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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050362/mir-708-5p-a-microrna-with-emerging-roles-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Nicholas J Monteleone, Carol S Lutz
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. They are crucial for normal development and maintaining homeostasis. Researchers have discovered that dysregulated miRNA expression contributes to many pathological conditions, including cancer. miRNAs can augment or suppress tumorigenesis based on their expression and transcribed targetome in various cell types. In recent years, researchers have begun to identify miRNAs commonly dysregulated in cancer...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050357/oncomir-17-5p-alarm-signal-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Madhusudhan Reddy Bobbili, Robert M Mader, Johannes Grillari, Hanna Dellago
Soon after microRNAs entered the stage as novel regulators of gene expression, they were found to regulate -and to be regulated by- the development, progression and aggressiveness of virtually all human types of cancer. Therefore, miRNAs in general harbor a huge potential as diagnostic and prognostic markers as well as potential therapeutic targets in cancer. The miR-17-92 cluster was found to be overexpressed in many human cancers and to promote unrestrained cell growth, and has therefore been termed onco-miR-1...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050071/-poorly-differentiated-chordoma-with-ini1-loss-a-clinicopathologic-study
#3
J Y Feng, L Chen, Y Y Ma, H W Yang, L Chen
Objective: To analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics of poorly-differentiated chordoma with INI1 loss in children and to discuss the differential diagnosis. Methods: The clinical, radiological, histopathological profiles and molecular pathologic characteristics of two pediatric poorly differentiated chordoma cases with INI1 loss were reviewed. Results: The patients were a girl and a boy. Both lesions involved the slope. Both patients were presented with progressive muscle weakness or neck pain. Radiological examination showed clivus bone destruction and compression of the brain stem and cervical spinal cord...
October 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049139/the-role-of-the-cys23ser-rs6318-polymorphism-of-the-htr2c-gene-in-suicidal-behavior-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Thelma B González-Castro, Yazmín Hernandez-Diaz, Isela E Juárez-Rojop, Lilia López-Narváez, Carlos A Tovilla-Zárate, José M Rodriguez-Perez, Juan P Sánchez-de la Cruz
OBJECTIVE: The polymorphisms of the serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) gene have been proposed to influence suicidal behavior. The aim of our study was to explore the role of the HTR2C gene variant Cys23Ser (rs6318) in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The search was performed using EBSCO and PubMed databases. To be included in the analysis, the studies had to evaluate suicidal behavior (attempted, ideation, or completed suicide)...
October 18, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048620/dna-methylation-and-histone-modifications-as-epigenetic-regulation-in-prostate-cancer-review
#5
Maria Nowacka-Zawisza, Ewelina Wiśnik
Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in Poland after lung cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality after lung and colon cancer. The etiology of most cases of prostate cancer are not fully known, and therefore it is essential to search for the molecular basis of prostate cancer and markers for the early diagnosis of this type of cancer. Epigenetics deals with changes in gene expression that are not determined by changes in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic changes refer to changes in the structure of DNA, which are the result of DNA modification after replication and/or post-translational modification of proteins associated with DNA...
September 20, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047263/cross-talk-between-phosphate-starvation-and-other-environmental-stress-signaling-pathways-in-plants
#6
Dongwon Baek, Hyun Jin Chun, Dae-Jin Yun, Min Chul Kim
The maintenance of inorganic phosphate (Pi) homeostasis is essential for plant growth and yield. Plants have evolved strategies to cope with Pi starvation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels, which maximizes its availability. Many transcription factors, miRNAs, and transporters participate in the Pi starvation signaling pathway where their activities are modulated by sugar and phytohormone signaling. Environmental stresses significantly affect the uptake and utilization of nutrients by plants, but their effects on the Pi starvation response remain unclear...
