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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597620/critical-velocity-in-swimmers-of-different-ages
#1
Alex Rizzato, Giuseppe Marcolin, Alessandro Rubini, Nicola Olivato, Simone Fava, Antonio Paoli, Gerardo Bosco
BACKGROUND: In swimming one of the most employed training speed among coaches is the non-invasive Theoretical Critical Velocity (TCV) defined as the velocity that can be maintained continuously without exhaustion. METHODS: We calculated the 4mmol/L lactate Critical Velocity (MCV) in a group of swimmers of different ages (Young, Elite and Master), and compared results to the predicted TCV defined starting from the 200 and 400 m freestyle best seasonal performances...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533217/transcriptional-control-of-the-lateral-flagellar-genes-of-bradyrhizobium-diazoefficiens
#2
Elías J Mongiardini, J Ignacio Quelas, Carolina Dardis, M Julia Althabegoiti, Aníbal R Lodeiro
Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens, the soybean N2-fixing symbiont, possesses a dual flagellar system comprising a constitutive subpolar flagellum and inducible lateral flagella. Here, we analyzed the genomic organization and biosynthetic regulation of the lateral-flagellar genes. We found that those genes are located in a single genomic cluster, organized in two monocistronic transcriptional units and three operons, one possibly containing an internal transcription start site. Among the monocistronic units is blr6846, homologous to the Class-IB master regulators of flagella synthesis in Brucella melitensis and Ensifer meliloti, and required for the expression of all the lateral-flagellar genes except lafA2, which locus encodes a single lateral flagellin...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497283/the-impact-of-resistance-training-on-swimming-performance-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Emmet Crowley, Andrew J Harrison, Mark Lyons
BACKGROUND: The majority of propulsive forces in swimming are produced from the upper body, with strong correlations between upper body strength and sprint performance. There are significant gaps in the literature relating to the impact of resistance training on swimming performance, specifically the transfer to swimming performance. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this systematic literature review are to (1) explore the transfer of resistance-training modalities to swimming performance, and (2) examine the effects of resistance training on technical aspects of swimming...
May 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416896/actn3-r577x-genotype-and-performance-of-elite-middle-long-distance-swimmers-in-china
#4
Y C Li, L Q Wang, L Y Yi, J H Liu, Y Hu, Y F Lu, M Wang
The ACTN3 gene is one of the genes that have a potential influence on physical performance. Studies have shown that the 577R genotype of ACTN3 is more prevalent in sprint athletes, while the 577X genotype is more prevalent in endurance athletes. In swimming, both power and endurance related phenotypes are equally needed for swimmers to excel at the elite level. Therefore, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism may become a genetic marker for swimmers. The study aimed to examine the association of the ACTN3 R577X genotype with the performance of elite middle-long distance (MLD) swimmers...
March 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415213/non-gaussian-limit-fluctuations-in-active-swimmer-suspensions
#5
Takashi Kurihara, Msato Aridome, Heev Ayade, Irwin Zaid, Daisuke Mizuno
We investigate the hydrodynamic fluctuations in suspensions of swimming microorganisms (Chlamydomonas) by observing the probe particles dispersed in the media. Short-term fluctuations of probe particles were superdiffusive and displayed heavily tailed non-Gaussian distributions. The analytical theory that explains the observed distribution was derived by summing the power-law-decaying hydrodynamic interactions from spatially distributed field sources (here, swimming microorganisms). The summing procedure, which we refer to as the physical limit operation, is applicable to a variety of physical fluctuations to which the classical central limiting theory does not apply...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395386/-effects-of-core-stability-training-on-masters-swimmers
#6
Margarete Esser
Background Back pain is a frequent problem for swimmers, especially for Masters swimmers. The cause seems to be insufficient core stability. Objective The goal of this study is to investigate whether specific core musculature training has a positive influence on low back pain and swimmers' perceived performance. Method Two groups (Masters swimmers and a control group) performed a guided 8-week training program. Changes in the core musculature were documented via tests carried out before and after the training program...
