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Water homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908407/effects-of-fluoride-on-insulin-signaling-and-bone-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-rats
#1
Amanda Gomes Pereira, Fernando Yamamoto Chiba, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho Mattera, Renato Felipe Pereira, Rita de Cássia Alves Nunes, Thaís Verônica Saori Tsosura, Roberta Okamoto, Doris Hissako Sumida
Fluoride is an essential trace element for the maintenance of bone health owing to its capacity to stimulate proliferation and osteoblastic activity that can lead to increased bone formation. However, excessive sodium fluoride (NaF) intake can impair carbohydrate metabolism thereby promoting hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and changes in insulin signaling. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment with NaF in bone metabolism, insulin signaling, and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), osteocalcin (OCN), and fluoride in ovariectomized rats...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907139/contribution-towards-a-metabolite-profile-of-the-detoxification-of-benzoic-acid-through-glycine-conjugation-an-intervention-study
#2
Cindy Irwin, Mari van Reenen, Shayne Mason, Lodewyk J Mienie, Johan A Westerhuis, Carolus J Reinecke
Benzoic acid is widely used as a preservative in food products and is detoxified in humans through glycine conjugation. Different viewpoints prevail on the physiological significance of the glycine conjugation reaction and concerns have been raised on potential public health consequences following uncontrolled benzoic acid ingestion. We performed a metabolomics study which used commercial benzoic acid containing flavored water as vehicle for designed interventions, and report here on the controlled consumption of the benzoic acid by 21 cases across 6 time points for a total of 126 time points...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904674/bmi1-plays-an-important-role-in-dentin-and-mandible-homeostasis-by-maintaining-redox-balance
#3
Ying Yin, Xian Xue, Qian Wang, Ning Chen, Dengshun Miao
To explore whether polycomb repressor Bmi1 plays an important role in dentin and mandible development homeostasis by maintaining redox balance, 3-week-old Bmi1 gene knockout (Bmi1(-/-)) mice were treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 2 weeks in their drinking water and phenotypes of the tooth and mandibles were compared with vehicle-treated Bmi1(-/-) mice and wild-type mice by radiograph, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Alterations of oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell proliferation and cell cycle-related parameters were also examined in mandibles...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904267/application-of-topical-acids-improves-atopic-dermatitis-in-murine-model-by-enhancement-of-skin-barrier-functions-regardless-of-the-origin-of-acids
#4
Noo Ri Lee, Hae-Jin Lee, Na Young Yoon, Donghye Kim, Minyoung Jung, Eung Ho Choi
BACKGROUND: The acidic pH of the stratum corneum (SC) is important for epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. Acidification of the skin surface has been suggested as a therapeutic strategy for skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: We performed an animal study to evaluate the usefulness of acidification of SC for inhibition of AD lesions and to find out if the therapeutic effect of vinegar is attributable to its herbal contents, rather than its acidity...
December 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901646/the-time-dependent-health-and-biochemical-effects-in-rats-exposed-to-stainless-steel-welding-dust-and-its-soluble-form
#5
Tadeusz Halatek, Magdalena Stanislawska, Irena Kaminska, Malgorzata Cieslak, Radoslaw Swiercz, Wojciech Wasowicz
Welding processes that generate fumes containing toxic metals, such as hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni), have been implicated in lung injury, inflammation, and lung tumor promotion in animal models. The principal objective of this study was to determine the dynamics of toxic effects of inhalation exposure to morphologically rated welding dust from stainless steel welding and its soluble form in TSE System with a dynamic airflow. We assessed the pulmonary toxicity of welding dust in Wistar rats exposed to 60...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901358/mdck-cells-are-capable-of-water-secretion-and-reabsorption-in-response-to-changes-in-the-ionic-environment
#6
Janne P Capra, Sinikka M Eskelinen
A prerequisite for tissue electrolyte homeostasis is highly regulated ion and water transport through kidney or intestinal epithelia. In the present work, we monitored changes in the cell and luminal volumes of type II Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in a 3D environment in response to drugs, or to changes in the composition of the basal extracellular fluid. Using fluorescent markers and high-resolution spinning disc confocal microscopy, we could show that lack of sodium and potassium ions in the basal fluid (tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) buffer) induces a rapid increase in the cell and luminal volumes...
