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Water homeostasys

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140297/a-proteomic-approach-to-investigate-the-drought-response-in-the-orphan-crop-eragrostis-tef
#1
Rizqah Kamies, Jill M Farrant, Zerihun Tadele, Gina Cannarozzi, Mohammed Suhail Rafudeen
The orphan crop, Eragrostis tef, was subjected to controlled drought conditions to observe the physiological parameters and proteins changing in response to dehydration stress. Physiological measurements involving electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and ultra-structural analysis showed tef plants tolerated water loss to 50% relative water content (RWC) before adverse effects in leaf tissues were observed. Proteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) mass spectrometry and appropriate database searching enabled the detection of 5727 proteins, of which 211 proteins, including a number of spliced variants, were found to be differentially regulated with the imposed stress conditions...
November 15, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134152/the-role-of-mef2-transcription-factors-in-dehydration-and-anoxia-survival-in-rana-sylvatica-skeletal-muscle
#2
Myriam P Hoyeck, Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
The wood frog (Rana sylvatica) can endure freezing of up to 65% of total body water during winter. When frozen, wood frogs enter a dormant state characterized by a cessation of vital functions (i.e., no heartbeat, blood circulation, breathing, brain activity, or movement). Wood frogs utilize various behavioural and biochemical adaptations to survive extreme freezing and component anoxia and dehydration stresses, including a global suppression of metabolic functions and gene expression. The stress-responsive myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) transcription factor family regulates the selective expression of genes involved in glucose transport, protein quality control, and phosphagen homeostasis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133124/proteomic-approaches-to-uncover-the-flooding-and-drought-stress-response-mechanisms-in-soybean
#3
REVIEW
Xin Wang, Setsuko Komatsu
Soybean is the important crop with abundant protein, vegetable oil, and several phytochemicals. With such predominant values, soybean is cultivated with a long history. However, flooding and drought stresses exert deleterious effects on soybean growth. The present review summarizes the morphological changes and affected events in soybean exposed to such extreme-water conditions. Sensitive organ in stressed soybean at different-developmental stages is presented based on protein profiles. Protein quality control and calcium homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum are discussed in soybean under both stresses...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129925/the-neural-basis-of-homeostatic-and-anticipatory-thirst
#4
REVIEW
Claire Gizowski, Charles W Bourque
Water intake is one of the most basic physiological responses and is essential to sustain life. The perception of thirst has a critical role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and if neglected or dysregulated can lead to life-threatening pathologies. Clear evidence suggests that the perception of thirst occurs in higher-order centres, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular cortex (IC), which receive information from midline thalamic relay nuclei. Multiple brain regions, notably circumventricular organs such as the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) and subfornical organ (SFO), monitor changes in blood osmolality, solute load and hormone circulation and are thought to orchestrate appropriate responses to maintain extracellular fluid near ideal set points by engaging the medial thalamic-ACC/IC network...
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126927/mechanisms-of-macular-edema-beyond-the-surface
#5
REVIEW
Alejandra Daruich, Alexandre Matet, Alexandre Moulin, Laura Kowalczuk, Michaël Nicolas, Alexandre Sellam, Pierre-Raphaël Rothschild, Samy Omri, Emmanuelle Gélizé, Laurent Jonet, Kimberley Delaunay, Yvonne De Kozak, Marianne Berdugo, Min Zhao, Patricia Crisanti, Francine Behar-Cohen
Macular edema consists of intra- or subretinal fluid accumulation in the macular region. It occurs during the course of numerous retinal disorders and can cause severe impairment of central vision. Major causes of macular edema include diabetes, branch and central retinal vein occlusion, choroidal neovascularization, posterior uveitis, postoperative inflammation and central serous chorioretinopathy. The healthy retina is maintained in a relatively dehydrated, transparent state compatible with optimal light transmission by multiple active and passive systems...
November 7, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121875/effect-of-short-term-diet-restriction-on-gene-expression-in-the-bovine-hypothalamus-using-next-generation-rna-sequencing-technology
#6
Daragh Matthews, Michael G Diskin, David A Kenny, Christopher J Creevey, Kate Keogh, Sinead M Waters
BACKGROUND: Negative energy balance (NEB) is an imbalance between energy intake and energy requirements for lactation and body maintenance affecting high-yielding dairy cows and is of considerable economic importance due to its negative impact on fertility and health in dairy herds. It is anticipated that the cow hypothalamus experiences extensive biochemical changes during the early post partum period in an effort to re-establish metabolic homeostasis. However, there is variation in the tolerance to NEB between individual cows...
November 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113748/roles-for-xenopus-aquaporin-3b-aqp3-l-during-gastrulation-fibrillar-fibronectin-and-tissue-boundary-establishment-in-the-dorsal-margin
#7
Jennifer Forecki, Daniel J Van Antwerp, Sean M Lujan, Christa S Merzdorf
Aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins are a large family of membrane channel proteins that allow rapid movement of water and small, uncharged solutes into and out of cells along concentration gradients. Recently, aquaporins have been gaining recognition for more complex biological roles than the regulation of cellular osmotic homeostasis. We have identified a specific expression pattern for Xenopus aqp3b (also called aqp3.L) during gastrulation, where it is localized to the sensorial (deep) layer of the blastocoel roof and dorsal margin...
