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Sodium homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782278/-predictive-significance-of-disturbed-water-salt-homeostasis-in-decompensated-chronic-heart-failure-patients
#1
K S Fazulina, V V Fomin, V V Meshalkina
AIM: To estimate association between disorders of salt-water homeostasis on admision and the remote one-year prognosis for patients hospitalized with decompensated CHF NYHA FC III-IV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was based on clinical amnestic data and results of one-year follow-up of 111 consecutive patients admitted for decompensation of CHF to the State Clinical Hospital No. 24 in January 2015‑February 2016. RESULTS: The relative risk of death within one year for patients hospitalized for decompensated CHF with disorders of water and salt homeostasis increased 1...
2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778783/intra-vitreal-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-fused-to-elastin-like-polypeptide-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-mouse-model-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#2
Parameswaran G Sreekumar, Zhe Li, Wan Wang, Christine Spee, David R Hinton, Ram Kannan, J Andrew MacKay
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe and irreversible central vision loss, and the primary site of AMD pathology is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of AMD characterized by extensive RPE cell loss, subsequent degeneration of photoreceptors, and thinning of retina. This report describes the protective potential of a peptide derived from the αB crystallin protein using a sodium iodate (NaIO3 ) induced mouse model of GA. Systemic NaIO3 challenge causes degeneration of the RPE and neighboring photoreceptors, which have similarities to retinas of GA patients...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772253/interstitial-ion-homeostasis-and-acid-base-balance-are-maintained-in-oedematous-brain-of-mice-with-acute-toxic-liver-failure
#3
Marta Obara-Michlewska, Fengfei Ding, Mariusz Popek, Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard, Magdalena Zielinska, Jan Albrecht
Acute toxic liver failure (ATLF) rapidly leads to brain oedema and neurological decline. We evaluated the ability of ATLF-affected brain to control the ionic composition and acid-base balance of the interstitial fluid. ATLF was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57Bl mice by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 100 μg/g azoxymethane (AOM). Analyses were carried out in cerebral cortex of precomatous mice 20-24 h after AOM administration. Brain fluid status was evaluated by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] using NMR spectroscopy, Evans Blue extravasation, and accumulation of an intracisternally-injected fluorescent tracer...
May 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769424/sex-specific-response-of-renal-na-k-atpase-to-prenatal-angiotensin-2-exposure-and-increased-salt-intake-in-offspring
#4
L Jagmasevic-Mezesova, P Svitok, B Kalocayova, M Zeman, N Vrbjar
In rodents, increased angiotensin 2 (Ang2) during pregnancy increases blood pressure and decreases salt sensitivity in the offspring. To explore the underlying mechanisms, this study evaluated the effects of prenatal Ang2 exposure on the activity of renal Na,K-ATPase, which is one of the main systems that maintains sodium ion homeostasis in an organism. Moreover, this study also investigated the impact of a higher-salt diet on the enzyme activity in the offspring in a sex-dependent manner. Pregnant Wistar rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps that continuously released Ang2 (2 μg/kg/h) for 2 weeks...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766284/sodium-levels-during-hospitalization-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-are-markers-of-in-hospital-mortality-soroka-acute-myocardial-infarction-ii-sami-ii-project
#5
Ygal Plakht, Harel Gilutz, Arthur Shiyovich
OBJECTIVE: Abnormalities in sodium homeostasis are common in hospitalized patients. Hyponatremia upon admission is a poor prognostic marker in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. However, little is known about the association between changes in sodium levels and in-hospital mortality. We delineated changes in sodium levels and studied the association of such changes with in-hospital mortality of AMI patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of AMI patients hospitalized for > 6 days...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766049/interleukin-1%C3%AE-deficient-mice-have-an-altered-gut-microbiota-leading-to-protection-from-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis
#6
Moran Nunberg, Nir Werbner, Hadar Neuman, Marina Bersudsky, Alex Braiman, Moshe Ben-Shoshan, Meirav Ben Izhak, Yoram Louzoun, Ron N Apte, Elena Voronov, Omry Koren
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine, with as-yet-unclear etiologies, affecting over a million people in the United States alone. With the emergence of microbiome research, numerous studies have shown a connection between shifts in the gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis) and patterns of IBD development. In a previous study, we showed that interleukin 1α (IL-1α) deficiency in IL-1α knockout (KO) mice results in moderate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis compared to that of wild-type (WT) mice, characterized by reduced inflammation and complete healing, as shown by parameters of weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) score, histology, and cytokine expression...
