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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151054/effect-of-ephedrine-and-phenylephrine-on-brain-oxygenation-and-microcirculation-in-anaesthetised-patients-with-cerebral-tumours-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Klaus Ulrik Koch, Anna Tietze, Joel Aanerud, Gorm von Öettingen, Niels Juul, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen, Lone Nikolajsen, Leif Østergaard, Mads Rasmussen
INTRODUCTION: During brain tumour surgery, vasopressor drugs are commonly administered to increase mean arterial blood pressure with the aim of maintaining sufficient cerebral perfusion pressure. Studies of the commonly used vasopressors show that brain oxygen saturation is reduced after phenylephrine administration, but unaltered by ephedrine administration. These findings may be explained by different effects of phenylephrine and ephedrine on the cerebral microcirculation, in particular the capillary transit-time heterogeneity, which determines oxygen extraction efficacy...
November 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149961/practice-variation-in-the-immediate-postoperative-care-of-pediatric-kidney-transplantation-a-national-survey
#2
S Abu-Sultaneh, M J Hobson, A C Wilson, W C Goggins, M E Nitu, R Lutfi
INTRODUCTION: Advances in organ allocation, surgical technique, immunosuppression, and long-term follow-up have led to a significant improvement in kidney transplant outcomes. Although there are clear recommendations for several aspects of kidney transplant management, there are no pediatric-specific guidelines for immediate postoperative care. The aim of this survey is to examine practice variations in the immediate postoperative care of pediatric kidney transplant patients. METHODS: We surveyed medical directors of Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI)-affiliated pediatric intensive care units regarding center-specific immediate postoperative management of pediatric kidney transplantation...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149868/can-high-flow-nasal-cannula-reduce-the-rate-of-reintubation-in-adult-patients-after-extubation-a-meta-analysis
#3
Yue-Nan Ni, Jian Luo, He Yu, Dan Liu, Bin-Miao Liang, Rong Yao, Zong-An Liang
BACKGROUND: The effects of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) on adult patients after extubation remain controversial. We aimed to further determine the effectiveness of HFNC in comparison to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and conventional oxygen therapy (COT). METHODS: The Pubmed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails (CENTRAL) as well as the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) Web of Science were searched for all the controlled study comparing HFNC with NIPPV and COT in adult patients after extubation...
November 17, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149236/mutations-affecting-glycinergic-neurotransmission-in-hyperekplexia-increase-pain-sensitivity
#4
Pascal Henri Vuilleumier, Raphael Fritsche, Jürg Schliessbach, Bernhard Schmitt, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Michele Curatolo
Inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord use glycine and GABA for fast inhibitory neurotransmission. While there is abundant research on these inhibitory pain pathways in animal models, their relevance in humans remains unclear, largely due to the limited possibility to manipulate selectively these pathways in humans. Hyperekplexia is a rare human disease that is caused by loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding for glycine receptors and glycine transporters. In the present study, we tested whether hyperekplexia patients display altered pain perception or central pain modulation compared with healthy subjects...
November 15, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149189/perioperative-body-weight-change-is-associated-with-in-hospital-mortality-in-cardiac-surgical-patients-with-postoperative-acute-kidney-injury
#5
Chih-Chung Shiao, Ya-Ting Huang, Tai-Shuan Lai, Tao-Min Huang, Jian-Jhong Wang, Chun-Te Huang, Pei-Chen Wu, Che-Hsiung Wu, I-Jung Tsai, Li-Jung Tseng, Chih-Hsien Wang, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Kwan-Dun Wu, Vin-Cent Wu
BACKGROUND: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is common following cardiac surgery (CS). Body weight (BW) may be an amenable variable by representing the summation of the nutritional and the fluid status. However, the predictive role of perioperative BW changes in CS patients with severe postoperative AKI is never explored. This study aimed to evaluate this association. METHODS: This study was conducted using a prospectively collected multicenter cohort, NSARF (National Taiwan University Hospital Study Group on Acute Renal Failure) database...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149184/health-effects-of-saturated-and-trans-fatty-acid-intake-in-children-and-adolescents-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Lisa Te Morenga, Jason M Montez
BACKGROUND: Elevated cholesterol has been linked to cardiovascular disease in adults and preclinical markers of atherosclerosis in children, thus reducing saturated (SFA) and trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake from an early age may help to reduce cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence for health effects associated with reducing SFA and TFA intake in free-living children, adolescents and young adults between 2 to 19 years of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148586/a-dynamic-ultrasound-simulation-of-a-pulsating-three-layered-cca-for-validation-of-2d-wall-motion-and-blood-velocity-estimation-algorithms
#7
Xiao Hu, Yufeng Zhang, Guanghui Cai, Kexin Zhang, Li Deng, Lian Gao, Suya Han, Jianhua Chen
PURPOSE: A dynamic ultrasound simulation model for the common carotid artery (CCA) with three arterial layers for validation of 2D wall motion and blood velocity estimation algorithms is proposed in present study. This model describes layers with not only characteristics of echo distributions conforming to clinical ones, but also varying thicknesses, axial and radial displacements with pulsatile blood pressure during a cardiac cycle. METHODS: The modeling process is as follows: first, a geometrical model according with the clinical structure size of a CCA is built based on the preset layer thicknesses and the diameter of lumen...
