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Water homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346132/enzymatic-sources-and-physio-pathological-functions-of-soluble-pro-renin-receptor
#1
Qing Zhu, Tianxin Yang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) belongs to type I transmembrane receptor family and binds both prorenin and renin, representing a potential regulator of the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. Soluble form of PRR (sPRR) is generated by intracellular protease-mediated cleavage of full-length PRR. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of action and production of sPRR. RECENT FINDINGS: It has recently been demonstrated that site-1-protease (S1P) plays a dominant role in the generation of sPRR...
January 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344030/optimal-cutoff-points-for-anthropometric-variables-to-predict-insulin-resistance-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#2
Hossein Hatami, Seyed Ali Montazeri, Nazanin Hashemi, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani
Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is a major cardiometabolic risk factor in females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The euglycemic clamp is the gold standard method to measure IR. However, considering the time and cost that it takes, surrogate markers of IR are now widely used. The current study aimed at evaluating the cutoff points of even less invasive anthropometric and body composition variables to predict IR in females with PCOS. Methods: The current cross sectional study selected 224 females with PCOS, using Rotterdam criteria, referred to reproductive endocrinology research center; 88 of which were diagnosed with insulin resistance...
October 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339557/chronic-dietary-creatine-enhances-hippocampal-dependent-spatial-memory-bioenergetics-and-levels-of-plasticity-related-proteins-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#3
Wanda M Snow, Chris Cadonic, Claudia Cortes-Perez, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Michael J Bernstein, Miyoung Suh, Paul Fernyhough, Benedict C Albensi
The brain has a high demand for energy, of which creatine (Cr) is an important regulator. Studies document neurocognitive benefits of oral Cr in mammals, yet little is known regarding their physiological basis. This study investigated the effects of Cr supplementation (3%, w/w) on hippocampal function in male C57BL/6 mice, including spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and oxygen consumption rates from isolated mitochondria in real time. Levels of transcription factors and related proteins (CREB, Egr1, and IκB to indicate NF-κB activity), proteins implicated in cognition (CaMKII, PSD-95, and Egr2), and mitochondrial proteins (electron transport chain Complex I, mitochondrial fission protein Drp1) were probed with Western blotting...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335742/stand-alone-emollient-treatment-reduces-flares-after-discontinuation-of-topical-steroid-treatment-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-double-blind-randomized-vehicle-controlled-left-right-comparison-study
#4
Irena Angelova-Fischer, Frank Rippke, Daniel Richter, Alexander Filbry, Craig Arrowitz, Teresa Weber, Tobias W Fischer, Detlef Zillikens
Prevention of flares is a main goal in the long-term treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). This study investigated the efficacy of a water-in-oil emollient, containing licochalcone A, omega-6-fatty acids, ceramide 3 and glycerol, for prevention of flares in adults with mild to moderately severe AD, who had been treated with topical steroids, which had led to clearing of the inflammatory lesions and had been discontinued prior to inclusion. The study was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled, left-right comparison test with the number of relapses, defined as re-occurrence of erythema for at least 3 consecutive days, considered the primary outcome...
January 16, 2018: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332196/bioelectronic-modulation-of-carotid-sinus-nerve-activity-in-the-rat-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-type-2-diabetes
#5
Joana F Sacramento, Daniel J Chew, Bernardete F Melo, Matteo Donegá, Wesley Dopson, Maria P Guarino, Alison Robinson, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Sonal Patel, Bradley J Holinski, Nishan Ramnarain, Victor Pikov, Kristoffer Famm, Silvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits in pathological conditions to repair lost function and reinstate a healthy balance. Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant rats; however, these positive effects from surgery appear to diminish over time and are heavily caveated by the severe adverse effects associated with permanent loss of chemosensory function...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331509/selenolanthionine-is-the-major-water-soluble-selenium-compound-in-the-selenium-tolerant-plant-cardamine-violifolia
#6
Eszter Borbála Both, Shuxun Shao, Jiqian Xiang, Zsuzsa Jókai, Hongqing Yin, Yafeng Liu, Anna Magyar, Mihály Dernovics
BACKGROUND: Selenium hyperaccumulation in plants often involves the synthesis of non-proteinaceous methylated selenoamino acids serving for the elimination of excess selenium from plant metabolism to protect plant homeostasis. METHODS: Our study aimed at the identification of the main selenium species of the selenium hyperaccumulator plant Cardamine violifolia (Brassicaceae) that grows in the wild in the seleniferous region of Enshi, China. A sample of this plant (3...
January 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327922/a-constrained-tetrapeptide-as-a-model-of-cu-i-binding-sites-involving-cu4s6-clusters-in-proteins
#7
Edit Mesterházy, Colette Lebrun, Attila Jancsó, Pascale Delangle
Peptide design is an efficient strategy to create relevant models of natural metal binding sites found in proteins. The two short tetrapeptides Ac-Cys-dPro-Pro-Cys-NH2 (CdPPC) and Ac-Cys-Pro-Gly-Cys-NH2 (CPGC) were synthesized and studied as mimics of Cu(I) binding sites involved in Cu homeostasis. Both sequences contain β turn inducing motifs to rigidify the peptide backbone structure and thereby preorganize the metal-binding side chains. The more constrained structure of the peptide CdPPC with respect to CPGC was evidenced by the measurements of the temperature coefficients of the amide protons by 1H NMR, which suggest a solvent-shielded intramolecular hydrogen bond in CdPPC, and no H-bond in CPGC...