May 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760186/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-mutations-increase-myofilament-ca-2-buffering-alter-intracellular-ca-2-handling-and-stimulate-ca-2-dependent-signalling
#7
Paul Robinson, Xing Liu, Alexander Sparrow, Suketu Patel, Yin Hua Zhang, Barbara Casadei, Hugh Watkins, Charles S Redwood
Mutations in thin filament regulatory proteins that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) increase myofilament Ca2+ -sensitivity. Mouse models exhibit increased Ca2+ buffering and arrhythmias, and we hypothesized that these changes are primary effects of the mutations (independent of compensatory changes) and that increased Ca2+ - buffering and altered Ca2+ -handling contribute to HCM pathogenesis via activation of Ca2+ -dependent signalling. Here, we determined the primary effects of HCM mutations on intracellular Ca2+ -handling and Ca2+ -dependent signalling in a model system possessing Ca2+ -handling mechanisms and contractile protein isoforms close to human in the absence of potentially confounding remodeling...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758378/enhanced-oxidative-stress-in-the-jasmonic-acid-deficient-tomato-mutant-def-1-exposed-to-nacl-stress
#8
Ibrahim Abouelsaad, Sylvie Renault
Jasmonic acid (JA) has been mostly studied in responses to biotic stresses, such as herbivore attack and pathogenic infection. More recently, the involvement of JA in abiotic stresses including salinity was highlighted; yet, its role in salt stress remained unclear. In the current study, we compared the physiological and biochemical responses of wild-type (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv Castlemart and its JA-deficient mutant defenseless-1 (def-1) under salt stress to investigate the role of JA. Plant growth, photosynthetic pigment content, ion accumulation, oxidative stress-related parameters, proline accumulation and total phenolic compounds, in addition to both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities, were measured in both genotypes after 14 days of 100 mM NaCl treatment...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758129/twenty-four-hour-normothermic-perfusion-of-discarded-human-kidneys-with-urine-recirculation
#9
Annemarie Weissenbacher, Letizia Lo Faro, Olga Boubriak, Maria F Soares, Ian S Roberts, James P Hunter, Daniel Voyce, Nikolay Mikov, Andrew Cook, Rutger J Ploeg, Constantin C Coussios, Peter J Friend
Transportable normothermic kidney perfusion for 24 hours or longer could enable viability assessment of marginal grafts, increased organ utilization and improved transplantation logistics. Eleven clinically-declined kidneys were perfused normothermically, six from donors after brain stem death (DBD, median cold ischemia time 33±36.9 hours) and five from donors after circulatory death (DCD, 36.2±38.3 hours): n=3 kidneys were perfused using Ringer's lactate to replace excreted urine volume, and n=8 using urine recirculation to maintain perfusate volume without fluid replenishment...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758100/diagnostic-approach-to-low-renin-hypertension
#10
Silvia Monticone, Isabel Losano, Martina Tetti, Fabrizio Buffolo, Franco Veglio, Paolo Mulatero
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a crucial role in maintaining water and electrolytes homeostasis and its deregulation contributes to the development of arterial hypertension. Since the historical description of the "classical" RAAS, a dramatic increase in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of both essential and secondary hypertension has occurred. Approximatively 25% of the patients affected by arterial hypertension display low renin levels, a definition that is largely arbitrary and depends on the investigated population and the specific characteristics of the assay...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754923/enhanced-late-sodium-current-underlies-pro-arrhythmic-intracellular-sodium-and-calcium-dysregulation-in-murine-sodium-channelopathy
#11
Mathilde R Rivaud, Antonius Baartscheer, Arie O Verkerk, Leander Beekman, Sridharan Rajamani, Luiz Belardinelli, Connie R Bezzina, Carol Ann Remme
BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome mutations in the SCN5A gene are associated with an enhanced late sodium current (INa,L ) which may lead to pro-arrhythmic action potential prolongation and intracellular calcium dysregulation. We here investigated the dynamic relation between INa,L , intracellular sodium ([Na+ ]i ) and calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) homeostasis and pro-arrhythmic events in the setting of a SCN5A mutation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wild-type (WT) and Scn5a1798insD/+ (MUT) mice (age 3-5 months) carrying the murine homolog of the SCN5A-1795insD mutation on two distinct genetic backgrounds (FVB/N and 129P2) were studied...
July 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751401/exposure-to-pfdoa-causes-disruption-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis-in-zebrafish-larvae
#12
Shengnan Zhang, Xiaochun Guo, Shaoyong Lu, Nan Sang, Guangyu Li, Ping Xie, Chunsheng Liu, Liguo Zhang, Yi Xing
Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), a kind of perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) with 12 carbon atoms, has an extensive industrial utilization and is widespread in both wildlife and the water environment, and was reported to have the potential to cause a disruption in the thyroid hormone system homeostasis. In this study, zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to different concentrations of PFDoA (0, 0.24, 1.2, 6 mg/L) for 96 h post-fertilization (hpf). PFDoA exposure caused obvious growth restriction connected with the reduced thyroid hormones (THs) contents in zebrafish larvae, strengthening the interference effect on the growth of fish larvae...
April 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751356/exploring-novel-pharmacotherapeutic-applications-and-repurposing-potential-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors
#13
REVIEW
Tushar Madaan, Ibraheem Husain, Mohamad Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a relatively new class of anti-hyperglycemic drugs with a distinctive mechanism of action focusing on renal absorption ofglucose. Apart from its anti-hyperglycemic effects, a multitude of research studies on this classhave revealed that these drugs have far more versatile and comprehensive pharmacologicaleffects than previously believed. Approximately 30% of FDA approved drugs are repurposedand used for indications other than those they were initially intended for...