November 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148180/dna-methylation-in-the-central-and-efferent-limbs-of-the-chemo-reflex-requires-carotid-body-neural-activity
#8
Jayasri Nanduri, Ying-Jie Peng, Ning Wang, Shakil A Khan, Gregg L Semenza, Nanduri R Prabhakar
Long-term exposure to intermittent hypoxia (LT-IH; 30 days), simulating blood O2 profiles during sleep apnea, has been shown to repress anti-oxidant enzyme (AOE) gene expression by DNA methylation in the carotid body (CB) reflex pathway, resulting in persistent elevation of plasma catecholamine levels and blood pressure. The present study examined the mechanisms by which LT-IH induces DNA methylation. Adult rats exposed to LT-IH showed elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the CB, nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and adrenal medulla (AM), which represent the central and efferent limbs of the CB reflex, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148061/endocannabinoids-modulate-gq-11-protein-coupled-receptor-agonist-induced-vasoconstriction-via-a-negative-feedback-mechanism
#9
REVIEW
Olga Karpińska, Marta Baranowska-Kuczko, Monika Kloza, Hanna Kozłowska
OBJECTIVES: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system centrally and peripherally regulates cardiovascular parameters, including blood pressure, in health and disease. The relationship between Gq/11 protein-coupled receptor activation, regulation of eCBs release (mainly 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and subsequent CB1 receptor activation was initially observed in the central nervous system. Here, we review the latest findings from systemic physiological studies which include for the first time data from pulmonary arteries...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148010/experimental-study-on-the-chemico-physical-interaction-between-a-two-component-cyanoacrylate-glue-and-the-material-of-piccs
#10
Francesca Di Puccio, Daniela Giacomarro, Lorenza Mattei, Mauro Pittiruti, Giancarlo Scoppettuolo
INTRODUCTION: The use of cyanoacrylate glue as sealant on the exit site of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) may offer some important clinical advantages. However, concerns exist about the potential interaction between cyanoacrylate and the material of the catheter itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of damage to the catheter secondary to a long-term contact with a two-component skin glue (N-butyl + octyl cyanoacrylate). METHODS: Twelve PICCs of different brands and types were selected (11 made of polyurethane and one made of silicon)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145926/corrigendum-to-increased-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-but-decreased-total-adiponectin-and-kisspeptin-in-central-precocious-puberty-compared-with-aged-matched-prepubertal-girls
#11
Chantacha Sitticharoon, Maynart Sukharomana, Supawadee Likitmaskul, Malika Churintaraphan, Pailin Maikaew
The aim of the present study was to compare serum leptin, kisspeptin, total adiponectin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels between girls with central precocious puberty (CPP; n=26, 7-9.5 years old) and age-matched controls (n=29) including or excluding obese girls. Leptin and NPY levels were comparable between CPP and control girls. Kisspeptin levels were lower in the CPP than control group, and were positively correlated with oestrogen in the control group and with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the CPP group...
November 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145824/observations-on-significant-hemodynamic-changes-caused-by-a-high-concentration-of-epidurally-administered-ropivacaine-correlation-and-prediction-study-of-stroke-volume-variation-and-central-venous-pressure-in-thoracic-epidural-anesthesia
#12
Jeong-Min Hong, Hyeon Jeong Lee, Young-Jae Oh, Ah Rhem Cho, Hyae Jin Kim, Do-Won Lee, Wang-Seok Do, Jae-Young Kwon, Haekyu Kim
BACKGROUND: Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) exacerbates hypotension due to peripheral vasodilator effects following the use of general anesthetics. This study aimed to compare the hemodynamic changes caused by three different concentrations of epidural ropivacaine and to evaluate the performance of the stroke-volume variation (SVV) and central venous pressure (CVP) during TEA with general anesthesia. METHODS: A total of 120 patients were administered 8 mL of ropivacaine solution via epidural injection, following randomization into one of three groups based on the concentration of ropivacaine in the study solution: 0...