January 12, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322818/evolution-of-ph-buffers-and-water-homeostasis-in-eukaryotes-homology-between-humans-and-acanthamoeba-proteins
#8
Abdul M Baig, R Zohaib, S Tariq, H R Ahmad
AIM: This study intended to trace the evolution of acid-base buffers and water homeostasis in eukaryotes. Acanthamoeba castellanii  was selected as a model unicellular eukaryote for this purpose. Homologies of proteins involved in pH and water regulatory mechanisms at cellular levels were compared between humans and A. castellanii. MATERIALS & METHODS: Amino acid sequence homology, structural homology, 3D modeling and docking prediction were done to show the extent of similarities between carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA1), aquaporin (AQP), band-3 protein and H+ pump...
January 11, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305107/five-threads-how-u-shaped-thinking-weaves-together-dogs-men-selenium-and-prostate-cancer-risk
#9
REVIEW
David J Waters, Emily C Chiang
Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among men living in developed countries, making the development of safe, practical approaches to prostate cancer risk reduction a high research priority. The relationship between prostate cancer risk and selenium, an essential nutrient required for a number of metabolically important enzymes including glutathione peroxidases, has been investigated, but a satisfactory integration of results has proven elusive. Dogs, like men, naturally develop prostate cancer during aging, providing an appropriate context to study the effects of selenium supplementation on the dysregulation of homeostasis that drives cancer development within the aging prostate...
January 2, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304382/transcriptional-regulation-of-chickpea-ferritin-cafer1-influences-its-role-in-iron-homeostasis-and-stress-response
#10
Shaista Parveen, Aarti Pandey, Neha Jameel, Subhra Chakraborty, Niranjan Chakraborty
Ferritin, ubiquitous among all living organisms except yeast, exhibits iron-regulated expression. In plants, this regulation is applied through transcriptional control. Previous studies established the presence of two types of cis-acting elements in the promoter region: the iron regulatory element (FRE) in soybean and the iron-dependent regulatory sequence (IDRS) in maize and Arabidopsis. Adverse environmental conditions (e.g. water-deficit and oxidative stress) are known to modulate the expression of phytoferritin genes...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301341/endothelial-aquaporins-and-hypomethylation-potential-implications-for-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Inês Vieira da Silva, Madalena Barroso, Teresa Moura, Rita Castro, Graça Soveral
Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channels that facilitate water and glycerol permeation through cell membranes. Recently, the water channel AQP1 was suggested to contribute to endothelial homeostasis and cardiovascular health. Less is known about endothelial aquaglyceroporins expression and its implication in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We have previously used cultured human endothelial cells under a hypomethylating environment to study endothelial dysfunction and activation, a phenotype implicated in the establishment of atherosclerosis and CVD...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300823/physiological-basis-of-chilling-tolerance-and-early-season-growth-in-miscanthus
#12
Simon Fonteyne, Hilde Muylle, Peter Lootens, Pavel Kerchev, Wim Van den Ende, Ariane Staelens, Dirk Reheul, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz
Background and Aims: The high productivity of Miscanthus × giganteus has been at least partly ascribed to its high chilling tolerance compared with related C4 crops, allowing for a longer productive growing season in temperate climates. However, the chilling tolerance of M. × giganteus has been predominantly studied under controlled environmental conditions. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms contributing to chilling tolerance in the field and their variation in different miscanthus genotypes is largely unexplored...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291035/the-potential-use-of-physical-resilience-to-predict-healthy-aging
#13
REVIEW
Anna Schorr, Christy Carter, Warren Ladiges
Physical resilience is the ability of an organism to respond to stressors that acutely disrupt normal physiological homeostasis. By definition, resilience decreases with increasing age, while frailty, defined as a decline in tissue function, increases with increasing age. Assessment of resilience could therefore be an informative early paradigm to predict healthy aging compared to frailty, which measures late life dysfunction. Parameters for resilience in the laboratory mouse are not yet well defined, and no single standardized stress test exists...