November 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109733/plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-in-amelioration-of-salinity-stress-a-systems-biology-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Gayathri Ilangumaran, Donald L Smith
Salinity affects plant growth and is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity. It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting the knowledge gained towards crop improvement remain arduous. Harnessing the potential of beneficial microorganisms present in the rhizosphere is an alternative strategy for improving plant stress tolerance. This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106751/fast-na-k-pump-driven-steady-state-transcytolemmal-water-exchange-in-neuronal-tissue-a-study-of-rat-brain-cortical-cultures
#9
Ruiliang Bai, Charles S Springer, Dietmar Plenz, Peter J Basser
PURPOSE: Water homeostasis and transport play important roles in brain function (e.g., ion homeostasis, neuronal excitability, cell volume regulation, etc.). However, specific mechanisms of water transport across cell membranes in neuronal tissue have not been completely elaborated. METHODS: The kinetics of transcytolemmal water exchange were measured in neuronal tissue using simultaneous, real-time fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of perfused, active brain organotypic cortical cultures...
November 6, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105641/enhancement-of-memory-function-by-antioxidant-potential-of-nigella-sativa-l-oil-in-restrained-rats
#10
Sana Sadaf, Shaista Emad, Naveed Ali Siddiqui, Seemeen Ghafoor, Sarwat Yousuf, Bushra Jabeen, Saida Haider, Tahira Perveen
Stress is a vulnerable state to cellular homeostasis which leads to oxidative damage via free radical generation. The acute stress induces alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities to an extent which produce oxidative stress and causes certain pathological conditions. The use of Nigella sativa L. oil (NSO) in folk medicine has increased throughout the world for the prevention or treatment of various ailments because of potent antioxidant properties. In the present study, potential therapeutic effects of NSO on memory in both unrestrained and 2h restrained rats were observed...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103957/basolateral-cholesterol-depletion-alters-aquaporin-2-post-translational-modifications-and-disrupts-apical-plasma-membrane-targeting
#11
Hanne B Moeller, Cecilia Hvitfeldt Fuglsang, Cecilie Nøhr Pedersen, Robert A Fenton
Apical plasma membrane accumulation of the water channel Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in kidney collecting duct principal cells is critical for body water homeostasis. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of AQP2 is important for regulating AQP2 trafficking. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cholesterol in regulation of AQP2 PTM and in apical plasma membrane targeting of AQP2. Cholesterol depletion from the basolateral plasma membrane of a collecting duct cell line (mpkCCD14) using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) increased AQP2 ubiquitylation...
November 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097999/clostridium-butyricum-cgmcc0313-1-protects-against-autoimmune-diabetes-by-modulating-intestinal-immune-homeostasis-and-inducing-pancreatic-regulatory-t-cells
#12
Lingling Jia, Kai Shan, Li-Long Pan, Ninghan Feng, Zhuwu Lv, Yajun Sun, Jiahong Li, Chengfei Wu, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Julien Diana, Jia Sun, Yong Q Chen
Recent evidence indicates that indigenous Clostridium species induce colonic regulatory T cells (Tregs), and gut lymphocytes are able to migrate to pancreatic islets in an inflammatory environment. Thus, we speculate that supplementation with the well-characterized probiotics Clostridium butyricum CGMCC0313.1 (CB0313.1) may induce pancreatic Tregs and consequently inhibit the diabetes incidence in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. CB0313.1 was administered daily to female NOD mice from 3 to 45 weeks of age. The control group received an equal volume of sterile water...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097503/ryanodine-channel-complex-stabilizer-compound-s48168-arm210-as-a-disease-modifier-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-mice-proof-of-concept-study-and-independent-validation-of-efficacy
#13
Roberta Francesca Capogrosso, Paola Mantuano, Kitipong Uaesoontrachoon, Anna Cozzoli, Arcangela Giustino, Todd Dow, Sadish Srinivassane, Marina Filipovic, Christina Bell, Jack Vandermeulen, Ada Maria Massari, Michela De Bellis, Elena Conte, Sabata Pierno, Giulia Maria Camerino, Antonella Liantonio, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Annamaria De Luca
Muscle fibers lacking dystrophin undergo a long-term alteration of Ca(2+) homeostasis, partially caused by a leaky Ca(2+) release ryanodine (RyR) channel. S48168/ARM210, an RyR calcium release channel stabilizer (a Rycal compound), is expected to enhance the rebinding of calstabin to the RyR channel complex and possibly alleviate the pathologic Ca(2+) leakage in dystrophin-deficient skeletal and cardiac muscle. This study systematically investigated the effect of S48168/ARM210 on the phenotype of mdx mice by means of a first proof-of-concept, short (4 wk), phase 1 treatment, followed by a 12 wk treatment (phase 2) performed in parallel by 2 independent laboratories...
