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eukaryotic gene regulation

Alberto Lopez-Ezquerra, Andreas Mitschke, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Gerrit Joop
BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are obligate parasites that possess some of the smallest eukaryotic genomes. Several insect species are susceptible to infections by microsporidian parasites. Paranosema whitei frequently infects young larvae of Tribolium castaneum and obligately kills the host whereupon transmission to subsequent hosts is accomplished via spores. P. whitei infection results in developmental arrest of T. castaneum, preventing larvae from pupation. The mechanisms underlying P...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Francisco M Gutierrez-Mariscal, Elena M Yubero-Serrano, Jose M Villalba, Jose Lopez-Miranda
Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is a ubiquitous molecule present in all eukaryotic organisms whose principal role in the cell is related to its participation in the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. CoQ 10 plays a major role in the control of cell redox status, and both the amount and functionality of this molecule have been related to the regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. Numerous reports can be found discussing the implications of CoQ 10 supplementation in human studies and clinical trials related to aging...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Sousuke Imamura, Yuhta Nomura, Tokiaki Takemura, Imran Pancha, Keiko Taki, Kazuki Toguchi, Yuzuru Tozawa, Kan Tanaka
Chloroplasts are plant organelles that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. Chloroplast biogenesis depends upon chloroplast ribosomes and their translational activity. However, regulation of chloroplast ribosome biogenesis remains an important unanswered question. In this study, we found that inhibition of target of rapamycin (TOR), a general eukaryotic checkpoint kinase, results in a decline in chloroplast ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Upon TOR inhibition, transcriptomics and other analyses revealed increased expression of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast RelA-SpoT homolog (RSH) gene (CmRSH4b), which encodes a homolog of the guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate (ppGpp) synthetases that modulate rRNA synthesis in bacteria...
February 14, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ronald C Wek
A central mechanism regulating translation initiation in response to environmental stress involves phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α causes inhibition of global translation, which conserves energy and facilitates reprogramming of gene expression and signaling pathways that help to restore protein homeostasis. Coincident with repression of protein synthesis, many gene transcripts involved in the stress response are not affected or are even preferentially translated in response to increased eIF2α phosphorylation by mechanisms involving upstream open reading frames (uORFs)...
February 12, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Yeonji Chang, Won-Ki Huh
Post-transcriptional regulation is an important mechanism for modulating gene expression and is performed by numerous mRNA-binding proteins. To understand the mechanisms underlying post-transcriptional regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation status of 32 mRNA-binding proteins under glucose deprivation conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 17 glucose-sensitive phosphoproteins and signal pathways implicated in their phosphorylation. Notably, phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) was regulated by both the Snf1/AMPK pathway and the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) pathway...
February 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Chenpeng Xiao, Qilin Yu, Bing Zhang, Jianrong Li, Dan Zhang, Mingchun Li
AIM: In eukaryotes, the nuclear export of mRNAs is essential for gene expression and regulations of numerous cellular processes. This study aimed to identify the mRNA export factor Sac3 in Candida albicans. MATERIALS & METHODS: A sac3Δ/Δ mutant was obtained using PCR-mediated homologous recombination. RESULTS: Disruption of SAC3 caused abnormal accumulation of mRNA in the nuclei. Further investigations revealed that sac3Δ/Δ mutant exhibited a severely growth defect, which was related to abnormal aggregation of microtubules...
February 13, 2018: Future Microbiology
Shi-Lung Lin, Shin-Ju E Chang, Shao-Yao Ying
Transgenic animal models are valuable tools for testing gene functions and drug mechanisms in vivo. They are also the best similitude for a human body for etiological and pathological research of diseases. All pharmaceutically developed medicines must be proven to be safe and effective in animals before approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in clinical trials. To this end, the transgenic animal models of diseases serve as the front line of drug evaluation. However, there is currently no transgenic animal model for microRNA (miRNA)-related research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Luigi Donato, Placido Bramanti, Concetta Scimone, Carmela Rinaldi, Rosalia D'Angelo, Antonina Sidoti
Deep analysis of regulative mechanisms of transcription and translation in eukaryotes could improve knowledge of many genetic pathologies such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). New layers of complexity have recently emerged with the discovery that 'junk' DNA is transcribed and, among these, miRNAs have assumed a preponderant role. We compared changes in the expression of miRNAs obtained from whole transcriptome analyses, between two groups of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, one untreated and the other exposed to the oxidant agent oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), examining four time points (1, 2, 4 and 6 h)...
