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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920756/salmonella-typhimurium-and-multidirectional-communication-in-the-gut
#1
REVIEW
Elena V Gart, Jan S Suchodolski, Thomas H Welsh, Robert C Alaniz, Ronald D Randel, Sara D Lawhon
The mammalian digestive tract is home to trillions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. In monogastric mammals the stomach and small intestine harbor diverse bacterial populations but are typically less populated than the colon. The gut bacterial community (microbiota hereafter) varies widely among different host species and individuals within a species. It is influenced by season of the year, age of the host, stress and disease. Ideally, the host and microbiota benefit each other...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920668/getting-mirna-therapeutics-into-the-target-cells-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-mini-review
#2
REVIEW
Ming Ming Wen
miRNAs play important roles in modulating gene expression in varying cellular processes and disease pathogenesis, including neurodegenerative diseases. Several miRNAs are expressed in the brain, control brain development and are identified as important biomarkers in the pathogenesis of motor-and neuro-cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These remarkable miRNAs could be used as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targeting potential for many stressful and untreatable progressive neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920387/adaptive-capabilities-and-fitness-consequences-associated-with-pollution-exposure-in-fish
#3
REVIEW
Patrick B Hamilton, Gregor Rolshausen, Tamsyn M Uren Webster, Charles R Tyler
Many fish populations are exposed to harmful levels of chemical pollution and selection pressures associated with these exposures have led to the evolution of tolerance. Our understanding of the physiological basis for these adaptations is limited, but they are likely to include processes involved with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and/or excretion of the target chemical. Other potential adaptive mechanisms include enhancements in antioxidant responses, an increased capacity for DNA and/or tissue repair and alterations to the life cycle of fish that enable earlier reproduction...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919824/melatonin-s-role-as-a-co-adjuvant-treatment-in-colonic-diseases-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Eduardo Esteban-Zubero, Laura López-Pingarrón, Moisés Alejandro Alatorre-Jiménez, Purificación Ochoa-Moneo, Celia Buisac-Ramón, Miguel Rivas-Jiménez, Silvia Castán-Ruiz, Ángel Antoñanzas-Lombarte, Dun-Xian Tan, José Joaquín García, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland as well as many other organs, including the enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that resists oxidative stress due to its capacity to directly scavenge reactive species, to modulate the antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and to stimulate the innate immune response through its direct and indirect actions. In addition, the dysregulation of the circadian system is observed to be related with alterations in colonic motility and cell disruptions due to the modifications of clock genes expression...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918449/exosomes-as-mirna-carriers-formation-function-future
#5
REVIEW
Xiaojie Yu, Margarete Odenthal, Jochen W U Fries
Exosomes, which are one of the smallest extracellular vesicles released from cells, have been shown to carry different nucleic acids, including microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs significantly regulate cell growth and metabolism by posttranscriptional inhibition of gene expression. The rapidly changing understanding of exosomes' formation and function in delivering miRNAs from cell to cell has prompted us to review current knowledge in exosomal miRNA secretion mechanisms as well as possible therapeutic applications for personalized medicine...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918249/abcb1-genotyping-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#6
Tanja Maria Brückl, Manfred Uhr
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the gene product of ABCB1, is a drug transporter at the blood-brain barrier and could be a limiting factor for entrance of antidepressants into the brain, the target site of antidepressant action. Animal studies showed that brain concentrations of many antidepressants depend on P-gp. In humans, ABCB1 genotyping in the treatment of depression rests on the assumption that genetic variations in ABCB1 explain individual differences in antidepressant response via their effects on P-gp expression at the blood-brain barrier...
