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Water homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638120/neural-circuits-underlying-thirst-and-fluid-homeostasis
#1
REVIEW
Christopher A Zimmerman, David E Leib, Zachary A Knight
Thirst motivates animals to find and consume water. More than 40 years ago, a set of interconnected brain structures known as the lamina terminalis was shown to govern thirst. However, owing to the anatomical complexity of these brain regions, the structure and dynamics of their underlying neural circuitry have remained obscure. Recently, the emergence of new tools for neural recording and manipulation has reinvigorated the study of this circuit and prompted re-examination of longstanding questions about the neural origins of thirst...
June 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636601/crystal-structure-of-the-potassium-importing-kdpfabc-membrane-complex
#2
Ching-Shin Huang, Bjørn Panyella Pedersen, David L Stokes
Cellular potassium import systems play a fundamental role in osmoregulation, pH homeostasis and membrane potential in all domains of life. In bacteria, the kdp operon encodes a four-subunit potassium pump that maintains intracellular homeostasis, cell shape and turgor under conditions in which potassium is limiting. This membrane complex, called KdpFABC, has one channel-like subunit (KdpA) belonging to the superfamily of potassium transporters and another pump-like subunit (KdpB) belonging to the superfamily of P-type ATPases...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632458/aquaporins-novel-targets-for-age-related-ocular-disorders
#3
Rajkumar Patil, Haishan Wang, Najam A Sharif, Alok Mitra
Aquaporins (AQPs), a large family of membrane protein channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes, play important roles in physiological functions and human diseases. Up till now, 13 types of AQPs, numbered 0 through 12, have been identified in various mammalian tissues. Homologous genes for AQPs in amphibians, insects, and bacteria highlight the evolutionary conservation and, thus, the importance of these membrane channels. Many members of the AQP family are expressed in the eye. AQP1, which is a water-selective channel, is expressed in the anterior chamber (cornea, ciliary body, trabecular meshwork) and posterior chamber (retina and microvessels in choroid), controlling the fluid homeostasis in the eye...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627708/alterations-in-aqp4-expression-and-polarization-in-the-course-of-motor-neuron-degeneration-in-sod1g93a-mice
#4
Jiaying Dai, Weihao Lin, Minying Zheng, Qiang Liu, Baixuan He, Chuanming Luo, Xilin Lu, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su, Xiaoli Yao
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. The disease progression is associated with the astrocytic environment. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels are the most abundant AQPs expressed in astrocytes, exerting important influences on central nervous system homeostasis. The present study aimed to characterize the alterations in AQP4 expression and loca-lization in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) G93A transgenic mice...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625800/arsenic-alters-transcriptional-responses-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-and-decreases-antimicrobial-defense-of-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#5
B C Goodale, E J Rayack, B A Stanton
Arsenic contamination of drinking water and food threatens the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide by increasing the risk of numerous diseases. Arsenic exposure has been associated with infectious lung disease in epidemiological studies, but it is not yet understood how ingestion of low levels of arsenic increases susceptibility to bacterial infection. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of arsenic on gene expression in primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and to determine if arsenic altered epithelial cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen...
June 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624939/additive-effect-of-calcium-depletion-and-low-resource-quality-on-gammarus-fossarum-crustacea-amphipoda-life-history-traits
#6
Marc Rollin, Romain Coulaud, Michael Danger, Bénédicte Sohm, Justine Flayac, Alexandre Bec, Arnaud Chaumot, Olivier Geffard, Vincent Felten
Gammarus fossarum is an often-abundant crustacean detritivore that contributes importantly to leaf litter breakdown in oligotrophic, mainly heterotrophic, headwater streams. This species requires large amounts of Ca to moult, thus allowing growth and reproduction. Because resource quality is tightly coupled to the organism's growth and physiological status, we hypothesised that low Ca concentration [Ca] and low food resource quality (low phosphorus [P] and/or reduced highly unsaturated fatty acid [HUFA] contents) would interactively impair molecular responses (gene expression) and reproduction of G...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624121/leptin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#7
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Yotsawan Tinikul, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anurucpreeda, Prasert Sobhon
Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin...
