquatic. With the emergence of the adult they become terrestrial. This shifts the organism within minutes from an aquatic environment to a terrestrial environment where dehydration has to be avoided. In addition, female mosquitoes take large blood meals, which present an entirely new set of challenges to salt and water homeostasis. Methods: To determine differences in gene expression associated with these different life stages, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of the main diuretic tissue in A...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535907/suppression-of-epithelial-restitution-using-an-inhibitor-against-rho-associated-coiled-coil-containing-protein-kinase-aggravates-colitis-through-reduced-epithelial-expression-of-a-kinase-anchor-protein-13
#3
Yumi Kangawa, Toshinori Yoshida, Yutaka Yonezawa, Kiyoshi Maruyama, Shim-Mo Hayashi, Makoto Shibutani
In the gastrointestinal tract, the immediate healing response to mucosal damage is critical to sustain mucosal homeostasis. The migration of surrounding epithelial cells to cover the denuded area without proliferation is termed restitution, followed by early reparation of the damage. In this study, we determined the role of A-kinase anchor protein 13 (AKAP13) in mice with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis upon mucosal injury and restitution, and investigated whether inhibition of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK), downstream effector of AKAP13, affects these mucosal responses...
May 20, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528375/hypothalamic-signaling-in-body-fluid-homeostasis-and-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
Brian J Kinsman, Haley N Nation, Sean D Stocker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The central nervous system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and consequently arterial blood pressure. Key hypothalamic regions sense and integrate neurohumoral signals to subsequently alter intake (thirst and salt appetite) and output (renal excretion via neuroendocrine and autonomic function). Here, we review recent findings that provide new insight into such mechanisms that may represent new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Implementation of cutting edge neuroscience approaches such as opto- and chemogenetics highlight pivotal roles of circumventricular organs to impact body fluid homeostasis...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520883/effect-of-isotonic-versus-hypotonic-maintenance-fluid-therapy-on-urine-output-fluid-balance-and-electrolyte-homeostasis-a-crossover-study-in-fasting-adult-volunteers
#5
N Van Regenmortel, T De Weerdt, A H Van Craenenbroeck, E Roelant, W Verbrugghe, K Dams, M L N G Malbrain, T Van den Wyngaert, P G Jorens
Background.: Daily and globally, millions of adult hospitalized patients are exposed to maintenance i.v. fluid solutions supported by limited scientific evidence. In particular, it remains unclear whether fluid tonicity contributes to the recently established detrimental effects of fluid, sodium, and chloride overload. Methods.: This crossover study consisted of two 48 h study periods, during which 12 fasting healthy adults were treated with a frequently prescribed solution (NaCl 0...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506883/effects-of-cardiotonic-steroids-on-isolated-perfused-kidney-and-nhe3-activity-in-renal-proximal-tubules
#6
Alana N Godinho, Graciana T Costa, Nádia O Oliveira, Bruno A Cardi, Daniel Esdras A Uchoa, Edilberto R Silveira, Luis Eduardo M Quintas, François G Noël, Manassés C Fonteles, Krishnamurti M Carvalho, Cláudia F Santos, Lucília M A Lessa, Nilberto R F do Nascimento
Cardiotonic steroids (CS) are known as modulators of sodium and water homeostasis. These compounds contribute to the excretion of sodium under overload conditions due to its natriuretic property related to the inhibition of renal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) pump α1 isoform. NHE3, the main route for Na(+) reabsorption in the proximal tubule, depends on the Na(+) gradient generated by NKA pump. In the present study we aimed to investigate the effects of marinobufagin (MBG) and telocinobufagin (TBG) on the renal function of isolated perfused rat kidney and on the inhibition of NKA activity...
May 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499253/the-role-of-sodium-hydrosulfide-in-attenuating-the-aging-process-via-pi3k-akt-and-camkk%C3%AE-ampk-pathways
#7
Xubo Chen, Xueyan Zhao, Hua Cai, Haiying Sun, Yujuan Hu, Xiang Huang, Wen Kong, Weijia Kong
Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system, known as central presbycusis, is characterized by defects in speech perception and sound localization. It is important to determine the pathogenesis of central presbycusis in order to explore a feasible and effective intervention method. Recent work has provided fascinating insight into the beneficial function of H2S on oxidative stress and stress-related disease. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of central presbycusis and tried to explore the mechanism of H2S action on different aspects of aging by utilizing a mimetic aging rat and senescent cellular model...