September 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899930/ability-to-remove-na-and-retain-k-correlates-with-salt-tolerance-in-two-maize-inbred-lines-seedlings
#7
Yong Gao, Yi Lu, Meiqin Wu, Enxing Liang, Yan Li, Dongping Zhang, Zhitong Yin, Xiaoyun Ren, Yi Dai, Dexiang Deng, Jianmin Chen
Maize is moderately sensitive to salt stress; therefore, soil salinity is a serious threat to its production worldwide. Here, excellent salt-tolerant maize inbred line TL1317 and extremely salt-sensitive maize inbred line SL1303 were screened to understand the maize response to salt stress and its tolerance mechanisms. Relative water content, membrane stability index, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, maximum photochemical efficiency, photochemical efficiency, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, and proline and water soluble sugar content analyses were used to identify that the physiological effects of osmotic stress of salt stress were obvious and manifested at about 3 days after salt stress in maize...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#8
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895648/grape-ripening-is-regulated-by-deficit-irrigation-elevated-temperatures-according-to-cluster-position-in-the-canopy
#9
Olfa Zarrouk, Cecilia Brunetti, Ricardo Egipto, Carla Pinheiro, Tânia Genebra, Antonella Gori, Carlos M Lopes, Massimiliano Tattini, M Manuela Chaves
The impact of water deficit on berry quality has been extensively investigated during the last decades. Nonetheless, there is a scarcity of knowledge on the performance of varieties exposed to a combination of high temperatures/water stress during the growing season and under vineyard conditions. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of two irrigation regimes, sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, 30% ETc) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI, 15% ETc) and of two cluster positions within the canopy (east- and west-exposed sides) on berry ripening in red Aragonez (Tempranillo) grapevines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895577/fus1-ko-mouse-as-a-model-of-oxidative-stress-mediated-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-circadian-disruption-and-long-term-spatial-and-olfactory-memory-impairments
#10
Guillermo Coronas-Samano, Keeley L Baker, Winston J T Tan, Alla V Ivanova, Justus V Verhagen
Insufficient advances in the development of effective therapeutic treatments of sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (sAD) to date are largely due to the lack of sAD-relevant animal models. While the vast majority of models do recapitulate AD's hallmarks of plaques and tangles by virtue of tau and/or beta amyloid overexpression, these models do not reflect the fact that in sAD (unlike familial AD) these genes are not risk factors per se and that other mechanisms like oxidative stress, metabolic dysregulation and inflammation play key roles in AD etiology...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895051/metabolism-and-antioxidant-defense-in-the-larval-chironomid-tanytarsus-minutipalpus-adjustments-to-diel-variations-in-the-extreme-conditions-of-lake-magadi
#11
Lucas F Bianchini, Chris M Wood, Harold L Bergman, Ora E Johannsson, Pierre Laurent, Claudine Chevalier, Mosiany L Kisipan, Geraldine D Kavembe, Michael B Papah, Kevin V Brix, Gudrun De Boeck, John N Maina, Rodi O Ojoo, Adalto Bianchini
Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa), which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894883/incubation-relative-humidity-induces-renal-morphological-and-physiological-remodeling-in-the-embryo-of-the-chicken-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#12
Greta Bolin, Benjamin Dubansky, Warren W Burggren
The metanephric kidneys of the chicken embryo, along with the chorioallantoic membrane, process water and ions to maintain osmoregulatory homeostasis. We hypothesized that changes in relative humidity (RH) and thus osmotic conditions during embryogenesis would alter the developmental trajectory of embryonic kidney function. White leghorn chicken eggs were incubated at one of 25-30% relative humidity, 55-60% relative humidity, and 85-90% relative humidity. Embryos were sampled at days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 to examine embryo and kidney mass, glomerular characteristics, body fluid osmolalities, hematological properties, and whole embryo oxygen consumption...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890830/time-course-of-glial-changes-in-the-hyperhomocysteinemia-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-vcid
#13
Tiffany L Sudduth, Erica M Weekman, Brittani R Price, Jennifer L Gooch, Abigail Woolums, Christopher M Norris, Donna M Wilcock
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second leading cause of dementia behind Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is a frequent co-morbidity with AD. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive dysfunction resulting from cerebrovascular disease. Astrocytic end-feet almost completely surround intraparenchymal blood vessels in the brain and express a variety of channels and markers indicative of their specialized functions in the maintenance of ionic and osmotic homeostasis and gliovascular signaling...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884756/repeated-unpredictable-threats-without-harm-impair-spatial-working-memory-in-the-barnes-maze
#14
Diane J Kim, Nathan St Louis, Ralph A Molaro, Glenn T Hudson, Robert C Chorley, Brenda J Anderson
Psychological stressors elicit the anticipation of homeostatic challenge, whereas physical stressors are direct threats to homeostasis. Many rodent models of stress include both types of stressors, yet deficits, like those reported for working memory, are often attributed to psychological stress. To empirically test whether intermittent psychological stressors, such as repeated threats, are solely sufficient to impair spatial working memory, we developed a novel rodent model of stress that is restricted to the anticipation of threat, and free of direct physical challenge...