June 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622752/microvascular-fluid-exchange-during-cpb-with-deep-hypothermia-circulatory-arrest-or-low-flow
#8
Bjørg Elvevoll, Paul Husby, Venny L Kvalheim, Lodve Stangeland, Arve Mongstad, Øyvind S Svendsen
OBJECTIVE: Use of deep hypothermic low-flow (DHLF) cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been associated with higher fluid loading than the use of deep hypothermia circulatory arrest (DHCA). We evaluated whether these perfusion strategies influenced fluid extravasation rates and edema generation differently per-operatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve anesthetized pigs, randomly allocated to DHLF (n = 6) or DHCA (n = 6), underwent 2.5 hours CPB with cooling to 20°C for 30 minutes (min), followed by 30 min arrested circulation (DHCA) or 30 min low-flow circulation (DHLF) before 90 min rewarming to normothermia...
June 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620355/role-of-the-vasopressin-apelin-balance-and-potential-use-of-metabolically-stable-apelin-analogs-in-water-metabolism-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Adrien Flahault, Pierre Couvineau, Rodrigo Alvear-Perez, Xavier Iturrioz, Catherine Llorens-Cortes
Apelin, a (neuro)vasoactive peptide, plays a prominent role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular functions. In animal models, experimental data demonstrate that intracerebroventricular injection of apelin into lactating rats inhibits the phasic electrical activity of arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons, reduces plasma AVP levels, and increases aqueous diuresis. In the kidney, apelin increases diuresis by increasing the renal microcirculation and by counteracting the antidiuretic effect of AVP at the tubular level...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620304/pu-erh-tea-extract-ameliorates-ovariectomy-induced-osteoporosis-in-rats-and-suppresses-osteoclastogenesis-in-vitro
#10
Titi Liu, Shihua Ding, Dan Yin, Xiangdan Cuan, Chuanqi Xie, Huanhuan Xu, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
Background and Objective: Tea drinking is associated with positive effects on bone health and may protect against osteoporosis, especially in elderly women. Pu-erh tea has many beneficial effects on human health; however, whether Pu-erh tea has anti-osteoporotic potential remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the effects of Pu-erh tea extract (PTE) on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats and on osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: the sham, model, and Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule (XLGB) groups, and the low-, medium-, and high-dose PTE groups...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619096/presenilins-regulate-synaptic-plasticity-and-mitochondrial-calcium-homeostasis-in-the-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-pathway
#11
Sang Hun Lee, David Lutz, Mohanad Mossalam, Vadim Y Bolshakov, Michael Frotscher, Jie Shen
BACKGROUND: Presenilins play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, in which the hippocampus is particularly vulnerable. Previous studies of Presenilin function in the synapse, however, focused exclusively on the hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC) pathway. Whether Presenilins play similar or distinct roles in other hippocampal synapses is unknown. METHODS: To investigate the role of Presenilins at mossy fiber (MF) synapses we performed field and whole-cell electrophysiological recordings and Ca(2+) imaging using acute hippocampal slices of postnatal forebrain-restricted Presenilin conditional double knockout (PS cDKO) and control mice at 2 months of age...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614812/the-discovery-of-water-channels-aquaporins
#12
Dennis Brown
The movement of water into and out of cells is a fundamental biological process that is essential for life. Such water movement not only regulates the activity of individual cells but also is responsible for the functioning of many organ systems and for maintaining whole body water balance. It had long been suspected that water movement across biological cell membranes was in some way enhanced or facilitated by pores or channels, but the search to identify these channels was long and tedious. As is often the case in science, the secret of the water channel was eventually discovered by chance in 1992 by Peter Agre and his colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, who were working on red blood cell membrane proteins...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607573/effects-of-radix-astragali-and-its-split-components-on-gene-expression-profiles-related-to-water-metabolism-in-rats-with-the-dampness-stagnancy-due-to-spleen-deficiency-syndrome
#13
Wen-Xiao Zhao, Ning Cui, Hai-Qiang Jiang, Xu-Ming Ji, Xiao-Chun Han, Bing-Bing Han, Tong Wang, Shi-Jun Wang
Radix Astragali (RA) with slight sweet and warm property is a significant "qi tonifying" herb; it is indicated for the syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency (DSSD). The purpose of this research was to explore effects of RA and its split components on gene expression profiles related to water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome for identifying components representing property and flavor of RA. The results indicated that RA and its split components, especially polysaccharides component, significantly increased the body weight and the urine volume and decreased the water load index of model rats...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607409/functional-characterization-of-aquaporin-like-genes-in-the-human-bed-bug-cimex-lectularius
#14
Hitoshi Tsujimoto, Joyce M Sakamoto, Jason L Rasgon