June 2017: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117390/growth-rate-control-of-flagellar-assembly-in-escherichia-coli-strain-rp437
#7
Martin Sim, Santosh Koirala, David Picton, Henrik Strahl, Paul A Hoskisson, Christopher V Rao, Colin S Gillespie, Phillip D Aldridge
The flagellum is a rotary motor that enables bacteria to swim in liquids and swarm over surfaces. Numerous global regulators control flagellar assembly in response to cellular and environmental factors. Previous studies have also shown that flagellar assembly is affected by the growth-rate of the cell. However, a systematic study has not yet been described under controlled growth conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of growth rate on flagellar assembly in Escherichia coli using steady-state chemostat cultures where we could precisely control the cell growth-rate...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100305/environment-directed-activation-the-escherichia-coli-flhdc-operon-by-transposons
#8
Zhongge Zhang, Chika Kukita, Mir Zafri Humayun, Milton H Saier
The flagellar system in E. coli K12 is expressed under the control of the flhDC-encoded master regulator, FlhDC. Transposition of insertion sequence (IS) elements to the upstream flhDC promoter region up-regulates transcription of this operon, resulting in more rapid motility. Wang and Wood (2011) provided evidence that insertion of IS5 into upstream activating sites occurs at higher rates in semisolid agar media in which swarming behavior is allowed as compared with liquid or solid media where swarming cannot occur...
January 17, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090585/circadian-forced-desynchrony-of-the-master-clock-leads-to-phenotypic-manifestation-of-depression-in-rats
#9
Miriam Ben-Hamo, Tracy A Larson, Leanne S Duge, Carl Sikkema, Charles W Wilkinson, Horacio O de la Iglesia, Mónica M C González
In mammals, a master circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus maintains the phase coherence among a wide array of behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms. Affective disorders are typically associated with disruption of this fine-tuned "internal synchronization," but whether this internal misalignment is part of the physiopathology of mood disorders is not clear. To date, depressive-like behavior in animal models has been induced by methods that fail to specifically target the SCN regulation of internal synchronization as the mode to generate depression...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018241/master-athletes-are-extending-the-limits-of-human-endurance
#10
REVIEW
Romuald Lepers, Paul J Stapley
The increased participation of master athletes (i.e., >40 years old) in endurance and ultra-endurance events (>6 h duration) over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Aging does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration, and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736243/the-effects-of-leg-kick-on-the-swimming-speed-and-on-arm-stroke-efficiency-in-front-crawl
#11
Ricardo Peterson Silveira, Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro, Pedro Figueiredo, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Paola Zamparo
PURPOSE: to analyze the effects of swimming pace on the relative contribution of leg kick to swimming speed, and to compare arm stroke efficiency (ηf) assessed when swimming with the arms only (SAO) and while swimming front crawl (FCS) using individual and fixed adjustments to arm stroke and leg kick contribution to forward speed. METHODS: twenty-nine master swimmers (21 males, 8 females) performed SAO and FCS at six self-selected speeds from very slow to maximal speed...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510576/taylor-line-swimming-in-microchannels-and-cubic-lattices-of-obstacles
#12
Jan L Münch, Davod Alizadehrad, Sujin B Babu, Holger Stark
Microorganisms naturally move in microstructured fluids. Using the simulation method of multi-particle collision dynamics, we study in two dimensions an undulatory Taylor line swimming in a microchannel and in a cubic lattice of obstacles, which represent simple forms of a microstructured environment. In the microchannel the Taylor line swims at an acute angle along a channel wall with a clearly enhanced swimming speed due to hydrodynamic interactions with the bounding wall. While in a dilute obstacle lattice swimming speed is also enhanced, a dense obstacle lattice gives rise to geometric swimming...
September 21, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477205/pacing-in-age-group-freestyle-swimmers-at-the-xv-fina-world-masters-championships-in-montreal-2014
#13
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
Pacing strategies have been investigated for elite-standard freestyle swimmers, but little is known about pacing in age-group freestyle swimmers. We investigated changes in swimming time across distances in 4,481 women and men swimmers who competed in 100, 200, 400, and 800 m freestyle age groups from 25-29 years to 90-94 years in the FINA World Masters Championships 2014. In 100 to 800 m, there was a small lap×sex interaction (P < 0.001, 0.033 ≤ η(2) ≤ 0.045) whereby women had larger lap-to-lap changes in swimming time than men...
July 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406135/relationship-between-performance-dry-land-power-and-kinematics-in-master-swimmers
#14
Mario C Espada, Mario J Costa, Aldo M Costa, Antonio J Silva, Tiago M Barbosa, Ana F Pereira
The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationships between sprint swimming performance, dry-land power, and kinematics in master swimmers. Twenty-two male master swimmers were separated in two groups based on their chronological age: (i) 30-39 years and; (ii) 40-49 years. Maximum dry-land power was determined through counter movement jump and 3 kg medicine ball throwing (Hmax and Tmax, respectively). Kinematic determinants of performance were measured during a maximal bout of 15, 25 and 50 m front crawl (T15, T25, T50)...
