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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822977/are-green-cities-healthy-and-equitable-unpacking-the-relationship-between-health-green-space-and-gentrification
#1
Helen V S Cole, Melisa Garcia Lamarca, James J T Connolly, Isabelle Anguelovski
While access and exposure to green spaces has been shown to be beneficial for the health of urban residents, interventions focused on augmenting such access may also catalyse gentrification processes, also known as green gentrification. Drawing from the fields of public health, urban planning and environmental justice, we argue that public health and epidemiology researchers should rely on a more dynamic model of community that accounts for the potential unintended social consequences of upstream health interventions...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822965/diabetes-increases-the-susceptibility-to-acute-kidney-injury-after-myocardial-infarction-through-augmented-activation-of-renal-toll-like-receptors-in-rats
#2
Kouhei Ohno, Atsushi Kuno, Hiromichi Murase, Shingo Muratsubaki, Takayuki Miki, Masaya Tanno, Toshiyuki Yano, Satoko Ishikawa, Tomohisa Yamashita, Tetsuji Miura
Acute kidney injury (AKI) after acute myocardial infarction (MI) worsens the prognosis of MI patients. Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor of AKI after MI, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we examined roles of renal toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the impact of DM on AKI after MI. MI was induced by coronary artery ligation in OLETF, a rat DM model, and LETO, non-diabetic controls. Sham-operated rats served as no-MI controls. Renal mRNA levels of TLR2 and MyD88 were significantly higher in sham-operated OLETF than in sham-operated LETO, though levels of TLR1, TLR3, and TRL4 were similar...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822806/pericardial-adipose-and-aromatase-a-new-translational-target-for-aging-obesity-and-arrhythmogenesis
#3
Gabriel B Bernasochi, Wah Chin Boon, Claire L Curl, Upasna Varma, Salvatore Pepe, Marianne Tare, Laura J Parry, Evdokia Dimitriadis, Stephen B Harrap, Chrishan J Nalliah, Jonathan M Kalman, Lea M D Delbridge, James R Bell
A correlation exists between the extent of pericardial adipose and atrial fibrillation (AF) risk, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Selected adipose depots express high levels of aromatase, capable of converting androgens to estrogens - no studies have investigated aromatase occurrence/expression regulation in pericardial adipose. The Women's Health Initiative reported that estrogen-only therapy in women elevated AF incidence, indicating augmented estrogenic influence may exacerbate cardiac vulnerability...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822637/porcine-dermis-patch-augmentation-of-supraspinatus-tendon-repairs-a-pilot-study-assessing-tendon-integrity-and-shoulder-function-2%C3%A2-years-after-arthroscopic-repair-in-patients-aged-60%C3%A2-years-or%C3%A2-older
#4
Matthias Flury, Dominik Rickenbacher, Christian Jung, Marco M Schneider, David Endell, Laurent Audigé
PURPOSE: To investigate the 2-year postoperative clinical and subjective outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) with xenologous porcine dermal patch augmentation compared with ARCR alone. METHODS: Patients aged 60 years or older with a complete supraspinatus (SSP) tendon tear underwent primary ARCR with a transosseous-equivalent technique. By use of a matched-pair comparative trial design, a consecutive series of 20 patients receiving additional xenologous porcine dermal patch augmentation (patch group) was matched by tear location with 20 patients who received ARCR only (control group)...
August 16, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822474/the-effect-of-augmented-feedback-and-expertise-on-spinal-manipulation-skills-an-experimental-study
#5
Mégane Pasquier, Charlène Cheron, Claude Dugas, Arnaud Lardon, Martin Descarreaux
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of augmented feedback and expertise on the performance and retention of basic motor learning spinal manipulation skills. METHODS: A total of 103 chiropractic students with various training expertise were recruited for the study. Participants were evaluated at baseline, immediately after trials of augmented feedback practice and 1 week later. During all 3 assessments, students were asked to perform several trials of the same spinal manipulation, for which the maximum preload force, onset of thrust, thrust duration, force and peak force, thrust duration, rate of force application, and any drop in preload force were calculated...
