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Water homeostasys

Laurits J Holm, Martin Haupt-Jorgensen, Jesper Larsen, Jano D Giacobini, Mesut Bilgin, Karsten Buschard
Sphingolipids are a diverse group of lipids with important roles in beta-cell biology regulating insulin folding and controlling apoptosis. Sphingolipid biosynthesis begins with the condensation of L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA. Here we tested the effect of L-serine supplementation on autoimmune diabetes development and blood glucose homeostasis in female NOD mice. We found that continuous supplementation of L-serine reduces diabetes incidence and insulitis score. In addition, L-serine treated mice had an improved glucose tolerance test, reduced HOMA-IR, and reduced blood glucose levels...
2018: PloS One
Raffaella Mastrocola, Ilario Ferrocino, Erica Liberto, Fausto Chiazza, Alessia Sofia Cento, Debora Collotta, Giulia Querio, Debora Nigro, Valeria Bitonto, Juan Carlos Cutrin, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Mariaconcetta Durante, Emanuela Masini, Manuela Aragno, Chiara Cordero, Luca Cocolin, Massimo Collino
Despite clinical findings suggesting that the form (liquid versus solid) of the sugars may significantly affect the development of metabolic diseases, no experimental data are available on the impact of their formulations on gut microbiota, integrity and hepatic outcomes. In the present sudy, C57Bl/6j mice were fed a standard diet plus water (SD), a standard diet plus 60% fructose syrup (L-Fr) or a 60% fructose solid diet plus water (S-Fr) for 12 weeks. Gut microbiota was characterized through 16S rRNA phylogenetic profiling and shotgun sequencing of microbial genes in ileum content and related volatilome profiling...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Haseeb Khaliq, Wang Jing, Xiao Ke, Yang Ke-Li, Sun Peng-Peng, Lei Cui, Qiu Wei-Wei, Lei Zhixin, Liu Hua-Zhen, Song Hui, Zhong Ju-Ming, Peng Ke-Mei
The nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway is the most important mechanism in antioxidant capacity, which regulates the cell's redox homeostasis. In addition, Nrf2 pathway also can inhibit cell apoptosis. The mechanism of boron actions on various organs is well documented. But, it is not known whether boron can also regulate the Nrf2 pathway in the kidneys. Therefore, in this research, the actions of boron on the kidneys of ostrich chicks, especially the antioxidant effects, have been studied. The ostrich chicks were divided into six groups and supplemented with boric acid (BA) (source of boron) in the drinking water (0, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640 mg respectively) to examine apoptotic, antioxidant, biochemical, and histochemical alterations induced by boron administration in the ostrich chick's kidney...
March 13, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Natalie C Rollick, Devin B Lemmex, Yohei Ono, Carol R Reno, David A Hart, Ian Ky Lo, Gail M Thornton
Background: When considering the "joint as an organ", the tissues in a joint act as complementary components of an organ, and the "set point" is the cellular activity for homeostasis of the joint tissues. Even in the absence of injury, joint tissues have adaptive responses to processes, like aging and menopause, which result in changes to the set point. Purpose: The purpose of this study in a preclinical model was to investigate age-related and menopause-related changes in knee-joint tissues with the hypothesis that tissues will change in unique ways that reflect their differing contributions to maintaining joint function (as measured by joint laxity) and the differing processes of aging and menopause...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Walter W Chen, Elizaveta Freinkman, David M Sabatini
Mitochondria carry out numerous metabolic reactions that are critical to cellular homeostasis. Here we present a protocol for interrogating mitochondrial metabolites and measuring their matrix concentrations. Our workflow uses high-affinity magnetic immunocapture to rapidly purify HA-tagged mitochondria from homogenized mammalian cells in ∼12 min. These mitochondria are extracted with methanol and water. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is used to determine the identities and mole quantities of mitochondrial metabolites using authentic metabolite standards and isotopically labeled internal standards, whereas the corresponding mitochondrial matrix volume is determined via immunoblotting, confocal microscopy of intact cells, and volumetric analysis...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
Houari Boukersi, Nemcha Lebaili, Nathalie Samson, Sylvie Granon
The objective of this work was to investigate the implication of serotonin (5-HT) produced in the dorsal and medial raphé nuclei (DRN and MRN) in water homeostasis in desert animal Gerbillus tarabuli. For that, we measured the density of 5-HT immunolabeled neurons in hydrated and dehydrated animals (over 1 and six months). In this work, 5-HT positive neurons showed some change in shape and colour intensity in dehydrated gerbils comparing with hydrated gerbils. Furthermore a differential increase of 5-HT neurons density was observed in DRN subregions and in MRN following 1 and 6 months of dehydration...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Mohammad Akbari, Nasser Mahna, Katam Ramesh, Ali Bandehagh, Silvia Mazzuca
Pistachio, one of the important tree nuts, is cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions where salinity is the most common abiotic stress encountered by this tree. However, the mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance in this plant are not well understood. In the present study, five 1-year-old pistachio rootstocks (namely Akbari, Badami, Ghazvini, Kale-Ghouchi, and UCB-1) were treated with four saline water regimes (control, 8, 12, and 16 dS m-1 ) for 100 days. At high salinity level, all rootstocks showed decreased relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCHC), and carotenoids in the leaf, while ascorbic acid (AsA) and total soluble proteins (TSP) were reduced in both leaf and root organs...