November 16, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145576/different-filling-patterns-of-the-choriocapillaris-in-fluorescein-and-indocyanine-green-angiography-in-primate-eyes-under-elevated-intraocular-pressure
#13
Naoto Hanyuda, Hideo Akiyama, Yukitoshi Shimoda, Ryo Mukai, Morihiko Sano, Yoichiro Shinohara, Shoji Kishi
Purpose: To investigate the hemodynamics of the choriocapillaris in primate eyes under elevated intraocular pressure. Methods: Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and fluorescein angiography (FA) were performed in two monkeys after elevation of the intraocular pressure (IOP) to 35 and 60 mm Hg. Results: ICGA and FA showed no perfusion delays in the choriocapillaris at 35 mm Hg. The slow dye filling at 60 mm Hg made it possible to observe the early phase angiography sequence...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145495/regulatory-mechanism-of-ccn2-production-by-serotonin-5-ht-via-5-ht2a-and-5-ht2b-receptors-in-chondrocytes
#14
Ayaka Hori, Takashi Nishida, Shogo Takashiba, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) is recognized as a neurotransmitter in the central nerve system and as a regulator of systemic blood pressure in the peripheral tissues. Recently, it was reported that 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2Rs) were expressed in cartilage tissues lacking both vessels and neurons, suggesting possible novel functions of 5-HT during cartilage development and regeneration. Our previous data indicated that CCN family protein 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) plays a central role in cartilage development and regeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145486/geography-of-current-and-future-global-mammal-extinction-risk
#15
Ana D Davidson, Kevin T Shoemaker, Ben Weinstein, Gabriel C Costa, Thomas M Brooks, Gerardo Ceballos, Volker C Radeloff, Carlo Rondinini, Catherine H Graham
Identifying which species are at greatest risk, what makes them vulnerable, and where they are distributed are central goals for conservation science. While knowledge of which factors influence extinction risk is increasingly available for some taxonomic groups, a deeper understanding of extinction correlates and the geography of risk remains lacking. Here, we develop a predictive random forest model using both geospatial and mammalian species' trait data to uncover the statistical and geographic distributions of extinction correlates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143164/upregulation-of-myelin-gene-expression-by-a-physically-modified-saline-via-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-mediated-activation-of-creb-implications-for-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Malabendu Jana, Supurna Ghosh, Kalipada Pahan
An increase in central nervous system (CNS) remyelination and a decrease in CNS inflammation are important steps to halt the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). RNS60 is a bioactive aqueous solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Recently we have demonstrated that RNS60 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we describe promyelinating property of RNS60. RNS60, but not normal saline (NS), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) or PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), stimulated the expression of myelin-specific genes and proteins (myelin basic protein, MBP; myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, MOG and proteolipid protein, PLP) in primary mouse oligodendroglia and mixed glial cells...
November 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143123/recovery-of-the-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-and-vascular-system-after-maximal-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-recreational-athletes
#17
Heidi Weberruss, Johannes Maucher, Renate Oberhoffer, Jan Müller
OBJECTIVE: The body's adaptation to physical exercise is modulated by sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagal) branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation of the heart, is a proxy measure for ANS activity, whereas blood pressure (BP) is an indicator for cardiovascular function. Impaired vagal activity and lower BP is already described after exercise. However, inconsistent results exist about how long vagal recovery takes and how long post-exercise hypotension persists...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141540/polyphenols-antioxidants-and-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#18
Rosa Maria Bruno, Lorenzo Ghiadoni
BACKGROUND: A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. METHODS: This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141391/-research-updates-on-glaucoma-after-congenital-cataract-surgery
#19
M R Yu, Y Luo
Postoperative glaucoma is one of the most common complications after congenital cataract surgery and an important cause of unsatisfactory long-term visual acuity rehabilitation. Recently, the diagnostic criteria of glaucoma after congenital cataract surgery have been gradually complemented; the measurement of intraocular pressure is improved and the follow-up is standardized. The risk factors of glaucoma after congenital cataract surgery include age at surgery, ocular abnormalities and central corneal thickness, some of which still remain controversial...
November 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141380/-the-analysis-of-anesthetic-management-for-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-associated-inferior-vena-cava-tumor-thrombus
#20
H Zeng, X Y Rong, Y Wang, X Y Guo
Objective: To explore the key points of anesthetic management for renal cell carcinoma combined with inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombus. Methods: Twenty-seven cases of renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombus underwent radical nephrectomy and inferior caval venous thrombectomy were reviewed retrospectively during January 2014 to January 2017 in our hospital.Analyzed data includs demographics, classification of tumor, perioperative anesthetic management and monitoring approaches, IVC clamping time , vital signs during cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB), estimated blood loss (EBL), usage of blood products, hospitalization time and ICU time , as well as postoperative outcomes...
November 14, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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