December 5, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918163/-the-role-of-trefoil-factor-family-in-gynecological-disease
#7
D Neubert, R Pilka, D Stejskal, G Krejčí
AIM: Trefoil peptides are a family of small proteins that are expressed in a site-specific fashion by certain epithelial tissues. These peptides appear to be important in mucosal healing processes, in neoplastic disease and in human reproduction. DESIGN: Literature review. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital, Medical Faculty, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic; Department of Laboratory Biochemistry, Central Moravian Hospital Trust, Member of Agel holding, Prostějov...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918060/effect-of-small-molecules-on-cell-reprogramming
#8
REVIEW
M Baranek, A Belter, M Z Naskręt-Barciszewska, M Stobiecki, W T Markiewicz, J Barciszewski
The essential idea of regenerative medicine is to fix or replace tissues or organs with alive and patient-specific implants. Pluripotent stem cells are able to indefinitely self-renew and differentiate into all cell types of the body which makes them a potent substantial player in regenerative medicine. The easily accessible source of induced pluripotent stem cells may allow obtaining and cultivating tissues in vitro. Reprogramming refers to regression of mature cells to its initial pluripotent state. One of the approaches affecting pluripotency is the usage of low molecular mass compounds that can modulate enzymes and receptors leading to the formation of pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
December 5, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917188/crispr-cas9-tool-for-qualitative-and-quantitative-plant-genome-editing
#9
REVIEW
Ali Noman, Muhammad Aqeel, Shuilin He
Recent developments in genome editing techniques have aroused substantial excitement among agricultural scientists. These techniques offer new opportunities for developing improved plant lines with addition of important traits or removal of undesirable traits. Increased adoption of genome editing has been geared by swiftly developing Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). This is appearing as driving force for innovative utilization in diverse branches of plant biology. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing is being used for rapid, easy and efficient alteration of genes among diverse plant species...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917109/role-of-micrornas-in-the-regulation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-expression-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Ariadna Recasens, Celine Perier, Carolyn M Sue
Growing evidence suggests that increased levels of α-synuclein might contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying α-synuclein expression. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of gene expression involved in several diseases such as PD and other neurodegenerative disorders. A systematic literature search was performed here to identify microRNAs that directly or indirectly impact in α-synuclein expression/accumulation and describe its mechanism of action...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916680/the-role-of-micrornas-in-heart-failure
#11
REVIEW
Hongjiang Wang, Jun Cai
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and/or inducing mRNA degradation. In the past decade, many in vitro and in vivo studies have explored the involvement of microRNAs in various cardiovascular diseases. In this paper, studies focused upon the target genes and functionality of miRNAs in the pathophysiological processes of heart failure are reviewed. The selected miRNAs are categorized according to the biological relevance of their target genes in relation to four cardiovascular pathologies, namely angiogenesis, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and apoptosis...
December 1, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916656/micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-early-breast-cancer-diagnosis-prognosis-and-therapy-prediction
#12
REVIEW
Farah J Nassar, Rihab Nasr, Rabih Talhouk
Breast cancer is a major health problem that affects one in eight women worldwide. As such, detecting breast cancer at an early stage anticipates better disease outcome and prolonged patient survival. Extensive research has shown that microRNA (miRNA) are dysregulated at all stages of breast cancer. miRNA are a class of small noncoding RNA molecules that can modulate gene expression and are easily accessible and quantifiable. This review highlights miRNA as diagnostic, prognostic and therapy predictive biomarkers for early breast cancer with an emphasis on the latter...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916557/histone-acetylation-and-histone-deacetylation-in-neuropathic-pain-an-unresolved-puzzle
#13
REVIEW
Ravneet Kaur Khangura, Anjana Bali, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi, Nirmal Singh
Chronic pain is broadly classified into somatic, visceral or neuropathic pain depending upon the location and extent of pain perception. Evidences from different animal studies suggest that inflammatory or neuropathic pain is associated with altered acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins, which result in abnormal transcription of nociceptive processing genes. There have been a number of studies indicating that nerve injury up-regulates histone deacetylase enzymes, which leads to increased histone deacetylation and induce chronic pain...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916556/micrornas-mediated-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-fibrotic-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Xiao-Zhou Zou, Ting Liu, Zhi-Cheng Gong, Chang-Ping Hu, Zheng Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a large family of small and highly conserved non-coding RNAs, regulate gene expression through translational repression or mRNA degradation. Aberrant expression of miRNAs underlies a spectrum of diseases including organ fibrosis. Recent evidence suggests that miRNAs contribute to organ fibrosis through mediating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Alleviation of EMT has been proposed as a promising strategy against fibrotic diseases given the key role of EMT in fibrosis. miRNAs impact the expression of specific ligands, receptors, and signaling pathways, thus modulating EMT and consequently influencing fibrosis...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916542/the-role-of-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-in-the-memory-process
#15
REVIEW
Philomena Z Y Lip, Marilene Demasi, Diego Bonatto
Quite intuitive is the notion that memory formation and consolidation is orchestrated by protein synthesis because of the synaptic plasticity necessary for those processes. Nevertheless, recent advances have begun accumulating evidences of a high requirement for protein degradation on the molecular mechanisms of the memory process in the mammalian brain. Because degradation determines protein half-life, degradation has been increasingly recognized as an important intracellular regulatory mechanism. The proteasome is the main player in the degradation of intracellular proteins...