October 17, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047077/adventitial-fibroblast-nox4-expression-and-ros-signaling-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#7
Scott A Barman, David Fulton
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease arising from remodeling and narrowing of pulmonary arteries (PA) resulting in high pulmonary arterial blood pressure and ultimately right ventricular failure. Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), a constitutively active enzyme, has been associated with oxygen sensing, vasomotor control, cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, senescence, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. Further, elevated expression of Nox4 has been reported in a number of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac failure, ischemic stroke, and PAH...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046905/the-controversial-role-of-forkhead-box-f2-foxf2-transcription-factor-in-breast-cancer
#8
Pang-Kuo Lo
Deregulating the subcellular localization, functions and expression of Forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors that are critically involved in embryonic development and multiple biological processes is known to result in the development and progression of diseases, in particular cancer. Human FOXF transcription factors, including FOXF1 and FOXF2, are a subfamily of the FOX gene family. The recent findings from ours and others have linked FOXF2 to breast cancer development and progression. Our studies have shown that FOXF2 acts as a tumor-suppressive inhibitor of DNA replication in luminal and HER2-positive breast cancers and as an oncogenic activator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in triple-negative/basal-like breast cancers (TN/BLBC), suggesting that FOXF2 plays a dual role in breast cancer...
2017: PRAS Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046680/smart-parasitic-nematodes-use-multifaceted-strategies-to-parasitize-plants
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad A Ali, Farrukh Azeem, Hongjie Li, Holger Bohlmann
Nematodes are omnipresent in nature including many species which are parasitic to plants and cause enormous economic losses in various crops. During the process of parasitism, sedentary phytonematodes use their stylet to secrete effector proteins into the plant cells to induce the development of specialized feeding structures. These effectors are used by the nematodes to develop compatible interactions with plants, partly by mimicking the expression of host genes. Intensive research is going on to investigate the molecular function of these effector proteins in the plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046627/mecp2-deficiency-in-neuroglia-new-progress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rett-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Xu-Rui Jin, Xing-Shu Chen, Lan Xiao
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disease predominantly caused by mutations of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene. Generally, RTT has been attributed to neuron-centric dysfunction. However, increasing evidence has shown that glial abnormalities are also involved in the pathogenesis of RTT. Mice that are MeCP2-null specifically in glial cells showed similar behavioral and/or neuronal abnormalities as those found in MeCP2-null mice, a mouse model of RTT. MeCP2 deficiency in astrocytes impacts the expression of glial intermediate filament proteins such as fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100 and induces neuron toxicity by disturbing glutamate metabolism or enhancing microtubule instability...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046142/the-roles-of-micrornas-in-regulating-chemotherapy-resistance-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Xiaoxuan Wei, Xiaoyan Shen, Yanchen Ren, Weidong Hu
Lung cancer is considered the leading cause of cancer death in the word. Among all lung cancer cases, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85%. Currently, chemotherapy is still the major therapeutic method of lung cancer. However, chemoresistance is a serious obstacle in treating NSCLC. Up to now, many reports have suggested that microRNAs(miRNAs) could contribute to lung cancer cell chemosensitivity. MicroRNAs, a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs, regulate gene expression by binding to their complementary target messenger RNAs, leading to mRNA degradation or translational suppression...
October 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044796/social-traits-social-networks-and-evolutionary-biology
#12
David N Fisher, Andrew G McAdam
The social environment is both an important agent of selection for most organisms, and an emergent property of their interactions. As an aggregation of interactions among members of a population, the social environment is a product of many sets of relationships, and so can be represented as a network or matrix. Social network analysis in animals has focused on why these networks possess the structure they do, and whether individuals' network traits, representing some aspect of their social phenotype, relate to their fitness...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042476/the-three-dimensional-genome-regulating-gene-expression-during-pluripotency-and-development
#13
REVIEW
Guillaume Andrey, Stefan Mundlos
The precise expression of genes in time and space during embryogenesis is largely influenced by communication between enhancers and promoters, which is propagated and governed by the physical proximity of these elements in the nucleus. Here, we review how chromatin domains organize the genome by guiding enhancers to their target genes thereby preventing non-specific interactions with other neighboring regions. We also discuss the dynamics of chromatin interactions between enhancers and promoters, as well as the consequent changes in gene expression, that occur in pluripotent cells and during development...
October 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042291/micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-liver-injury-current-knowledge-challenges-and-future-prospects
#14
REVIEW
Haixia Lin, Laura E Ewing, Igor Koturbash, Bill J Gurley, Isabelle R Miousse
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory RNAs that are involved in various biological processes that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. Changes in miRNA expression can be detected in many physiological and pathological events, such as liver injury. Drug induced liver injury is a life threatening condition that frequently requires organ transplantation. Hepatotoxicity is also one of the major causes of drug failure in clinical trials and of drug withdrawal from the market. The profiling of miRNA expression shows great promise in monitoring liver injury, in the prediction of outcome in patients, and in the identification of liver-reactive compounds in toxicological assessment...