March 12, 2018: Protoplasma
Camilla L Asferg, Søren J Nielsen, Ulrik B Andersen, Allan Linneberg, Jens P Goetze, Jørgen L Jeppesen
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is primarily seen as a hormone involved in salt and water homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Evidence supports a link between metabolism and ANP. Circulating ANP concentrations are low in obese individuals with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The dynamic relationship between insulin and ANP has been sparsely studied. We therefore measured circulating concentrations of midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), a stable marker of ANP secretion, and insulin in lean and obese men during an oral glucose challenge...
March 7, 2018: Peptides
Tymoteusz Żera, Jacek Przybylski, Tomasz Grygorowicz, Kaja Kasarełło, Martyna Podobińska, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska
Vasopressin (AVP) maintains body homeostasis by regulating water balance, cardiovascular system and stress response. AVP inhibits breathing through central vasopressin 1a receptors (V1aRs). Chemoreceptors within carotid bodies (CBs) detect chemical and hormonal signals in the bloodstream and provide sensory input to respiratory and cardiovascular centers of the brainstem. In the study we investigated if CBs contain V1aRs and how the receptors are involved in the regulation of ventilation by AVP. We first immunostained CBs for V1aRs and tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of chemoreceptor type I (glomus) cells...
March 7, 2018: Peptides
Tasha Barr, Suhas Sureshchandra, Paul Ruegger, Jingfei Zhang, Wenxiu Ma, James Borneman, Kathleen Grant, Ilhem Messaoudi
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) results in increased intestinal permeability, nutrient malabsorption, and increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these morbidities remains limited because studies to date have relied almost exclusively on short-term heavy/binge drinking rodent models and colonic biopsies/fecal samples collected from AUD subjects with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consequently, the dose- and site-dependent impact of chronic alcohol consumption in the absence of overt liver disease remains poorly understood...
March 8, 2018: Gut Microbes
Hye-Lim Lee, Sung-Ah Lim, Hye-Won Lee, Ho-Ryong Yoo, Hyeong-Geug Kim
We evaluated neuropharmacological properties of Yuk-Mi-Jihwang-Tang (YJT) against scopolamine injection-induced memory impairment mice model. Mice were orally administered with YJT (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or tacrine (TAC, 12.5 mg/kg) for 10 days. At the first day of Morris water maze task, scopolamine (2 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected before 30 min of it. The hippocampal memory function was determined by the Morris water maze task for 5 days consecutively. Scopolamine drastically increased escape latency and decreased time spent in target quadrant...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
M Milan, G Dalla Rovere, M Smits, S Ferraresso, P Pastore, M G Marin, S Bogialli, T Patarnello, L Bargelloni, V Matozzo
Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide worldwide over the last three decades, raising increasing concerns for its potential impacts on environmental and human health. Recent studies revealed that glyphosate occurs in soil, surface water, and groundwater, and residues are found at all levels of the food chain, such as drinking water, plants, animals, and even in humans. While research has demonstrated that glyphosate can induce a broad range of biological effects in exposed organisms, the global molecular mechanisms of action still need to be elucidated, in particular for marine species...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Rosaria Meli, Claudio Pirozzi, Alessandra Pelagalli
Aquaporins (AQPs) are emerging, in the last few decades, as critical proteins regulating water fluid homeostasis in cells involved in inflammation. AQPs represent a family of ubiquitous membrane channels that regulate osmotically water flux in various tissues and sometimes the transport of small solutes, including glycerol. Extensive data indicate that AQPs, working as water channel proteins, regulate not only cell migration, but also common events essential for inflammatory response. The involvement of AQPs in several inflammatory processes, as demonstrated by their dysregulation both in human and animal diseases, identifies their new role in protection and response to different noxious stimuli, including bacterial infection...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Aafke W F Janssen, Saeed Katiraei, Barbara Bartosinska, Daniel Eberhard, Ko Willems van Dijk, Sander Kersten
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is an important regulator of triacylglycerol metabolism, carrying out this role by inhibiting the enzymes lipoprotein lipase and pancreatic lipase. ANGPTL4 is a potential target for ameliorating cardiometabolic diseases. Although ANGPTL4 has been implicated in obesity, the study of the direct role of ANGPTL4 in diet-induced obesity and related metabolic dysfunction is hampered by the massive acute-phase response and development of lethal chylous ascites and peritonitis in Angptl4-/- mice fed a standard high-fat diet...