November 2, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095970/failed-recovery-of-glycemic-control-and-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-with-two-weeks-of-physical-inactivity-in-overweight-pre-diabetic-older-adults
#14
Chris McGlory, Mark T von Allmen, Tanner Stokes, Robert Given Morton, Amy J Hector, Briony A Lago, Amogelang R Raphenya, Brennan K Smith, Andrew G McArthur, Gregory R Steinberg, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
Background: Physical inactivity impairs insulin sensitivity, which is exacerbated with aging. We examined the impact of two weeks of acute inactivity and recovery on glycemic control, integrated rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in older men and women. Methods: Twenty-two overweight, pre-diabetic older adults (12 men, 10 women, 69 ± 4 yr) undertook 7 d of habitual activity (baseline; BL), step reduction (SR; <1000 steps .d-1 for 14 d), followed by 14d of recovery (RC)...
October 31, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093213/unexpected-connections-between-humidity-and-ion-transport-discovered-using-a-model-to-bridge-guard-cell-to-leaf-scales
#15
Yizhou Wang, Adrian Hills, Silvere Rm Vialet-Chabrand, Maria Papanatsiou, Howard Griffiths, Simon Rogers, Tracy Lawson, Virgilio Lew, Michael R Blatt
Stomatal movements depend on the transport and metabolism of osmotic solutes that drive reversible changes in guard cell volume and turgor. These processes are defined by a deep knowledge of the identities of the key transporters and of their biophysical and regulatory properties, and have been modelled successfully with quantitative kinetic detail at the cellular level. Transpiration of the leaf and canopy, by contrast, is described by quasi-linear, empirical relations for the inputs of atmospheric humidity, CO2, and light, but without connection to guard cell mechanics...
November 1, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091893/isoflurane-post-conditioning-down-regulates-expression-of-aquaporin-4-in-rats-with-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-is-possibly-related-to-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-smad1-5-8-signaling-pathway
#16
Min Yuan, Mingyue Ge, Jiangwen Yin, Zhigang Dai, Liping Xie, Yan Li, Xuejiao Liu, Li Peng, Guixing Zhang, Junqiang Si, Ketao Ma, Sheng Wang
AIM: Aquaporins (AQPs) are water-channels that play important roles in brain water homeostasis and cerebral edema induced by brain injury. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between AQP4, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway and isoflurane post-conditiong, which has effects on brain edema in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Cerebral I/R injury was induced in rats by using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model for 90min, followed by 24h of reperfusion...
October 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081249/environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-amine-functionalized-copper-nanoparticles-exhibit-different-mechanisms-of-bioactivity-in-fundulus-heteroclitus-in-fresh-and-brackish-water
#17
Merryl N Black, Elenor F Henry, Olivia A Adams, J Craig F Bennett, Tyson James MacCormack
The bioavailability of engineered nanomaterials should be limited in marine environments, but uptake and toxicity has been noted in marine fish and invertebrates, albeit at exposure doses far exceeding predicted environmental levels. We examined the bioactivity of amine functionalized copper nanoparticles (nCu; 5-10 nm core diameter) to the euryhaline killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, in fresh (FW) and brackish water (BW). Free copper dissolution was undetectable in either water type and nCu remained relatively well dispersed in BW, despite the high ionic strength...
October 30, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079191/a-novel-mitochondria-targeted-two-photon-fluorescent-probe-for-dynamic-and-reversible-detection-of-the-redox-cycles-between-peroxynitrite-and-glutathione
#18
Chunlong Sun, Wen Du, Peng Wang, Yang Wu, Baoqin Wang, Jun Wang, Wenjun Xie
Redox homeostasis is important for maintenance of normal physiological functions within cells. Redox state of cells is primarily a consequence of precise balance between levels of reducing equivalents and reactive oxygen species. Redox homeostasis between peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and glutathione (GSH) is closely associated with physiological and pathological processes, such as prolonged relaxation in vascular tissues and smooth muscle preparations, attenuation of hepatic necrosis, and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2...
October 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072367/reappraisal-of-metallothionein-clinical-implications-for-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#19
REVIEW
Yongsoo Park, Jian Zhang, Lu Cai
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are by-products of cellular physiological processes made from the metabolisms of intermediary nutrients. Although physiological defense mechanisms readily convert these species into water or urea, improper balance between their production and removal leads cells to experience oxidative stress (OS), which is harmful to cellular components. This may result in uncontrolled growth or ultimately to cell death. ROS/RNS are also closely related to the development of diabetes and its complications...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069580/nicotinamide-prevents-sweet-beverage-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-rats-by-regulating-the-g6pd-nadph-nadp-and-gsh-gssg-ratios-and-reducing-oxidative-and-inflammatory-stress
#20
Selene Ángeles Mejía, Luis Arturo Baiza Gutman, Clara Ortega Camarillo, Rafael Medina Navarro, Martha Catalina Sánchez Becerra, Leticia Damasio Santana, Miguel Cruz, Elizabeth Hernández Pérez, Margarita Díaz Flores
The disruption of redox state homeostasis, the overexpression of lipogenic transcription factors and enzymes, and the increase in lipogenic precursors induced by sweetened beverages are determinants of the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This study evaluated the action of nicotinamide (NAM) on the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and redox, oxidative, and inflammatory states in a model of nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis induced by high and chronic consumption of carbohydrates...
October 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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