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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453990/atp-activated-p2x7-receptor-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mood-disorders-and-as-an-emerging-target-for-the-development-of-novel-antidepressant-therapeutics
#1
REVIEW
Linyu Wei, Sharifah A Syed Mortadza, Jing Yan, Libin Zhang, Lu Wang, Yaling Yin, Chaokun Li, Sylvie Chalon, Patrick Emond, Catherine Belzung, Dongliang Li, Chengbiao Lu, Sebastien Roger, Lin-Hua Jiang
Mood disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that represent leading global disease burdens. Increasing evidence from clinical and preclinical studies supports that innate immune system dysfunction plays an important part in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. P2X7 receptor, belonging to the ligand-gated ion channel P2X subfamily of purinergic P2 receptors for extracellular ATP, is highly expressed in immune cells including microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) and has a vital role in mediating innate immune response...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453697/the-sacral-autonomic-outflow-is-parasympathetic-langley-got-it-right
#2
REVIEW
John P Horn
A recent developmental study of gene expression by Espinosa-Medina, Brunet and colleagues sparked controversy by asserting a revised nomenclature for divisions of the autonomic motor system. Should we re-classify the sacral autonomic outflow as sympathetic, as now suggested, or does it rightly belong to the parasympathetic system, as defined by Langley nearly 100 years ago? Arguments for rejecting Espinosa-Medina, Brunet et al.'s scheme subsequently appeared in e-letters and brief reviews. A more recent commentary in this journal by Brunet and colleagues responded to these criticisms by labeling Langley's scheme as a historical myth perpetuated by ignorance...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453446/environmental-genetic-and-epigenetic-contributions-to-cocaine-addiction
#3
REVIEW
R Christopher Pierce, Bruno Fant, Sarah E Swinford-Jackson, Elizabeth A Heller, Wade H Berrettini, Mathieu E Wimmer
Decades of research on cocaine has produced volumes of data that have answered many important questions about the nature of this highly addictive drug. Sadly, none of this information has translated into the development of effective therapies for the treatment of cocaine addiction. This review endeavors to assess the current state of cocaine research in an attempt to identify novel pathways for therapeutic development. For example, risk of cocaine addiction is highly heritable but genome-wide analyses comparing cocaine-dependent individuals to controls have not resulted in promising targets for drug development...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453041/microrna-signature-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-health-and-autoimmunity
#4
REVIEW
Mehdi Soltanzadeh-Yamchi, Mehdi Shahbazi, Saeed Aslani, Mousa Mohammadnia-Afrouzi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules with regulatory functions on the expression of genes through binding directly to target messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts, eventuating in gene expression suppression via translational hindrance and/or target mRNA cleavage. These molecules have been established to participate in numerous critical cellular settings, including differentiation, development, and function of immune cells. As an important suppressor cell of immune system, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important in modulating the immune homeostasis as well as tolerance to self-antigens...
February 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453028/transposons-a-blessing-curse
#5
REVIEW
Manu J Dubin, Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid, Claude Becker
The genomes of most plant species are dominated by transposable elements (TEs). Once considered as 'junk DNA', TEs are now known to have a major role in driving genome evolution. Over the last decade, it has become apparent that some stress conditions and other environmental stimuli can drive bursts of activity of certain TE families and consequently new TE insertions. These can give rise to altered gene expression patterns and phenotypes, with new TE insertions sometimes causing flanking genes to become transcriptionally responsive to the same stress conditions that activated the TE in the first place...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452888/could-low-protein-diet-modulate-nrf2-pathway-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Juliana Saraiva Anjos, Ludmila F M F Cardozo, Marta Esgalhado, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel, Denis Fouque, Denise Mafra
Oxidative stress and inflammation are common findings in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and they are directly linked to clinical outcomes such as protein energy wasting and cardiovascular disease. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the master regulator of antioxidant genes, regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes of phase II and antioxidant responses. Furthermore, Nrf2 can also regulate anti-inflammatory cellular responses, by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B activity (transcription factor that promotes inflammation)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452225/seminars-in-cell-and-developmental-biology-human-dendritic-cell-immunodeficiencies
#7
REVIEW
Venetia Bigley, Urszula Cytlak, Matthew Collin
The critical functions of dendritic cells (DCs) in immunity and tolerance have been demonstrated in many animal models but their non-redundant roles in humans are more difficult to probe. Human primary immunodeficiency (PID), resulting from single gene mutations, may result in DC deficiency or dysfunction. This relatively recent recognition illuminates the in vivo role of human DCs and the pathophysiology of the associated clinical syndromes. In this review, the development and function of DCs as established in murine models and human in vitro systems, is discussed...