July 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822306/xyloglucan-endotransglucosylase-hydrolases-xths-are-inactivated-by-binding-to-glass-and-cellulosic-surfaces-and-released-in-active-form-by-a-heat-stable-polymer-from-cauliflower-florets
#6
Sandra C Sharples, Tu C Nguyen-Phan, Stephen C Fry
Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity, which cuts and re-joins hemicellulose chains in the plant cell wall, contributing to wall assembly and growth regulation, is the major activity of XTH proteins. During purification, XTHs often lose XET activity which, however, is restored by treatment with certain cold-water-extractable, heat-stable polymers (CHPs), e.g. from cauliflower florets. It was not known whether the XTH-activating factor (XAF) present in CHPs works by promoting (e.g. allosterically) XET activity or by re-solubilising sequestered XTH proteins...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822228/computerized-neurocognitive-interventions-in-the-context-of-the-brain-training-controversy
#7
Rebeca Isabel García-Betances, María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María T Arredondo
This article presents, in the form of an analytic narrative review, a complete picture of the state-of-the-art, challenges, and perspectives in the field of information and communication technology (ICT)-based neurocognitive interventions for older adults. The narrative particularly focuses on applications aimed at mild cognitive impairment and similar age-related cognitive deficits, which are analyzed in the context of the brain training controversy. Clarifying considerations are provided about the nature and present extent of the brain training debate, regarding the possible influence it has on the support received by research and development initiatives dealing with innovative computerized neurocognitive interventions...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822218/locally-produced-xenin-and-the-neurotensinergic-system-in-pancreatic-islet-function-and-%C3%AE-cell-survival
#8
Dawood Khan, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Victor A Gault, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin
Modulation of neuropeptide receptors is important for pancreatic β-cell function. Here, islet distribution and effects of the neurotensin (NT) receptor modulators, xenin and NT, was examined. Xenin, but not NT, significantly improved glucose disposal and insulin secretion, in mice. However, both peptides stimulated insulin secretion from rodent β-cells at 5.6 mM glucose, with xenin having similar insulinotropic actions at 16.7 mM glucose. In contrast, NT inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion. Similar observations were made in human 1...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822217/using-a-novel-technology-for-disaster-staff-notification
#9
Stephen C Morris, Janice K Pelley, Steven H Mitchell
Notification of backup staff and determining their ability to augment frontline staff is a major component of any disaster plan. However, the communication and organization of this effort has many challenges. These include communication system overload, the disaster setting, disrupted transportation, and staffing impacts on normal operations. An optimal disaster notification system must have the ability to be modified to include all hazards and the unique environment in which the plan is being made. This article highlights a unique disaster staff notification system using a novel technology, an outside administrator, and a multilayer system of redundant communication...
January 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822104/comparison-of-the-toxic-effects-of-quinolinic-acid-and-3-nitropropionic-acid-in-c-elegans-involvement-of-the-skn-1-pathway
#10
Ilan Kotlar, Aline Colonnello, María Fernanda Aguilera-González, Daiana Silva Avila, María Eduarda de Lima, Rodolfo García-Contreras, Alma Ortíz-Plata, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares, Michael Aschner, Abel Santamaría
The tryptophan metabolite, quinolinic acid (QUIN), and the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) are two important tools for toxicological research commonly used in neurotoxic models of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, energy depletion, and neuronal cell death in mammals. However, their toxic properties have yet to be explored in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) for the establishment of novel, simpler, complementary, alternative, and predictive neurotoxic model of mammalian neurotoxicity...
August 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822036/filling-the-gaps-in-the-classification-of-the-digenea-carus-1863-systematic-position-of-the-proterodiplostomidae-dubois-1936-within-the-superfamily-diplostomoidea-poirier-1886-inferred-from-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-dna-sequences
#11
David Iván Hernández-Mena, Martín García-Varela, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León
The Diplostomida Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray & Littlewood, 2003 is the less diverse order of the two orders within the subclass Digenea Carus, 1863 and is currently classified into three superfamilies, i.e. Brachylaimoidea Joyeux & Foley, 1930, Diplostomoidea Poirier, 1886, and Schistosomatoidea Stiles & Hassall, 1898. Although the suprageneric-level relationships have been elucidated with the use of molecular markers, the lack of representation of some groups obscure the phylogenetic relationships among families, rendering the classification unstable...
August 18, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821988/presentation-and-management-of-symptomatic-central-bone-cement-embolization
#12
Ahmed Samir Barakat, Tamer Owais, Mohamed Alhashash, Mootaz Shousha, Hesham El Saghir, Bernward Lauer, Heinrich Boehm
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: With more cement augmentation procedures done, the occurrence of serious complications is also expected to rise. Symptomatic central cement embolization is a rare but very serious complication. Moreover, the pathophysiology and treatment of intrathoracic cement embolism remain controversial. PURPOSE: In this case series, we are trying to identify various presentations and suggest our emergent management scheme for symptomatic central cement embolization...
August 18, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821936/minimally-invasive-plate-augmentation-in-the-treatment-of-long-bone-non-unions
#13
Ki-Chul Park, Chang-Wug Oh, Joon-Woo Kim, Kyeong-Hyeon Park, Jong-Keon Oh, Il-Hyung Park, Hee-Soo Kyung, Jeong Heo
INTRODUCTION: Exchange nailing is most acceptable for treating hypertrophic non-union of the long bones, requiring the removal of previously fixed implant. However, its main effect of mechanical stabilization is controversial in non-isthmal area. We hypothesized that minimally invasive plate augmentation over the non-union site may have a better option, without the need of bone grafting or removing pre-existing implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with hypertrophic non-union of the long bones between 2010 and 2014 on radiography who previously underwent intramedullary (IM) nailing or plate osteosynthesis for long-bone fractures were included...