February 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Caia D S Duncan, María Rodríguez-López, Phil Ruis, Jürg Bähler, Juan Mata
Eukaryotes respond to amino acid starvation by enhancing the translation of mRNAs encoding b-ZIP family transcription factors (GCN4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ATF4 in mammals), which launch transcriptional programs to counter this stress. This pathway involves phosphorylation of the eIF2 translation factor by Gcn2-protein kinases and is regulated by upstream ORFs (uORFs) in the GCN4/ATF4 5' leaders. Here, we present evidence that the transcription factors that mediate this response are not evolutionarily conserved...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stefan J Tekel, Daniel A Vargas, Lusheng Song, Joshua LaBear, Michael R Caplan, Karmella A Haynes
Fusion proteins that specifically interact with biochemical marks on chromosomes represent a new class of synthetic transcriptional regulators that decode cell state information rather than DNA sequences. In multicellular organisms, information relevant to cell state, tissue identity, and oncogenesis is often encoded as biochemical modifications of histones, which are bound to DNA in eukaryotic nuclei and regulate gene expression states. We have previously reported the development and validation of the "Polycomb-based transcription factor" (PcTF), a fusion protein that recognizes histone modifications through a protein-protein interaction between its polycomb chromodomain (PCD) motif and trimethylated lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) at genomic sites...
February 12, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Fan Xu, Tony Kuo, Yenny Rosli, Mao-Sen Liu, Limin Wu, Long-Fang Oliver Chen, Jennifer C Fletcher, Zinmay Renee Sung, Li Pu
Polycomb Group (PcG) and trithorax Group (trxG) proteins have been shown to act antagonistically to epigenetically regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. The trxG proteins counteract PcG-mediated floral repression in Arabidopsis, but their roles in other developmental processes are poorly understood. We investigated the interactions between the trxG genes, ARABIDOPSIS HOMOLOG OF TRITHORAX1 (ATX1) and ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1), and the PcG gene EMBRYONIC FLOWER 1 (EMF1) during early development. Unexpectedly, we found that mutations in the trxG genes failed to rescue the early flowering phenotype of emf1 mutants...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Plant
Leonard Breindel, David S Burz, Alexander Shekhtman
A synopsis of in-cell NMR spectroscopic approaches to study interaction proteomics in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is presented. We describe the use of in-cell NMR spectroscopy to resolve high resolution protein structures, discuss methodologies for determining and analyzing high and low affinity protein-target structural interactions, including intrinsically disordered proteins, and detail important functional interactions that result from these interactions. SIGNIFICANCE: The ultimate goal of structural and biochemical research is to understand how macromolecular interactions give rise to and regulate biological activity in living cells...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Gengyang Shen, Hui Ren, Qi Shang, Ting Qiu, Xiang Yu, Zhida Zhang, Jinjing Huang, Wenhua Zhao, Yuzhuo Zhang, De Liang, Xiaobing Jiang
Autophagy takes part in regulating the eukaryotic cells function and the progression of numerous diseases, but its clinical utility has not been fully developed yet. Recently, mounting evidences highlight an important correlation between autophagy and bone homeostasis, mediated by osteoclasts, osteocytes, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts, and autophagy plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). The combinations of autophagy activators/inhibitors with anti-GIOP first-line drugs or some new autophagy-based manipulators, such as regulation of B cell lymphoma 2 family proteins and caspase-dependent clearance of autophagy-related gene proteins, are likely to be the promising approaches for GIOP clinical treatments...