October 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042235/splicing-factors-as-regulators-of-mirna-biogenesis-links-to-human-disease
#15
REVIEW
Madara Ratnadiwakara, Monika Mohenska, Minna-Liisa Anko
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by fine-tuning mRNA levels and translation during development and in adult tissues. miRNAs are transcribed as parts of longer precursors that undergo multiple processing steps before the mature miRNAs reach their target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. In addition to Drosha/DGCR8 and Dicer that are the essential components of the miRNA processing pathway, a range of other RNA binding proteins have recently been implicated in miRNA biogenesis...
October 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042182/are-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-environmental-risk-factors-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
REVIEW
Amer Moosa, Henry Shu, Tewarit Sarachana, Valerie W Hu
Recent research on the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has shifted in part from a singular focus on genetic causes to the involvement of environmental factors and their gene interactions. This shift in focus is a result of the rapidly increasing prevalence of ASD coupled with the incomplete penetrance of this disorder in monozygotic twins. One such area of environmentally focused research is the association of exposures to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with elevated risk for ASD. EDCs are exogenous chemicals that can alter endogenous hormone activity and homeostasis, thus potentially disrupting the action of sex and other natural hormones at all stages of human development...
October 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040973/sulforaphane-and-epigallocatechin-gallate-restore-estrogen-receptor-expression-by-modulating-epigenetic-events-in-the-breast-cancer-cell-line-mda-mb-231-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Vincenza Gianfredi, Samuele Vannini, Massimo Moretti, Milena Villarini, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Alberto Izzotti, Daniele Nucci
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Epigenetics refers to modifications in gene activity and expression without alteration at the DNA sequence. Environment and diet could influence gene expression. Diet modifications may be meaningful in preventing and treating chronic diseases, cancer included. Dietary bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols (e.g., curcumin, resveratrol, or epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG]) or isothiocyanate (e.g., sulforaphane [SFN]), can regulate histone acetylation. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of SFN and EGCG on breast cancer (BC) cells cultured in vitro...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040360/elucidating-the-editome-bioinformatics-approaches-for-rna-editing-detection
#18
Maria Angela Diroma, Loredana Ciaccia, Graziano Pesole, Ernesto Picardi
RNA editing is a widespread co/posttranscriptional mechanism affecting primary RNAs by specific nucleotide modifications, which plays relevant roles in molecular processes including regulation of gene expression and/or the processing of noncoding RNAs. In recent years, the detection of editing sites has been improved through the availability of high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technologies. Accurate bioinformatics pipelines are essential for the analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data to ensure the correct identification of edited sites...
October 11, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039788/impact-of-natural-compounds-on-dna-methylation-levels-of-the-tumor-suppressor-gene-rassf1a-in-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Reinhard H Dammann, Antje M Richter, Adriana P Jiménez, Michelle Woods, Miriam Küster, Chamindri Witharana
Epigenetic inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is a fundamental event in the pathogenesis of human cancer. This silencing is accomplished by aberrant chromatin modifications including DNA hypermethylation of the gene promoter. One of the most frequently hypermethylated TSG in human cancer is the Ras Association Domain Family 1A (RASSF1A) gene. Aberrant methylation of RASSF1A has been reported in melanoma, sarcoma and carcinoma of different tissues. RASSF1A hypermethylation has been correlated with tumor progression and poor prognosis...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039606/expression-regulation-and-mechanism-of-action-of-the-mir-17-92-cluster-in-tumor-cells-review
#20
Li-Li Fang, Xing-Hui Wang, Bao-Fei Sun, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Xu-Hui Zhu, Zi-Jiang Yu, Heng Luo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of short, single‑stranded non‑coding RNAs, regulate and control gene expression in eukaryotes by degrading mRNA at the post‑transcriptional level. Regulation by miRNAs involves a plethora of biological processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation, metastasis, metabolism, apoptosis, tumorigenesis and others. miRNAs also represent a powerful tool in disease diagnosis and prognosis. The miR‑17‑92 cluster, one of the most extensively investigated microRNA clusters, comprises six mature miRNA members, including miR‑17, miR‑18a, miR‑19a, miR‑19b, miR‑20a and miR‑92a...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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