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gene expression review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224098/role-of-estrogens-in-the-regulation-of-liver-lipid-metabolism
#1
Brian T Palmisano, Lin Zhu, John M Stafford
Before menopause, women are protected from atherosclerotic heart disease associated with obesity relative to men. Sex hormones have been proposed as a mechanism that differentiates this risk. In this review, we discuss the literature around how the endogenous sex hormones and hormone treatment approaches after menopause regulate fatty acid, triglyceride, and cholesterol metabolism to influence cardiovascular risk.The important regulatory functions of estrogen signaling pathways with regard to lipid metabolism have been in part obscured by clinical trials with hormone treatment of women after menopause, due to different formulations, routes of delivery, and pairings with progestins...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223924/utr-dependent-control-of-gene-expression-in-plants
#2
REVIEW
Ashish Kumar Srivastava, Yuming Lu, Gaurav Zinta, Zhaobo Lang, Jian-Kang Zhu
Throughout their lives, plants sense many developmental and environmental stimuli, and activation of optimal responses against these stimuli requires extensive transcriptional reprogramming. To facilitate this activation, plant mRNA contains untranslated regions (UTRs) that significantly increase the coding capacity of the genome by producing multiple mRNA variants from the same gene. In this review we compare UTRs of arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativum) at the genome scale to highlight their complexity in crop plants...
December 6, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223677/the-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad-axis-tales-of-mice-and-men
#3
REVIEW
Athina Kaprara, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi
Reproduction is controlled by the hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal (HPG) axis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a central role in this axis through production of GnRH, which binds to a membrane receptor on pituitary gonadotrophs and stimulates the biosynthesis and secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Multiple factors affect GnRH neuron migration, GnRH gene expression, GnRH pulse generator, GnRH secretion, GnRH receptor expression, and gonadotropin synthesis and release...
December 6, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223570/regulation-and-role-of-nuclear-factor-e2-related-factor2-nrf2-in-multidrug-resistance-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Bing Tian, Zhen-Ning Lu, Xiu-Li Guo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) chemoresistance, which is regarded as a kind of stress management reaction to chemotherapy drugs, severely hinders the therapy outcomes of HCC treatment. Stress management is generally achieved by activating certain signal pathways and chemical factors, among which, nuclear factor-E2-related factor2 (Nrf2) is a key factor in HCC chemoresistance formation. Nrf2 is a nuclear factor that coordinates the induction and expression of a battery of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins when participating in the Nrf2antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) pathway, which is one of the most important intracellular antioxidant stress pathways...
December 6, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223450/pesticide-degrading-natural-multidrug-resistance-bacterial-flora
#5
REVIEW
Kirubakaran Rangasamy, Murugan Athiappan, Natarajan Devarajan, Gopinath Samykannu, Javid A Parray, K N Aruljothi, Nowsheen Shameem, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are a growing threat to humans across the world. Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that has developed through continuous antibiotic use, combinatorial antibiotic use, pesticide-antibiotic cross-resistance, and horizontal gene transfer, as well as various other modes. Pesticide-antibiotic cross-resistance and the subsequent expansion of drug-resistant bacteria are critically documented in this review, the primary focus of which is to assess the impact of indiscriminate pesticide use on the development of microbial communities with parallel pesticide and multidrug resistance...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223352/atp-binding-cassette-transporter-2-abca2-as-a-therapeutic-target
#6
REVIEW
Warren Davis, Kenneth D Tew
The ATP binding cassette transporter ABCA2 is primarily an endolysosomal membrane protein that demonstrates pleiotropic functionalities, coalescing around the maintenance of homeostasis of sterols, sphingolipids and cholesterol. It is most highly expressed in brain tissue and ABCA2 knockout mice express neurological defects consistent with aberrant myelination. Increased expression of the transporter has been linked with resistance to cancer drugs, particularly those possessing a steroid backbone and gene expression (in concert with other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism) was found to be regulated by sterols...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223165/role-of-microrna-in-development-of-instability-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#7
REVIEW
I A Koroleva, M S Nazarenko, A N Kucher
MicroRNAs are small noncoding single-stranded RNAs that regulate gene expression. Today, we see an increasing number of studies highlighting the important role of microRNAs in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases caused by atherosclerotic lesions of arteries. We review the available scientific data on association of the expression of these biomolecules with instability of atherosclerotic plaques in animal models and humans. We made special emphasis on miR-21, -100, -127, -133, -143/145, -221/222, and -494 because they were analyzed in more than one study...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223143/neurobiological-functions-of-the-period-circadian-clock-2-gene-per2