February 13, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451807/coenzyme-q-10-from-bench-to-clinic-in-aging-diseases-a-translational-review
#8
Francisco M Gutierrez-Mariscal, Elena M Yubero-Serrano, Jose M Villalba, Jose Lopez-Miranda
Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is a ubiquitous molecule present in all eukaryotic organisms whose principal role in the cell is related to its participation in the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. CoQ 10 plays a major role in the control of cell redox status, and both the amount and functionality of this molecule have been related to the regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. Numerous reports can be found discussing the implications of CoQ 10 supplementation in human studies and clinical trials related to aging...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451484/-biogenesis-of-small-non-coding-rnas-in-animals
#9
Lucile Fressigné, Martin J Simard
In recent years, the discovery of small non-coding RNAs has opened an all new field in molecular biology. Indeed, these non-coding sequences give rise to powerful regulators of gene expression. Nowadays, different types of small non-coding RNAs have been described. Of these, the best-characterized types are microRNAs, piRNAs (Piwi-interacting RNAs) and siRNAs (small interfering RNAs). Because of their fine-tuning important function in the regulation of gene and genome expression, an aberrant expression level of those small non-coding RNAs are associated to several pathologies...
February 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450655/transcription-factors-network-in-root-endosymbiosis-establishment-and-development
#10
REVIEW
Issa Diédhiou, Diaga Diouf
Root endosymbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil microorganisms (Fungus, Frankia or Rhizobium) that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza. These interactions enable many species to survive in different marginal lands to overcome the nitrogen-and/or phosphorus deficient environment and can potentially reduce the chemical fertilizers used in agriculture which gives them an economic, social and environmental importance. The formation and the development of these structures require the mediation of specific gene products among which the transcription factors play a key role...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449899/foxc1-in-cancer-development-and-therapy-deciphering-its-emerging-and-divergent-roles
#11
REVIEW
Zhi Yang, Shuai Jiang, Yicheng Cheng, Tian Li, Wei Hu, Zhiqiang Ma, Fulin Chen, Yang Yang
Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) is an essential member of the forkhead box transcription factors and has been highlighted as an important transcriptional regulator of crucial proteins associated with a wide variety of carcinomas. FOXC1 regulates tumor-associated genes and is regulated by multiple pathways that control its mRNA expression and protein activity. Aberrant FOXC1 expression is involved in diverse tumorigenic processes, such as abnormal cell proliferation, cancer stem cell maintenance, cancer migration, and angiogenesis...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449798/dna-methylation-master-or-slave-of-neural-fate-decisions
#12
REVIEW
Stefan H Stricker, Magdalena Götz
The pristine formation of complex organs depends on sharp temporal and spatial control of gene expression. Therefore, epigenetic mechanisms have been frequently attributed a central role in controlling cell fate determination. A prime example for this is the first discovered and still most studied epigenetic mark, DNA methylation, and the development of the most complex mammalian organ, the brain. Recently, the field of epigenetics has advanced significantly: new DNA modifications were discovered, epigenomic profiling became widely accessible, and methods for targeted epigenomic manipulation have been developed...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449045/how-to-measure-glucocorticoid-receptor-s-sensitivity-in-patients-with-stress-related-psychiatric-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Carolin Leistner, Andreas Menke
Stress is a state of derailed homeostasis and a main environmental risk factor for psychiatric diseases. Chronic or uncontrollable stress may lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a common feature of stress-related psychiatric disorders. One of the key mechanisms underlying a disturbed HPA axis is an impaired function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with an enhanced or reduced feedback sensitivity for glucocorticoids and subsequently altered concentrations of peripheral cortisol...