April 25, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495755/intestinal-microbiota-contributes-to-colonic-epithelial-changes-in-simulated-microgravity-mouse-model
#8
Junxiu Shi, Yifan Wang, Jian He, Pingping Li, Rong Jin, Ke Wang, Xi Xu, Jie Hao, Yan Zhang, Hongju Liu, Xiaoping Chen, Hounan Wu, Qing Ge
Exposure to microgravity leads to alterations in multiple systems, but microgravity-related changes in the gastrointestinal tract and its clinical significance have not been well studied. We used the hindlimb unloading (HU) mouse model to simulate a microgravity condition and investigated the changes in intestinal microbiota and colonic epithelial cells. Compared with ground controls (Ctrls), HU affected fecal microbiota composition with a profile that was characterized by the expansion of Firmicutes and decrease of Bacteroidetes The colon epithelium of HU mice showed decreased goblet cell numbers, reduced epithelial cell turnover, and decreased expression of genes that are involved in defense and inflammatory responses...
May 11, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495450/rho-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-rgnef-is-a-prosurvival-factor-under-stress-conditions
#9
Kevin Cheung, Cristian A Droppelmann, Adam MacLellan, Ian Cameron, Benjamin Withers, Danae Campos-Melo, Kathryn Volkening, Michael J Strong
Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF) is a 190kDa RNA binding protein (RBP) that also contains a Dbl/PH domain capable of RhoA activation. Consistent with a key role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), RGNEF forms pathological neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in degenerating spinal motor neurons. To further understand the role of RGNEF in the stress response, we first observed that the expression of RGNEF is upregulated in murine spinal motor neurons following distal sciatic nerve injury...
May 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490634/inflammatory-cytokines-down-regulate-the-barrier-protective-prostasin-matriptase-proteolytic-cascade-early-in-experimental-colitis
#10
Marguerite S Buzza, Tierra A Johnson, Gregory D Conway, Erik W Martin, Subhradip Mukhopadhyay, Terez Shea-Donohue, Toni M Antalis
Compromised gastrointestinal barrier function is strongly associated with the progressive and destructive pathologies of the two main forms of IBD, Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohns disease (CD). Matriptase is a membrane-anchored serine protease encoded by Suppression of Tumorigenicity-14 (ST14) gene, which is critical for epithelial barrier development and homeostasis. Matriptase barrier protective activity is linked with the glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease prostasin, which is a co-factor for matriptase zymogen activation...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488321/the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-greyhounds-and-non-greyhound-dogs
#11
J Martinez, C Kellogg, M C Iazbik, C G Couto, B M Pressler, T M Hoepf, M J Radin
BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates blood pressure, electrolyte homeostasis, and renal function. Blood pressure, serum sodium concentrations, and urinary albumin excretion are higher in Greyhounds than other purebred and mixed-breed dogs. HYPOTHESIS: Alterations in the RAAS in Greyhounds are associated with hemodynamic and clinicopathologic differences observed in the breed. ANIMALS: Clinically healthy Greyhound and non-Greyhound dogs consecutively enrolled as blood donors (n = 20/group)...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482095/prl-3-promotes-telomere-deprotection-and-chromosomal-instability
#12
Shenyi Lian, Lin Meng, Yongyong Yang, Ting Ma, Xiaofang Xing, Qin Feng, Qian Song, Caiyun Liu, Zhihua Tian, Like Qu, Chengchao Shou
Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL-3) promotes cell invasiveness, but its role in genomic integrity remains unknown. We report here that shelterin component RAP1 mediates association between PRL-3 and TRF2. In addition, TRF2 and RAP1 assist recruitment of PRL-3 to telomeric DNA. Silencing of PRL-3 in colon cancer cells does not affect telomere integrity or chromosomal stability, but induces reactive oxygen species-dependent DNA damage response and senescence. However, overexpression of PRL-3 in colon cancer cells and primary fibroblasts promotes structural abnormalities of telomeres, telomere deprotection, DNA damage response, chromosomal instability and senescence...
May 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481231/zeolite-containing-mixture-supplementation-ameliorated-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-in-mice-by-suppressing-the-inflammatory-bowel-disease-pathway-and-improving-apoptosis-in-colon-mucosa
#13
Weida Lyu, Huijuan Jia, Chuanzong Deng, Kenji Saito, Seigo Yamada, Hisanori Kato
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is induced by multiple environmental factors, and there is still no known treatment capable of curing the disease completely. We propose a zeolite-containing mixture (Hydryeast(®), HY)-a multi-component nutraceutical of which the main ingredients are Azumaceramics (mixture of zeolite and oyster shell burned under high temperature), citric acid, red rice yeast (monascus) and calcium stearate-as a nutraceutical intervention in IBD to ameliorate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis...