The bed bug Cimex lectularius is a blood-feeding re-emerging annoyance pest insect that has the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi under experimental laboratory conditions. Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channel proteins that are essential in biological organisms. C. lectularius are constantly exposed to water-related stress, suggesting that AQPs may offer novel control avenues. We identified and cloned four AQPs from C. lectularius, assessed tissue and lifestage-specific expression, and characterized biochemical functions in vitro and in vivo...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605495/green-tea-and-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-are-bactericidal-against-bacillus-anthracis
#15
Shane D Falcinelli, Maggie C Shi, Arthur M Friedlander, Jennifer Chua
Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is listed as a Category A biothreat agent by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The virulence of the organism is due to expression of two exotoxins and capsule, which interfere with host cellular signaling, alter host water homeostasis, and inhibit phagocytosis of the pathogen, respectively. Concerns regarding the past and possible future use of B. anthracis as a bioterrorism agent have resulted in an impetus to develop more effective protective measures and therapeutics...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603087/cysteine-rich-whey-protein-isolate-immunocal%C3%A2-ameliorates-deficits-in-the-gfap-hmox1-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#16
Wei Song, Ayda Tavitian, Marisa Cressatti, Carmela Galindez, Adrienne Liberman, Hyman M Schipper
Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder that features neural oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits. Oxidative stress is augmented in brain tissue of GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice which exhibit schizophrenia-relevant characteristics. The whey protein isolate, Immunocal® serves as a GSH precursor upon oral administration. In this study, we treated GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice daily with either Immunocal (33mg/ml drinking water) or equivalent concentrations of casein (control) between the ages of 5 and 6...
June 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603015/activation-of-a-ca-2-dependent-cation-conductance-with-properties-of-trpm2-by-reactive-oxygen-species-in-lens-epithelial-cells
#17
Susanne Keckeis, Laura Wernecke, Daniel J Salchow, Nadine Reichhart, Olaf Strauß
Ion channels are crucial for maintenance of ion homeostasis and transparency of the lens. The lens epithelium is the metabolically and electrophysiologically active cell type providing nutrients, ions and water to the lens fiber cells. Ca(2+)-dependent non-selective ion channels seem to play an important role for ion homeostasis. The aim of the study was to identify and characterize Ca(2+)- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent non-selective cation channels in human lens epithelial cells. RT-PCR revealed gene expression of the Ca(2+)-activated non-selective cation channels TRPC3, TRPM2, TRPM4 and Ano6 in both primary lens epithelial cells and the cell line HLE-B3, whereas TRPM5 mRNA was only found in HLE-B3 cells...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595274/antibiotics-in-16-day-old-broilers-temporarily-affect-microbial-and-immune-parameters-in-the-gut
#18
H J Wisselink, J B W J Cornelissen, D J Mevius, M A Smits, H Smidt, J M J Rebel
Animal health benefits from a stable intestinal homeostasis, for which proper development and functioning of the intestinal microbiota and immune system are essential. It has been established that changes in microbial colonization in early life (the first 2 wk post hatch) impacts the functioning of the adult gut and the associated crosstalk between microbiota and intestinal mucosal cells. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of the administration of antibiotics later in life (d 15 to 20 post hatch) on microbiota and immune parameters...
June 8, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593174/current-evidence-for-a-role-of-neuropeptides-in-the-regulation-of-autophagy
#19
REVIEW
Elisabetta Catalani, Clara De Palma, Cristiana Perrotta, Davide Cervia
Neuropeptides drive a wide diversity of biological actions and mediate multiple regulatory functions involving all organ systems. They modulate intercellular signalling in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as the cross talk among nervous and endocrine systems. Indeed, neuropeptides can function as peptide hormones regulating physiological homeostasis (e.g., cognition, blood pressure, feeding behaviour, water balance, glucose metabolism, pain, and response to stress), neuroprotection, and immunomodulation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587097/metabolomic-profiling-of-soybeans-glycine-max-l-reveals-the-importance-of-sugar-and-nitrogen-metabolism-under-drought-and-heat-stress
#20
Aayudh Das, Paul J Rushton, Jai S Rohila
Soybean is an important crop that is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially drought and heat stress. At molecular levels, reduced yields due to drought and heat stress can be seen as a result of alterations in metabolic homeostasis of vegetative tissues. At present an incomplete understanding of abiotic stress-associated metabolism and identification of associated metabolites remains a major gap in soybean stress research. A study with a goal to profile leaf metabolites under control conditions (28/24 °C), drought [28/24 °C, 10% volumetric water content (VWC)], and heat stress (43/35 °C) was conducted in a controlled environment...
May 25, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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