February 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448954/new-therapeutic-strategies-to-treat-human-cancers-expressing-mutant-p53-proteins
#14
REVIEW
Giovanni Blandino, Silvia Di Agostino
The tumor suppressor p53 plays a critical role to preserve DNA fidelity from diverse insults through the regulation of cell-cycle checkpoints, DNA repair, senescence and apoptosis. The TP53 is the most frequently inactivated gene in human cancers. This leads to the production of mutant p53 proteins that loose wild-type p53 tumor suppression functions and concomitantly acquire new oncogenic properties among which deregulated cell proliferation, increased chemoresistance, disruption of tissue architecture, promotion of migration, invasion and metastasis and several other pro-oncogenic activities...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448252/functions-and-roles-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-human-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#15
JingJing Wu, Swei Sunny Hann
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common cancers originating in the nasopharynx and occurring at high frequency in South-eastern Asia and North Africa. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding RNA molecules and key regulators of developmental, physiological, and pathological processes in humans. Emerging studies have shown that lncRNAs play critical roles in tumorgenicity and cancer prognosis. With the development of deep sequencing analyses, an extensive amount of functional lncRNAs have been discovered in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and cell lines...
February 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448158/despacito-the-slow-evolutionary-changes-in-plant-micrornas
#16
REVIEW
Patricia Baldrich, Aleksandra Beric, Blake C Meyers
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression. A handful of miRNAs are broadly conserved in land plants, while the majority are lineage specific; this review describes the processes by which new miRNAs are hypothesized to have emerged. Two major models describe miRNA origins, firstly, de novo emergence via inverted duplication of target gene fragments, and secondly, the expansion and neofunctionalization of existing miRNA families. The occasional acquisition of target sites by previously un-targeted genes adds further dynamism to the process by which miRNAs may shift roles during evolution...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447378/trace-metal-metabolism-in-plants
#17
Elisa Andresen, Edgar Peiter, Hendrik Küpper
Many trace metals are essential micronutrients, but also potent toxins. Due to natural and anthropogenic causes, vastly different trace metal concentrations occur in various habitats, ranging from deficient to toxic levels. Therefore, one focus of plant research is on the response to trace metals in terms of uptake, transport, sequestration, speciation, physiological use, deficiency, toxicity, and detoxification. In this review, we cover most of these aspects for the essential micronutrients copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and zinc to provide a broader overview than found in other recent reviews, to cross-link aspects of knowledge in this very active research field that are often seen in a separated way...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446741/whats%C3%A2-new-in-gene-therapy-of-hemophilia
#18
E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan
BACKGROUND: Several methods have been investigated to effectively and safely transmit genes that stimulate cells to release therapeutic factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) into the circulation of people with hemophilia (PWH). OBJECTIVE: To review the role of gene therapy (GT) in PWH. METHODS: A Cochrane Library and PubMed (MEDLINE) search related to the role of GT in hemophilia was analyzed. RESULTS: The most promising vectors for hemophilia GT are adeno-associated virus (AAV) and lentivirus...
February 14, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446735/epigenetic-regulation-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-kidney-disease-and-transplantation
#19
Yufeng Liu, Bo Peng, Shengdi Wu, Nuo Xu
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a kind of immunosuppression cells, which have been used to treat autoimmune diseases and induce allograft tolerance in clinical trials. While Treg cells based therapy is a promising treatment for kidney diseases and an emerging concept for tolerance induction in renal transplantation, a better understanding of the functions and biology of Treg cells is needed to be able to optimally exploit them. Epigenetics regulation, which refers to potentially heritable alterations in gene expression without underlying changes of the nucleotide sequence, plays an important role in Treg cells induction and maintenance...
February 13, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446722/herbal-compounds-with-special-reference-to-gastrodin-as-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-microglia-mediated-neuroin%C3%AF-ammation
#20
Juan-Juan Li, Shun-Jin Liu, Xiao-Yu Liu, Eng-Ang Ling
BACKGROUND: Activated microglia play a pivotal role neurodegenerative diseases by producing a variety of proinflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1bea (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO) that are toxic to neurons and oligodendrocytes. METHODS: In view of the above, suppression of microglia mediated neuroinflammation is deemed a therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. Several potential Chinese herbal extracts have been reported to exert neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases targeting specifically at the activated microglia...
February 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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