August 18, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821673/unc-18-and-tomosyn-antagonistically-control-synaptic-vesicle-priming-downstream-of-unc-13-in-c-elegans
#14
Seungmee Park, Na-Ryum Bin, Bin Yu, Raymond Wong, Ewa Sitarska, Kyoko Sugita, Ke Ma, Junjie Xu, Chi-Wei Tien, Arash Algouneh, Ekaterina Turlova, Siyan Wang, Pranay Siriya, Waleed Shahid, Lorraine Kalia, Zhong-Ping Feng, Philippe P Monnier, Hong-Shuo Sun, Mei Zhen, Shangbang Gao, Josep Rizo, Shuzo Sugita
Munc18-1/UNC-18 is believed to prime SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, yet the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. Here, we examined how potential gain-of-function mutations of Munc18-1/UNC-18 affect locomotory behavior and synaptic transmission, and how Munc18-1-mediated priming is related to Munc13-1/UNC-13 and Tomosyn/TOM-1, positive and negative SNARE regulators, respectively. We show that a Munc18-1(P335A)/UNC-18(P334A) mutation leads to significantly increased locomotory activity and acetylcholine release in C...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821633/cell-autonomous-cytotoxicity-of-type-i-interferon-response-via-induction-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#15
Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Athanasios G Papavassiliou, Hippokratis Kiaris
The interaction of IFN with specific membrane receptors that transduce death-inducing signals is considered to be the principle mechanism of IFN-induced cytotoxicity. In this study, the classic non-cell-autonomous cytotoxicity of IFN was augmented by cell-autonomous mechanisms that operated independently of the interaction of IFN with its receptors. Cells primed to produce IFN by 5-azacytidine (5-aza) underwent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The chemical chaperones tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) and 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), as well as the iron chelator ciclopirox (CPX), which reduces ER stress, alleviated the cytotoxicity of 5-aza...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821596/hypoxia-decreases-creatine-uptake-in-cardiomyocytes-while-creatine-supplementation-enhances-hif-activation
#16
Lucia Santacruz, Antonio Jose Luis Arciniegas, Marcus Darrabie, Jose G Mantilla, Rebecca M Baron, Dawn E Bowles, Rajashree Mishra, Danny O Jacobs
Creatine (Cr), phosphocreatine (PCr), and creatine kinases (CK) comprise an energy shuttle linking ATP production in mitochondria with cellular consumption sites. Myocytes cannot synthesize Cr: these cells depend on uptake across the cell membrane by a specialized creatine transporter (CrT) to maintain intracellular Cr levels. Hypoxia interferes with energy metabolism, including the activity of the creatine energy shuttle, and therefore affects intracellular ATP and PCr levels. Here, we report that exposing cultured cardiomyocytes to low oxygen levels rapidly diminishes Cr transport by decreasing Vmax and Km Pharmacological activation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) abrogated the reduction in Cr transport caused by hypoxia...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821477/tgf-%C3%AE-induced-intracellular-pai-1-is-responsible-for-retaining-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-niche
#17
Takashi Yahata, Abd Aziz Ibrahim, Yukari Muguruma, Mesut Eren, Alexander M Shaffer, Nobuo Watanabe, Satoko Kaneko, Tetsuo Nakabayashi, Takashi Dan, Noriaki Hirayama, Douglas E Vaughan, Toshio Miyata, Kiyoshi Ando
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in the supportive stromal niche in bone marrow (BM); when needed, however, they are rapidly mobilized into the circulation, suggesting that HSPCs are intrinsically highly motile but are usually stayed in the niche. We questioned what determines the motility of HSPCs. Here we show that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced intracellular plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 activation is responsible for keeping HSPCs in the BM niche. We found that the expression of PAI-1, a downstream target of TGF-β-signaling, was selectively augmented in niche-residing HSPCs...
August 18, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820830/discussion-on-intraoperative-comparison-of-anatomical-versus-round-implants-in-breast-augmentation-a-randomized-controlled-trial-plast-reconstruct-surg-139-587-2017
#18
Lesley R Bouwer, Hieronymus P Stevens, Berend van der Lei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820809/reply-discussion-on-intraoperative-comparison-of-anatomical-versus-round-implants-in-breast-augmentation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
David Hidalgo, Andrew Weinstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820747/involvement-of-hyperglycemia-in-the-development-of-platelet-procoagulant-response-the-role-of-aldose-reductase-and-platelet-swelling
#20
Tomasz Rusak, Tomasz Misztal, Malgorzata Rusak, Justyna Branska-Januszewska, Marian Tomasiak
: Rise in mean platelet volume (MPV) has been demonstrated to be associated with increased platelet reactivity. In diabetes patients, augmented MPV was proposed to contribute to increased risk of thrombotic complications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether under hyperglycemic conditions, aldose reductase (AR)-mediated sorbitol formation and associated rise in cell volume, which subsequently results in platelet hyperactivation. Platelets were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers and 13 patients with diabetes...
September 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
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