March 3, 2018: Diabetologia
Petr Klíma, Martina Laňková, Filip Vandenbussche, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Jan Petrášek
Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of intracellular calcium levels and ion homeostasis. The action of silver ions at the plant plasma membrane is largely connected with the inhibition of ethylene signalling thanks to the ability of silver ion to replace the copper cofactor in the ethylene receptor. A link coupling the action of silver ions and cellular auxin efflux has been suggested earlier by their possible direct interaction with auxin efflux carriers or by influencing plasma membrane permeability...
March 3, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Christina Wilms, Ioanna Krikki, Adelheid Hainzl, Sonja Kilo, Marius Alupei, Evgenia Makrantonaki, Maximilian Wagner, Carsten M Kroeger, Titus Josef Brinker, Martina Gatzka
Development and homeostasis of the epidermis are governed by a complex network of sequence-specific transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers cooperatively regulating the subtle balance of progenitor cell self-renewal and terminal differentiation. To investigate the role of histone H2A deubiquitinase 2A-DUB/Mysm1 in the skin, we systematically analyzed expression, developmental functions, and potential interactions of this epigenetic regulator using Mysm1-deficient mice and skin-derived epidermal cells...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lin-Hui Wang, Zi-Lan Wang, Wen-Yue Chen, Ming-Jia Chen, Guang-Yin Xu
The glymphatic system is a cerebrospinal fluid-interstitial fluid exchange system dependent on the water channel aquaporin-4 polarized on astrocyte endfeet, which is proposed to account for the clearance of abnormal proteins (e.g. β-amyloid) and metabolites (e.g. lactate) from the brain. Accumulating studies have revealed that glymphatic activity during sleep and general anesthesia is dramatically enhanced, while its function is significantly damaged during aging, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and diabetes...
February 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Manuela Aseye Ayele Ayee, Elizabeth LeMaster, Tao Teng, James Lee, Irena Levitan
Regulation of cell volume is a fundamental property of all mammalian cells. Multiple signaling pathways are known to be activated by cell swelling and to contribute to cell volume homeostasis. Although cell mechanics and membrane tension have been proposed to couple cell swelling to signaling pathways, the impact of swelling on cellular biomechanics and membrane tension have yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we use atomic force microscopy under isotonic and hypotonic conditions to measure mechanical properties of endothelial membranes including membrane stiffness, which reflects the stiffness of the submembrane cytoskeleton complex, and the force required for membrane tether formation, reflecting membrane tension and membrane-cytoskeleton attachment...
February 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Bahia Khalfaoui-Hassani, Hongjiang Wu, Crysten E Blaby-Haas, Yang Zhang, Federica Sandri, Andreia F Verissimo, Hans-Georg Koch, Fevzi Daldal
Cytochrome c oxidases are members of the heme-copper oxidase superfamily. These enzymes have different subunits, cofactors, and primary electron acceptors, yet they all contain identical heme-copper (CuB ) binuclear centers within their catalytic subunits. The uptake and delivery pathways of the CuB atom incorporated into this active site, where oxygen is reduced to water, are not well understood. Our previous work with the facultative phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus indicated that the copper atom needed for the CuB site of cbb 3 -type cytochrome c oxidase ( cbb 3 -Cox) is imported to the cytoplasm by a major facilitator superfamily-type transporter, CcoA...
February 27, 2018: MBio
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