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Sodium homeostasys

Attilio Pingitore, Edward S Chambers, Thomas Hill, Inmaculada Ruz Maldonado, Bo Liu, Gavin Bewick, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Gareth A Wallis, Catriona Tedford, Ramón Castañera González, Guo Cai Huang, Pratik Choudhary, Gary Frost, Shanta J Persaud
AIMS: Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined. This study evaluated the effects of increasing colonic delivery of the SCFA propionate on β-cell function in humans and the direct effects of propionate on isolated human islets in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 24 weeks human subjects ingested an inulin-propionate ester that delivers propionate to the colon...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Deborah S Bower, David M Scheltinga, Simon Clulow, John Clulow, Craig E Franklin, Arthur Georges
Freshwater biota experience physiological challenges in regions affected by salinization, but often the effects on particular species are poorly understood. Freshwater turtles are of particular concern as they appear to have limited ability to cope with environmental conditions that are hyperosmotic to their body fluids. Here, we determined the physiological responses of two Australian freshwater chelid turtles, Emydura macquarii and Chelodina expansa, exposed to freshwater (0‰) and brackish water (15‰, representing a hyperosmotic environment)...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Liffert Vogt
Excessive sodium intake is associated with both hypertension and an increased risk of cardiovascular events, presumably because of an increase in extracellular volume. The extent to which sodium intake affects extracellular volume and BP varies considerably among individuals, discriminating subjects who are salt-sensitive from those who are salt-resistant. Recent experiments have shown that, other than regulation by the kidney, sodium homeostasis is also regulated by negatively charged glycosaminoglycans in the skin interstitium, where sodium is bound to glycosaminoglycans without commensurate effects on extracellular volume...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Gheun-Ho Kim, Chor Ho Jo, Sua Kim, Il Hwan Oh, Joon-Sung Park
OBJECTIVE: Claudins are tight junction proteins that regulate paracellular permeability of renal epithelia, and renal paracellular sodium chloride permeability may be essential to salt homeostasis and blood pressure control. A previous study has shown that the collecting duct-specific claudin-4 knockout animals develop hypotension due to profound renal wasting of chloride. This study was undertaken to investigate whether claudins have a role in the hypertension of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Francisco J Rios, Katie Y Hood, A Karvey, Karla B Neves, Panagiota Anyfanti, Ryszard Nosalski, Livia L Camargo Ll, Augusto C Montezano, Rhian M Touyz
OBJECTIVE: TRPM7 is cation channel with intrinsic kinase activity important for cellular Mg homeostasis. We recently showed that TRPM7-kinase plays a role in aldosterone-mediated vascular effects and inflammation. Here we explored the putative role of TRPM7-kinase in cardiac fibrosis and vascular function in aldosterone-induced hypertension in mice. DESIGN AND METHOD: Wild-type (WT) or heterozygote TRPM7-kinase domain (TRPM7+/-) mice were treated with infused aldosterone (600 μg/Kg/day) and NaCl 1% in drinking water (aldo/salt) for 4 weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Chang Hee Jung
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder and is a major global public health problem with a rapidly increasing prevalence. Although a wide range of pharmacotherapy for glycemic control in T2DM is now available, management of T2DM remains complex and challenging. The kidneys contribute to glucose homeostasis primarily by the glucose reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate. The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, a new class of antidiabetes agents that inhibit glucose absorption from the kidney tubule independent of insulin, offer a unique opportunity to improve outcomes for patient with T2DM...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Resham Poudel
The kidneys maintain glucose homeostasis through its utilization, gluconeogenesis, and reabsorption. Glucose is freely filtered and reabsorbed in order to retain energy essential between meals. The amount of glucose reabsorbed by the kidneys is equivalent to the amount entering the filtration system. With a daily glomerular filtration rate of 180 L, approximately 180 g (180 L/day × 100 mg/dL) of glucose must be reabsorbed each day to maintain an average fasting plasma glucose concentration of 5.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Richard Wainford, Casey Carmichael, Kathryn Walsh
OBJECTIVE: We have demonstrated a critical role of CNS Gαi2 proteins in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. These studies tested the hypothesis that increased total body sodium activates the afferent renal afferent nerves to evoke sympathoinhibition to facilitate sodium homeostasis and normotension, via a PVN signal transduction pathway involving Gαi2 proteins, in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. DESIGN AND METHOD: Conscious SD rats, having undergone sham or renal afferent nerve denervation (Renal-CAP) underwent an IV volume expansion (VE; 5% BW), HR, MAP, natriuresis and PVN neuronal activation were assessed (N = 5/group)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kumar Abhishek, Abul Hasan Sardar, Sushmita Das, Ashish Kumar, Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Ruby Singh, Savita Saini, Abhishek Mandal, Sudha Verma, Ajay Kumar, Bidyut Purkait, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Pradeep Das
Leishmania donovani transformation to amastigote from promastigote during mammalian host infection; displays the immense adaptability of the parasite to survive under stress. Induction of translation initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2α) phosphorylation by stress specific eIF2α kinases is the basic stress perceiving signal in eukaryotes to counter stress. Here, we demonstrate that elevated temperature and acidic pH; induces phosphorylation of Leishmania donovani eIF2α (LdeIF2α). The in-vitro inhibition experiments suggest interference of LdeIF2α phosphorylation under elevated temperature and acidic pH debilitates parasite differentiation and reduces parasite viability (P< 0...