February 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Yan Wang, Yuanpeng Xu, Yujing Sun, Huibin Wang, Jiaming Qi, Bowen Wan, Wenwu Ye, Yachun Lin, Yuanyuan Shao, Suomeng Dong, Brett M Tyler, Yuanchao Wang
Activation of innate immunity by membrane-localized receptors is conserved across eukaryotes. Plant genomes contain hundreds of such receptor-like genes and those encoding proteins with an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain represent the largest family. Here, we develop a high-throughput approach to study LRR receptor-like genes on a genome-wide scale. In total, 257 tobacco rattle virus-based constructs are generated to target 386 of the 403 identified LRR receptor-like genes in Nicotiana benthamiana for silencing...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Huijun Shi, Qiang Fu, Shengnan Li, Xinyan Hu, Ruixin Tian, Gang Yao, Hongqiong Zhao, Jinquan Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous ∼22 nt noncoding RNAs that control the translation initiation and stability of target genes in a sequence-specific manner and, thus, play important regulatory roles in animals and plants. Homologs of Dom34, called Pelota or PELO, are broadly conserved in eukaryotes and archaea. Biochemical and genetic studies indicate that eukaryotic Dom34/Pelota plays an important role in cell division, differentiation of germline stem cells, and stem cell self-renewal by controlling the expression of specific genes at the translational level...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Yongfeng Jin, Haiyang Dong, Yang Shi, Lina Bian
Pre-mRNA alternative splicing is an important mechanism used to expand protein diversity in higher eukaryotes, and mutually exclusive splicing is a specific type of alternative splicing in which only one of the exons in a cluster is included in functional transcripts. The most extraordinary example of this is the Drosophila melanogaster Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule gene (Dscam), which potentially encodes 38,016 different isoforms through mutually exclusive splicing. Mutually exclusive splicing is a unique and challenging model that can be used to elucidate the evolution, regulatory mechanism, and function of alternative splicing...
February 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Ge Li, Richard Y Zhao
Fission yeast is a single-cell eukaryote that has been used extensively as a model organism to study cell biology and virology of higher eukaryotes including plants and humans. In particular, it is a very well-tested model to study evolutionary highly conserved cellular activities such as cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and cell death. Some of the advantages of using fission yeast as a surrogate system: easy to carry out functional and genome-wide analysis of small viral genome, easy to maintain in the laboratory with a relatively short doubling time...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eun Joo Park, Tae-Houn Kim
When plants are subjected to unfavorable environmental conditions, overall gene expression in stressed cells is altered from a programmed pattern for normal development to an adaptive pattern for survival. Rapid changes in plant gene expression include production of stress responsive proteins for protection as well as reduction of irrelevant proteins to minimize energy consumption during growth. In addition to the many established mechanisms known to modulate gene expression in eukaryotes, a novel strategy involving tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) was recently reported to control gene expression...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Waqar Islam, Ali Noman, Muhammad Qasim, Liande Wang
Small RNAs (sRNA) are a significant group of gene expression regulators for multiple biological processes in eukaryotes. In plants, many sRNA silencing pathways produce extensive array of sRNAs with specialized roles. The evidence on record advocates for the functions of sRNAs during plant microbe interactions. Host sRNAs are reckoned as mandatory elements of plant defense. sRNAs involved in plant defense processes via different pathways include both short interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) that actively regulate immunity in response to pathogenic attack via tackling pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and other effectors...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jie Wang, Li Tian, Dandan Zhang, Dylan P G Short, Lei Zhou, Shuangshuang Song, Yan Liu, Dan Wang, Zhiqiang Kong, Weiye Cui, Xuefeng Ma, Steven J Klosterman, Krishna Subbarao, Jie-Yin Chen, Xiaofeng Dai
Proteins that mediate cellular and subcellular membrane fusion are key factors in vesicular trafficking in all eukaryotic cells, including the secretion and transport of plant pathogen virulence factors. In this study, we identified vesicle fusion components that included 22 soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), 4 Sec1/Munc18 (SM) family proteins, and 10 Rab GTPases encoded in the genome of the vascular wilt pathogen, Verticillium dahliae strain Vd991. Targeted deletion of two SNARE-encoding genes in V...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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