November 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882211/novel-perspectives-on-the-role-of-the-human-microbiota-in-regenerative-medicine-and-surgery
#15
Tommaso Pellegatta, Marco Saler, Viola Bonfanti, Giovanni Nicoletti, Angela Faga
Plastic surgery is transitioning from a fine craftsmanship to a regenerative science. In wound healing, the role of microorganisms is no longer considered to be just counteracting, but also promoting. Furthermore, host-microbe interactions are essential for numerous aspects of normal mammalian physiology, from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Each area of the human body hosts a unique microbial community, and the composition of microbiota is dependent on the host, age and the anatomical area, and it changes according to the characteristics of the microenvironment...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881286/renal-adaptive-changes-and-sodium-handling-in-the-fetal-to-newborn-transition
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey L Segar
Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management is critical for optimal care of very low birth weight or sick infants. Delivery of such care requires an understanding of developmental changes in renal water and salt handling that occur with advancing gestational age as well as postnatal age. This review focuses on the principles of sodium homeostasis during fetal and postnatal life. The physiology of renal tubular transport mechanisms, as well as neurohumoral factors impacting renal tubular transport are highlighted...
November 20, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874070/waterborne-aripiprazole-blunts-the-stress-response-in-zebrafish
#17
Heloísa Helena de Alcantara Barcellos, Fabiana Kalichak, João Gabriel Santos da Rosa, Thiago Acosta Oliveira, Gessi Koakoski, Renan Idalencio, Murilo Sander de Abreu, Ana Cristina Varrone Giacomini, Michele Fagundes, Cristiane Variani, Mainara Rossini, Angelo L Piato, Leonardo José Gil Barcellos
Here we provide, at least to our knowledge, the first evidence that aripiprazole (APPZ) in the water blunts the stress response of exposed fish in a concentration ten times lower than the concentration detected in the environment. Although the mechanism of APPZ in the neuroendocrine axis is not yet determined, our results highlight that the presence of APPZ residues in the environment may interfere with the stress responses in fish. Since an adequate stress response is crucial to restore fish homeostasis after stressors, fish with impaired stress response may have trouble to cope with natural and/or imposed stressors with consequences to their welfare and survival...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871839/interactions-of-two-structurally-related-anionic-phospholipids-cardiolipin-and-phosphatidylglycerol-with-phospholipase-a2-langmuir-monolayer-studies
#18
Marcin Broniatowski, Monika Urbaś
Anionic phospholipids cardiolipins (CL) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG) dominate in the biomembranes of the majority of soil bacteria. CL to PG ratio differs between the species and is also dependent on the external conditions. CL/PG ratio is different in polluted than in unspoiled soils and it was hypothesized that it is connected with the activity of the membranelytic enzymes from the phospholipase A2 class (PLA2) as it was proved that persistent soil pollutants can activate PLA2. In our studies we applied the Langmuir monolayer technique and Brewster angle microscopy to elucidate the mechanism of the interactions of PLA2 with the model membranes formed by anionic phospholipids...
November 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868128/the-role-of-stim1-in-the-cr-vi-induced-ca-2-i-increase-and-cell-injury-in-l-02-hepatocytes
#19
Xing Yi, Yujing Zhang, Caigao Zhong, Xiali Zhong, Fang Xiao
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(vi)] is a potent cytotoxin and carcinogen. In recent years, drinking water contamination with Cr(vi) has become a worldwide problem of significant public health importance, thus much attention has been paid to the investigation of Cr(vi)-induced hepatotoxicity. The concentration of intracellular calcium ions ([Ca(2+)]i) was found to be increased after Cr(vi) exposure, but the exact underlying mechanisms involved in the Ca(2+) homeostasis imbalance remain poorly characterized. In the present study, by utilizing the antagonist of store-operated calcium channels (SOCCs) 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), small interfering RNA against stromal interaction molecule 1 (si-STIM1) and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), we found that Cr(vi) induces [Ca(2+)]i increase, cell viability loss and transaminase (AST/ALT) leakage, and that these could be suppressed by both 2-APB and si-STIM1...
November 21, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864825/individual-hippocampal-subfield-assessment-indicates-that-matrix-macromolecules-and-gliosis-are-key-elements-for-the-increased-t2-relaxation-time-seen-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Jose Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, Tonicarlo Rodrigues Velasco, Joao Alberto Assirati, Carlos Gilberto Carlotti, Renata Caldo Scandiuzzi, Carlos Ernesto Garrido Salmon, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Joao Pereira Leite
OBJECTIVE: Increased T2 relaxation time is often seen in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis. Water content directly affects the effective T2 in a voxel. Our aim was to evaluate the relation between T2 values and two molecules associated with brain water homeostasis aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG), as well as cellular populations in the hippocampal region of patients with TLE. METHODS: Hippocampal T2 imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were obtained from 42 drug-resistant patients with TLE and 20 healthy volunteers (radiologic controls, RCs)...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsia
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