May 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751237/current-anti-diabetic-agents-and-their-molecular-targets-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Nagaraju Kerru, Ashona Singh-Pillay, Paul Awolade, Parvesh Singh
Diabetes mellitus is a medical condition characterized by the body's loss of control over blood sugar. The frequency of diagnosed cases and consequential increases in medical costs makes it a rapidly growing chronic disease that threatens human health worldwide. In addition, its unnerving statistical projections are perilous to both the economy of the nation and man's life expectancy. Type-I and type-II diabetes are the two clinical forms of diabetes mellitus. Type-II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is illustrated by the abnormality of glucose homeostasis in the body, resulting in hyperglycemia...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744365/high-salt-intake-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-and-insulin-resistance-in-wbn-kob-lepr-fa-fa-rats-a-new-model-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Yoshiichi Takagi, Taichi Sugimoto, Masaya Kobayashi, Mitsuyuki Shirai, Fumitoshi Asai
High-salt intake is a major risk factor for developing hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its effects on glucose homeostasis are controversial. We previously found that high-salt intake induces severe hypertension in WBN/Kob diabetic fatty (WBKDF) rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of a high-salt intake on glucose homeostasis in WBKDF rats. Male WBKDF rats and age-matched Wistar rats at 6 weeks of age were each divided into two groups and fed either a normal-sodium (NS, 0.26%) diet or high-sodium (HS, 8%) diet for 7 weeks...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742416/electromechanics-and-volume-dynamics-in-nonexcitable-tissue-cells
#16
Florence Yellin, Yizeng Li, Varun K A Sreenivasan, Brenda Farrell, Manu B Johny, David Yue, Sean X Sun
Cell volume regulation is fundamentally important in phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, tissue homeostasis, and embryogenesis. How the cell size is set, maintained, and changed over a cell's lifetime is not well understood. In this work we focus on how the volume of nonexcitable tissue cells is coupled to the cell membrane electrical potential and the concentrations of membrane-permeable ions in the cell environment. Specifically, we demonstrate that a sudden cell depolarization using the whole-cell patch clamp results in a 50% increase in cell volume, whereas hyperpolarization results in a slight volume decrease...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741700/modulation-of-renal-ca-and-pi-transporting-proteins-by-dietary-nitrogen-and-or-calcium-in-young-goats
#17
C S Firmenich, K Elfers, M R Wilkens, G Breves, A S Muscher-Banse
In young goats, a reduction in dietary nitrogen (N) had an impact on mineral homeostasis although ruminants are able to recycle N effectively due to rumino-hepatic circulation. A solitary calcium (Ca) reduction stimulated calcitriol synthesis and Ca concentrations remained unchanged, whereas a dietary N reduction led to a decrease in calcitriol which could not be prevented by a simultaneous reduction of N and Ca. In a previous study, it was shown that a reduced dietary N intake caused a decrease in intestinal Ca absorption due to a reduction of intestinal Ca transporting proteins...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738372/paradoxical-effects-of-sodium-calcium-exchanger-inhibition-on-torsade-de-pointes-and-early-afterdepolarization-in-a-heart-failure-rabbit-model
#18
Po-Cheng Chang, Yu-Ying Lu, Hui-Ling Lee, Shien-Fong Lin, Yen Chu, Ming-Shien Wen, Chung-Chuan Chou
Calcium homeostasis plays an important role in development of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and torsade de pointes (TdP). The role of sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) inhibition in genesis secondary Ca rise and EADs-TdP is still debated. Dual voltage and intracellular Ca optical mapping were conducted in 6 control and 9 failing rabbit hearts. After baseline electrophysiological and optical mapping studies, E4031 was given to simulate long QT syndrome. ORM-10103 was then administrated to examine the electrophysiological effects on EAD-TdP development...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735631/renal-specific-silencing-of-tnf-tumor-necrosis-factor-unmasks-salt-dependent-increases-in-blood-pressure-via-an-nkcc2a-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-isoform-a-dependent-mechanism
#19
Shoujin Hao, Mary Hao, Nicholas R Ferreri
We tested the hypothesis that TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α produced within the kidney and acting on the renal tubular system is part of a regulatory mechanism that attenuates increases in blood pressure in response to high salt intake. Intrarenal administration of a lentivirus construct, which specifically silenced TNF in the kidney, did not affect baseline blood pressure. However, blood pressure increased significantly 1 day after mice with intrarenal silencing of TNF ingested 1% NaCl in the drinking water...
May 7, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728388/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-experimental-ulcerative-colitis-reveals-associated-gut-microbial-and-host-metabolic-reprogramming
#20
Zhixiang Yan, Xue-Jiao Gao, Ting Li, Bin Wei, Panpan Wang, Ying Yang, Ru Yan
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is gaining attention for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Data from individual case studies have suggested that FMT may be beneficial for UC but the detailed microbial and molecular basis remains unknown. Here, we employ 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomics to investigate the influence of FMT on gut microbial community composition and host metabolism in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced UC rat model. The findings from this pilot study suggest that FMT from normal donors to UC recipients could alleviate UC symptoms without close resemblance of donor's gut microbial and metabolic pattern...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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