May 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473772/lack-of-effects-of-metformin-and-aicar-chronic-infusion-on-the-development-of-hypertension-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#14
Tengis S Pavlov, Vladislav Levchenko, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Hui Li, Oleg Palygin, Nuria M Pastor-Soler, Kenneth R Hallows, Alexander Staruschenko
In the kidney, reabsorption via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is involved in long-term blood pressure control. Previously we demonstrated that ENaC hyperactivity is associated with development of salt-sensitive (SS) hypertension in Dahl SS rats. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), playing a role in cellular energy homeostasis, has been shown to decrease ENaC activity. Here, we tested whether metformin and AICAR, two drugs that activate AMPK, affect the development of salt-induced hypertension. High salt diet significantly increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in Dahl SS rats...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472512/chloroplast-function-and-ion-regulation-in-plants-growing-on-saline-soils-lessons-from-halophytes
#15
Jayakumar Bose, Rana Munns, Sergey Shabala, Matthew Gilliham, Barry Pogson, Stephen D Tyerman
Salt stress impacts multiple aspects of plant metabolism and physiology. For instance it inhibits photosynthesis through stomatal limitation, causes excessive accumulation of sodium and chloride in chloroplasts, and disturbs chloroplast potassium homeostasis. Most research on salt stress has focused primarily on cytosolic ion homeostasis with few studies of how salt stress affects chloroplast ion homeostasis. This review asks the question whether membrane-transport processes and ionic relations are differentially regulated between glycophyte and halophyte chloroplasts and whether this contributes to the superior salt tolerance of halophytes...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472424/ven-120-a-recombinant-human-lactoferrin-promotes-a-regulatory-t-cell-treg-phenotype-and-drives-resolution-of-inflammation-in-distinct-murine-models-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Christopher F MacManus, Colm B Collins, Tom T Nguyen, Randall W Alfano, Paul Jedlicka, Edwin F de Zoeten
Background and Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a disruption of immune homeostasis, which is tightly regulated to protect against harmful pathogens yet not react to commensal antigens. Animal studies indicate that regulatory T cells (Treg) modulate the immune response to prevent IBD development. Lactoferrin (LF), is an endogenous anti-inflammatory pleiotropic protein secreted at high concentrations in colostrum and at mucosal sites. However, the effect of LF on specific T lymphocyte populations has not been studied...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469622/the-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-in-integration-of-plant-physiological-and-ultrastructural-adjustments-in-response-to-arsenic
#17
Fernanda S Farnese, Juraci A Oliveira, Elder A S Paiva, Paulo E Menezes-Silva, Adinan A da Silva, Fernanda V Campos, Cléberson Ribeiro
High arsenic (As) concentrations are toxic to all the living organisms and the cellular response to this metalloid requires the involvement of cell signaling agents, such as nitric oxide (NO). The As toxicity and NO signaling were analyzed in Pistia stratiotes leaves. Plants were exposed to four treatments, for 24 h: control; SNP [sodium nitroprusside (NO donor); 0.1 mg L(-1)]; As (1.5 mg L(-1)) and As + SNP (1.5 and 0.1 mg L(-1), respectively). The absorption of As increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species and triggered changes in the primary metabolism of the plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468928/sildenafil-suppresses-inflammation-driven-colorectal-cancer-in-mice
#18
Bianca N Islam, Sarah K Sharman, Yali Hou, Allison E Bridges, Nagendra Singh, Sangmi Kim, Ravindra Kolhe, Jimena Trillo-Tinoco, Paulo C Rodriguez, Franklin G Berger, Subbaramiah Sridhar, Darren D Browning
Intestinal cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling regulates epithelial homeostasis and has been implicated in the suppression of colitis and colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the cGMP-elevating ability of the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil to prevent disease in the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) inflammation-driven colorectal cancer model. Treatment of mice with sildenafil activated cGMP signaling in the colon mucosa and protected against DSS-induced barrier dysfunction...
May 3, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463591/rab-gtpases-regulate-the-trafficking-of-channels-and-transporters-a-focus-on-cystic-fibrosis
#19
Carlos M Farinha, Paulo Matos
The amount of ion channels and transporters present at the plasma membrane is a crucial component of the overall regulation of ion transport. The number of channels present result from an intricate network of proteins that controls the late events of channel trafficking, such as endocytosis, recycling and targeting to lysosomal degradation. Small GTPases of the Rab family are key players in these processes thus contributing to regulation of fluid secretion and ion homeostasis. In epithelia, this involves mainly the balance between the chloride channel CFTR and the sodium channel ENaC, whose misfunction is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis - the commonest recessive disorder in Caucasians...
May 2, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458673/inflammatory-responses-regulating-alveolar-ion-transport-during-pulmonary-infections
#20
REVIEW
Christin Peteranderl, Jacob I Sznajder, Susanne Herold, Emilia Lecuona
The respiratory epithelium is lined by a tightly balanced fluid layer that allows normal O2 and CO2 exchange and maintains surface tension and host defense. To maintain alveolar fluid homeostasis, both the integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and the expression of epithelial ion channels and pumps are necessary to establish a vectorial ion gradient. However, during pulmonary infection, auto- and/or paracrine-acting mediators induce pathophysiological changes of the alveolar-capillary barrier, altered expression of epithelial Na,K-ATPase and of epithelial ion channels including epithelial sodium channel and cystic fibrosis membrane conductance regulator, leading to the accumulation of edema and impaired alveolar fluid clearance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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