December 1, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916319/recombinant-viral-vectored-vaccines-for-the-control-of-avian-influenza-in-poultry
#16
David L Suarez, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
Vaccination is a commonly used tool for the control of both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) viruses. Traditionally, inactivated adjuvanted vaccines made from a low pathogenic field strain have been used for vaccination, but advances in molecular biology have allowed a number of different viral vectored vaccines, expressing the AI virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene, to be developed and licensed for use for control of AI. This review summarizes the licensed vector vaccines available for use in poultry...
November 24, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916025/the-role-of-the-extracellular-biophysical-cues-in-modulating-hippo-yap-pathway
#17
Jung-Soon Mo
The Hippo signaling pathway plays an essential role in adult tissue homeostasis and organ size control. In Drosophila and vertebrates, it consists of a highly conserved kinase cascade, which involve MST and Lats that negatively regulate the activity of downstream transcription coactivators, YAP and TAZ. Through its interaction with TEADs and other transcription factors, they mediate both proliferative and antiapoptotic gene expression and thus regulate tissue repair and regeneration. Dysregulation or mutation of the Hippo pathway is linked to tumorigenesis and cancer development...
December 5, 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915983/recognition-mechanisms-and-applications-of-peptide-nucleic-acids-targeting-double-stranded-dna
#18
Wenjia Li, Huanhuan Shi, Bo Dong, Kaixuan Nie, Zhengchun Liu, Nongyue He
Targeting double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with high affinity and specificity has become a hot topic in biochemistry and molecular biology research. Gene diagnosis and therapy, DNA manipulation, and gene expression regulation could be achieved based on certain recognition principles through specific interactions between dsDNA and natural nucleotides or synthesized ligands. Some ligands (e.g., peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), triple helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs), oligopolyamides, and zinc-finger peptides) show sufficient affinity and specificity for targeting dsDNA sequences...
October 28, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915472/pathomechanism-of-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome-and-mapping-the-heterogeneity-of-disease
#19
REVIEW
Jia-Fong Jhang, Hann-Chorng Kuo
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a heterogeneous syndrome which is usually characterized by urinary frequency, nocturia, and bladder pain. Several pathomechanisms have been proposed, including uroepithelial dysfunction, mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation, autoimmunity, and occult urinary tract infections. It is possible that an inflammatory process alters regulation of urothelial homeostasis and results in dysfunction of the bladder epithelium. Different phenotypes of IC/BPS have been explored including Hunner and non-Hunner type IC, hypersensitive bladder, and bladder pain both with and without functional somatic syndrome...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915347/role-of-microrna-in-the-lung-s-innate-immune-response
#20
Taylor S Cohen
The immune response to respiratory pathogens must be robust enough to defend the host yet properly constrained such that inflammation-induced tissue damage is avoided. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small noncoding RNA which posttranscriptionally influence gene expression. In this review, we discuss recent experimental evidence of the contribution of miRNA to the lung's response to bacterial and viral pathogens.
December 3, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
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