2018: Pathobiology of Aging & Age related Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288384/comparative-view-of-lung-vascular-endothelium-of-cattle-horses-and-water-buffalo
#14
David Schneberger, Ram S Sethi, Baljit Singh
Endothelium plays an important role in maintaining the vascular barrier and physiological homeostasis. Endothelium also is fundamental to the initiation and regulation of inflammation. Endothelium demonstrates phenotypic and functional heterogeneity not only among various organs but also within an organ. One of the striking examples would be the pulmonary endothelium that participates in creating blood-air barrier. Endothelium in large pulmonary blood vessels is distinct in structure and function from that lining of the pulmonary capillaries...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287786/leptin-treatment-prevents-long-term-abnormalities-in-cognition-seizure-threshold-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-sprouting-and-znt3-cb-d28k-expression-in-a-rat-developmental-twist-seizure-model
#15
Hong Ni, Su-Hong Chen, Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin
The mechanism of linking neonatal seizures with long-term brain damage is unclear, and there is no effective drug to block this long-term pathological process. Recently, the fat-derived hormone leptin has been appreciated for its neuroprotective function in neurodegenerative processes, although less is known about the effects of leptin on neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. Here, we developed a "twist" seizure model by coupling pilocarpine-induced neonatal status epilepticus (SE) with later exposure to penicillin to test whether leptin treatment immediately after neonatal SE would exert neuroprotective effects on cognition, seizure threshold and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting, as well if leptin had any influence on the expression of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) and calcium homeostasis-related CB-D28k in the hippocampus...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285009/the-relation-between-rice-consumption-arsenic-contamination-and-prevalence-of-diabetes-in-south-asia
#16
REVIEW
Fatima Ismail Hassan, Kamal Niaz, Fazlullah Khan, Faheem Maqbool, Mohammad Abdollahi
Rice is the major staple food for about two billion people living in Asia. It has been reported to contain considerable amount of inorganic arsenic which is toxic to pancreatic beta cells and disrupt glucose homeostasis. Articles and conference papers published between 1992 and 2017, indexed in Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, Google, and Google scholar were used. Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased blood glucose and insulin levels, or decreased sensitization of insulin cells to glucose uptake. Several studies have shown the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and incidence of diabetes mellitus...
2017: EXCLI Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282544/diet-induced-glucose-homeostasis-dysregulation-is-enhanced-by-taurine-supplementation-in-ovariectomized-mice
#17
Roberta de Souza Santos, Rafael L Camargo, Emerielle C Vanzela, Thiago M Batista, Priscila N Morato, Nayara C Leite, Juliana C Rovani, Marta García-Arévalo, Deborah J Clegg, Everardo M Carneiro
Low levels of estrogens are associated with obesity-related comorbidities. Mice with lower levels of estrogens are thereby more sensitive to the effects of a high-fat-diet (HFD) for the development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Studies in vivo have demonstrated that taurine (TAU) supplementation prevents glucose and insulin resistance. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effects of TAU supplementation on glucose homeostasis of mice with low levels of estrogens fed with a HFD...
December 27, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281248/biosynthetic-mechanism-of-luminescent-zno-nanocrystals-in-the-mammalian-blood-circulation-and-their-functionalization-for-tumor-therapy
#18
Yi-Zhou Wu, Jie Sun, Haowen Yang, Xiaohui Zhao, Dacheng He, Maomao Pu, Gen Zhang, Nongyue He, Xin Zeng
The biosynthesis of nanoparticles in bioreactors using microbial, plant, or animal cells is at the forefront of nanotechnology. We demonstrated for the first time that luminescent, water-soluble ZnO nanocrystals (bio-ZnO NCs) can be spontaneously biosynthesized in the mammalian blood circulation, not in cells, when animals were fed with Zn(CH3COO)2 aqueous solution. Serum albumin, rather than metallothioneins or glutathione, proved to play the pivotal role in biosynthesis. The bio-ZnO NCs were gradually taken up in the liver and degraded and excreted in the urine...
December 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276774/effect-of-environmental-factors-and-an-emerging-parasitic-disease-on-gut-microbiome-of-wild-salmonid-fish
#19
Anti Vasemägi, Marko Visse, Veljo Kisand
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of fish supports a dynamic microbial ecosystem that is intimately linked to host nutrient acquisition, epithelial development, immune system priming, and disease prevention, and we are far from understanding the complex interactions among parasites, symbiotic gut bacteria, and host fitness. Here, we analyzed the effects of environmental factors and parasitic burdens on the microbial composition and diversity within the GIT of the brown trout (Salmo trutta). We focused on the emerging dangerous salmonid myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which causes proliferative kidney disease in salmonid fish, to demonstrate the potential role of GIT micobiomes in the modulation of host-parasite relationships...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275218/myrcia-sylvatica-essential-oil-mitigates-molecular-biochemical-and-physiological-alterations-in-rhamdia-quelen-under-different-stress-events-associated-to-transport
#20
Etiane M H Saccol, Ismael Jerez-Cepa, Giovana M Ourique, Tanise S Pês, Luciane T Gressler, Rosa H V Mourão, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan M Mancera, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Maria A Pavanato, Juan A Martos-Sitcha
The effects of pre-transport handling and addition of essential oil of Myrcia sylvatica (EOMS) during transport on stress pathways activation in Rhamdia quelen were investigated. Fish (n=400, 25.2±2.9g) were captured in production ponds and transferred to 100-L tank (density 100g L-1). After 24h, 10 fish were sampled (before transport group). The remaining fish were placed in plastic bags (n=30 or 32 fish per bag, density 150g L-1) containing 5L of water (control), ethanol (315μLL-1, vehicle) or EOMS (25 or 35μLL-1), in triplicate, transported for 6h and sampled (n=10 animals per group)...
December 15, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
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