October 10, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Wei Miao, Xiujuan Wu, Kang Wang, Wenjing Wang, Yumei Wang, Zhigang Li, Jingjing Liu, Li Li, Luying Peng
As a physiological small molecular product from the microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, butyrate plays an important role in maintaining intestinal health. Our previous works have proved that the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on the intestinal barrier function is mediated by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the detailed pathway involved remains unknown. Using the calcium switch assay in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model, we found here that NaB activated AMPK mainly by increasing the calcium level, but not the ATP concentration, via promoting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE)...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rajendran Senthil Kumar, Chin-Hui Shen, Pei-Yin Wu, Subbiah Suresh Kumar, Moda Sang Hua, Kai-Wun Yeh
In Oncidium, redox homeostasis involved in flowering is mainly due to ascorbic acid (AsA). Here, we discovered that Oncidium floral repression is caused by an increase in AsA-mediated NO levels, which is directed by the enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nitrite reducatase (NiR). Through Solexa transcriptomic analysis of two libraries, 'pseudobulb with inflorescent bud' (PIB) and 'pseudobulb with axillary bud' (PAB), we identified differentially expressed genes related to NO metabolism. Subsequently, we showed a significant reduction of NaR enzymatic activities and NO levels during bolting and blooming stage, suggesting that NO controlled the phase transition and flowering process...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Morag K Mansley, Jessica R Ivy, Matthew A Bailey
Hypertension is known as the "silent killer," driving the global public health burden of cardiovascular and renal disease. Blood pressure homeostasis is intimately associated with sodium balance and the distribution of sodium between fluid compartments and within tissues. On a population level, most societies consume 10 times more salt that the 0.5 g required by physiological need. This high salt intake is strongly linked to hypertension and to the World Health Organization targeting a ∼30% relative reduction in mean population salt intake to arrest the global mortality due to cardiovascular disease...
September 2016: KI Rep
Shih-Yu Huang, Yao-Chang Chen, Yu-Hsun Kao, Ming-Hsiung Hsieh, Yung-Kuo Lin, Cheng-Chih Chung, Ting-I Lee, Wen-Chin Tsai, Shih-Ann Chen, Yi-Jen Chen
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), elevated in chronic renal failure, increases atrial arrhythmogenesis and dysregulates calcium homeostasis. Late sodium currents (INa-Late) critically induces ectopic activity of pulmoanry vein (the most important atrial fibrillation trigger). This study was to investigate whether FGF23 activates the INa-Late leading to calcium dysregulation and increases PV arrhythmogenesis. Patch clamp, western blot, and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the electrical activities, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PV cardiomyocytes with or without FGF23 (0...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Andrea Egger, Marius E Kraenzlin, Christian Meier
Anti-diabetic drugs are widely used and are essential for adequate glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, marketed anti-diabetic drugs include incretin-based therapies (GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. In contrast to well-known detrimental effects of thiazolidinediones on bone metabolism and fracture risk, clinical data on the safety of incretin-based therapies is limited. Based on meta-analyses of trials investigating the glycemic-lowering effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP4 inhibitors, it seems that incretin-based therapies are not associated with an increase in fracture risk...
October 5, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
G Marelli, C Belgiovine, A Mantovani, M Erreni, P Allavena
Mucosal immunity at the intestinal level is constantly challenged by the presence of external food and microbial antigens and must be kept under strict control to avoid the rise of aberrant inflammation. Among cells of the innate immunity, macrophages expressing the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 are strategically located near the gut epithelial barrier. These cells contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis by producing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10; however, their role in the control of full blown inflammation and tissue injury is controversial...
August 2, 2016: Immunobiology
Jianling Li, Qiaoling He, Weifeng Wu, Qingjie Li, Rongjie Huang, Xiaofeng Pan, Wenying Lai
Renal sympathetic nerve activity has an important role in renal disease-associated hypertension and in the modulation of fluid homeostasis. In the present study, changes in renal function and renal sodium/potassium handling were investigated in groups of 12-week-old male, spontaneously hypertensive rats with renal denervation (RDNX group) or sham denervation (sham group). The RDNX group excreted significantly more sodium than the sham group during the 2-week observation period (P<0.05). Following bilateral renal denervation, the fractional lithium excretion was elevated in the RDNX group compared with the sham group, but no significant effect was observed of renal denervation on the fractional distal reabsorption rate of sodium or the fractional excretion of potassium...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Chaudhry M S Sarwar, Lampros Papadimitriou, Bertram Pitt, Ileana Piña, Faiez Zannad, Stefan D Anker, Mihai Gheorghiade, Javed Butler
Disorders of potassium homeostasis can potentiate the already elevated risk of arrhythmia in heart failure. Heart failure patients have a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease, which further heightens the risk of hyperkalemia, especially when renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors are used. Acute treatment for hyperkalemia may not be tolerated in the long term. Recent data for patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate, used to treat and prevent high serum potassium levels on a more chronic basis, have sparked interest in the treatment of hyperkalemia, as well as the potential use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in patients who were previously unable to take these drugs or tolerated only low doses...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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