2016: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27331916/energetics-biomechanics-and-performance-in-masters-swimmers-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Maria I Ferreira, Tiago M Barbosa, Mário J Costa, Henrique P Neiva, Daniel A Marinho
Ferreira, MI, Barbosa, TM, Costa, MJ, Neiva, HP, and Marinho, DA. Energetics, biomechanics, and performance in masters' swimmers: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2069-2081, 2016-This study aimed to summarize evidence on masters' swimmers energetics, biomechanics, and performance gathered in selected studies. An expanded search was conducted on 6 databases, conference proceedings, and department files. Fifteen studies were selected for further analysis. A qualitative evaluation of the studies based on the Quality Index (QI) was performed by 2 independent reviewers...
July 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330911/increased-participation-and-improved-performance-in-age-group-backstroke-master-swimmers-from-25-29-to-100-104%C3%A2-years-at-the-fina-world-masters-championships-from-1986-to-2014
#16
Chiara M Unterweger, Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph A Rüst
Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated for different sport disciplines, but not for master swimmers. The knowledge on this topic is still missing for a particular stroke such as backstroke. Changes in participation and performance of male and female age group backstroke swimmers (≥25 years) competing in 50, 100 and 200 m pool swimming at the FINA World Masters Championships held between 1986 and 2014 were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses. The overall participation was n = 26,217 including n = 13,708 women and n = 12,509 men...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273205/reduction-of-anxiety-like-and-depression-like-behaviors-in-rats-after-one-month-of-drinking-aronia-melanocarpa-berry-juice
#17
Mirko Tomić, Đurđica Ignjatović, Gordana Tovilović-Kovačević, Dijana Krstić-Milošević, Slavica Ranković, Tamara Popović, Marija Glibetić
The treatment of mood and anxiety disorders by nutraceuticals is gaining growing awareness. Berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Black chokeberry) and their extracts, exceptionally abundant in diverse phenolic compounds, have become famous for the highest in vitro antioxidant activity among fruits and notable health benefits (e.g. anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective). This study was designed to investigate the behavioral effects of month-long unlimited consumption of Aronia master juice (AJ) and/or juice reconstruct without polyphenols (RJ), in young male rats...
July 13, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141863/-oxidative-stress-in-masters-swimmers-following-high-intensity-interval-training-hi-i-t
#18
Janina Braun, Magd Masoud, Klara Brixius, Christian Brinkmann
Increased oxidative stress (OS) can promote diseases in the long term, but it can also trigger cellular adaptations in the short term. The present study aims to analyze whether a 3-month high-intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T) affects OS in 24 Masters swimmers (22-67 years) before (= basal) and after an all-out performance (swimming step-test). Data were analyzed for the entire group and differentiated according to sex and age (under 50 years (U50) and over 50 years (O50)). Prior to the HI(I)T intervention, a significant increase in OS from the basal to the all-out value was observed among the entire group and in the O50-subjects (subgroup analysis)...
May 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27054351/training-for-a-78-km-solo-open-water-swim
#19
Maria F Piacentini, Giulia DE Ioannon, Giuseppe Cibelli, Sergio Mignardi, Agnese Antonelli, Laura Capranica
The purpose of the present study was to report the training of a master athlete in preparation to an ultra-marathon swimming event. For 32 weeks prior to a 78-km "solo" open water swim from Italy to Albania, a male long distance master (48 years) swimmer was monitored. Training volume was recorded as total time and distance while intensities were recorded according to international classifications utilizing the primary goal of the session method. Thereafter, time spent in the three training zones: Z1 (low intensity training), Z2 (threshold training) and Z3 (high intensity training) was calculated...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27010574/crispr-cas-gene-editing-reveals-rsma-and-rsmc-act-through-flhdc-to-repress-the-sdhe-flavinylation-factor-and-control-motility-and-prodigiosin-production-in-serratia
#20
Hannah G Hampton, Matthew B McNeil, Thomas J Paterson, Blair Ney, Neil R Williamson, Richard A Easingwood, Mihnea Bostina, George P C Salmond, Peter C Fineran
SdhE is required for the flavinylation and activation of succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase (FRD). In addition, SdhE is conserved in proteobacteria (α, β and γ) and eukaryotes. Although the function of this recently characterized family of proteins has been determined, almost nothing is known about how their genes are regulated. Here, the RsmA (CsrA) and RsmC (HexY) post-transcriptional and post-translational regulators have been identified and shown to repress sdhEygfX expression in Serratia sp...
June 2016: Microbiology
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