#8
REVIEW
Mikyung Kim, June Bryan de la Peña, Jae Hoon Cheong, Hee Jin Kim
Most organisms have adapted to a circadian rhythm that follows a roughly 24-hour cycle, which is modulated by both internal (clock-related genes) and external (environment) factors. In such organisms, the central nervous system (CNS) is influenced by the circadian rhythm of individual cells. Furthermore, the period circadian clock 2 (Per2) gene is an important component of the circadian clock, which modulates the circadian rhythm. Per2 is mainly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus as well as other brain areas, including the midbrain and forebrain...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222831/a-review-of-structural-brain-abnormalities-in-pallister-killian-syndrome
#9
Cathryn Poulton, Gareth Baynam, Clarissa Yates, Hamid Alinejad-Rokny, Simon Williams, Helen Wright, Karen J Woodward, Soruba Sivamoorthy, Joanne Peverall, Peter Shipman, David Ravine, John Beilby, Julian Ik-Tsen Heng
BACKGROUND: Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare multisystem developmental syndrome usually caused by mosaic tetrasomy of chromosome 12p that is known to be associated with neurological defects. METHODS: We describe two patients with PKS, one of whom has bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (PMG), the other with macrocephaly, enlarged lateral ventricles and hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. We have also summarized the current literature describing brain abnormalities in PKS...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222764/optimization-of-multi-omic-genome-scale-models-methodologies-hands-on-tutorial-and-perspectives
#10
Supreeta Vijayakumar, Max Conway, Pietro Lió, Claudio Angione
Genome-scale metabolic models are valuable tools for assessing the metabolic potential of living organisms. Being downstream of gene expression, metabolism is increasingly being used as an indicator of the phenotypic outcome for drugs and therapies. We here present a review of the principal methods used for constraint-based modelling in systems biology, and explore how the integration of multi-omic data can be used to improve phenotypic predictions of genome-scale metabolic models. We believe that the large-scale comparison of the metabolic response of an organism to different environmental conditions will be an important challenge for genome-scale models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222070/regulation-of-trna-biogenesis-in-plants-and-its-link-to-plant-growth-and-response-to-pathogens
#11
REVIEW
Adriana Santos Soprano, Juliana Helena Costa Smetana, Celso Eduardo Benedetti
tRNA biology has fascinated scientists over the years. Besides their fundamental role in protein translation, new evidence indicates that tRNA-derived molecules also regulate gene expression and protein synthesis in all domains of life. In this review, we will highlight some of the recent findings linking tRNA transcription and modification with plant cell growth and response to pathogens. In fact, mutations in proteins directly involved in tRNA synthesis and modification most often lead to pleiotropic effects on plant growth and immunity...
December 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221986/streptococcus-pneumoniae-two-component-regulatory-systems-the-interplay-of-the-pneumococcus-with-its-environment
#12
REVIEW
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathobiont possessing a diverse array of multifunctional proteins essential for bacterial fitness and virulence. Gene expression is tightly controlled by regulatory components and among the pneumococcal sensorial tools, two‑component regulatory systems (TCS) are the most widespread and conserved. This review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of original studies on pneumococcal TCS on a functional level. Despite a rather chaotic nomenclature, the current available information on pneumococcal regulation by these systems can be conveniently addressed, according to the regulation of pathophysiological cell processes and the responses to detectable environmental signals...
November 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221811/matrix-metalloproteinase-functions-in-hepatic-injury-and-fibrosis
#13
REVIEW
Martin Roderfeld
Liver fibrosis is the most common final outcome for chronic liver diseases. The complex pathogenesis includes hepatic parenchymal damage as a result of a persistent noxe, activation and recruitment of immune cells, activation of hepatic stellate cells, and the synthesis of fibrotic extracellular matrix (ECM) components leading to scar formation. Clinical studies and animal models demonstrated that fibrosis can be reversible. In this regard matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been focused as therapeutic targets due to their ability to modulate tissue turnover during fibrogenesis as well as regeneration and, of special interest, due to their influence on cellular behavior like proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis that, in turn, impact fibrosis and regeneration...
December 5, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221790/fam3-gene-family-a-promising-therapeutical-target-for-nafld-and-type-2-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Zhang Xiaoyan, Weili Yang, Junpei Wang, Yuhong Meng, Youfei Guan, Jichun Yang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes are severe public health issues worldwide. The Family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3) gene family consists of four members designated as FAM3A, FAM3B, FAM3C and FAM3D, respectively. Recently, there had been increasing evidence that FAM3A, FAM3B and FAM3C are important regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism. FAM3A expression is reduced in the livers of diabetic rodents and NAFLD patients. Hepatic FAM3A restoration activates ATP-P2 receptor-Akt and AMPK pathways to attenuate steatosis and hyperglycemia in obese diabetic mice...
December 5, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221727/epigenetic-mechanisms-in-developmental-neurotoxicity
#15
REVIEW
M Raciti, S Ceccatelli
The constant interplay between environment (including both exogenous and endogenous factors) and epigenome (defined as the combination of chromatin, its covalent modifications and noncoding RNAs) triggers epigenetic events that, by modulating gene expression, capture information about changes in the environment. In this mini review, we will focus on the neurodevelopmental implications of exposure to adverse prenatal milieu with emphasis on mechanistic and functional aspects. Several neurotoxic insults have been shown to affect epigenetics with negative consequences on the development of the nervous system; among them are methylmercury, lead, arsenic and cadmium, as well as excess of glucocorticoids...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221192/tumor-suppressive-function-of-unc5d-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#16
Man-Man Zhang, Feng Sun, Bing Cui, Le-Le Zhang, Ya Fang, Yan Li, Rui-Jia Zhang, Xiao-Ping Ye, Yu-Ru Ma, Bing Han, Huai-Dong Song
Background: Studies have shown an association of the UNC5D gene with kidney and bladder cancer and neuroblastoma. We investigated whether UNC5D acts as a tumor suppressor in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: Primary PTC tumors and matched normal thyroid tissues were obtained from 112 patients to detect UNC5D mRNA by real-time PCR. Genomic DNA sequencing was performed to detect BRAF mutation in PTC tumors. The association between UNC5D expression and clinicopathological data from PTC patients was reviewed retrospectively...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220587/fto-gene-affects-obesity-and-breast-cancer-through-similar-mechanisms-a-new-insight-into-the-molecular-therapeutic-targets
#17
M E Akbari, M Gholamalizadeh, S Doaei, F Mirsafa
OBJECTIVES: This review focused on the possible mediatory role of the FTO in the association between obesity and breast cancer. METHOD: All articles published in English from June 1990 to January 2017 were studied. The search terms used were FTO gene, FTO polymorphism, breast cancer, and obesity. Inclusion criteria consisted of assessment of the relationship between FTO polymorphisms and/or FTO expression level with obesity and/or breast cancer as a primary outcome...
December 8, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220204/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-controversy-developmental-mechanisms-and-multiple-levels-of-analysis
#18
Stephen P Hinshaw
Controversy abounds regarding the symptom dimensions of attention problems, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, developmentally extreme and impairing levels of which compose the diagnostic category of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). I highlight causal factors, underlying mechanisms, developmental manifestations, and female manifestations of ADHD, integrating the psychobiological underpinnings of this syndrome with contextual factors related to its clinical presentation, impairments, and soaring increases in diagnosed prevalence...
December 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220106/chemoprevention-by-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene-targeting-on-epigenetic-regulation
#19
REVIEW
Pei-Sheng Lee, Yi-Shiou Chiou, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan
Epigenetic mechanisms are essential in regulating normal cellular functions and play an important role during the disease developmental stages. However, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms may lead to pathological consequences such as cancer, neurological disorders, bone and skeletal diseases, cardiovascular dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. The molecular mechanisms of epigenetic modification include DNA methylation, histone modification (acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Unlike genetic modifications, epigenetic states of genes are reversible and can be altered by certain intrinsic and extrinsic factors...
December 8, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219788/differential-patterns-of-metastatic-dissemination-across-medulloblastoma-subgroups
#20
Michal Zapotocky, Daddy Mata-Mbemba, David Sumerauer, Petr Liby, Alvaro Lassaletta, Josef Zamecnik, Lenka Krskova, Martin Kyncl, Jan Stary, Suzanne Laughlin, Anthony Arnoldo, Cynthia Hawkins, Uri Tabori, Michael D Taylor, Eric Bouffet, Charles Raybaud, Vijay Ramaswamy
OBJECTIVE Metastatic dissemination is a major treatment challenge and cause of death in patients with medulloblastoma. However, the influence of molecular biology on the pattern of metastatic dissemination at diagnosis is not known. In this study, the authors sought to define the location, pattern, and imaging characteristics of medulloblastoma metastases across subgroups at diagnosis. METHODS A consecutive cohort of patients with metastatic medulloblastoma at The Hospital for Sick Children and the University Hospital Motol, who underwent up-front MRI of the craniospinal axis, was assembled and allocated to subgroups using NanoString limited gene-expression profiling...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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