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Masters swimming

Ricardo Peterson Silveira, Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro, Pedro Figueiredo, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Paola Zamparo
PURPOSE: to analyze the effects of swimming pace on the relative contribution of leg kick to swimming speed, and to compare arm stroke efficiency (ηf) assessed when swimming with the arms only (SAO) and while swimming front crawl (FCS) using individual and fixed adjustments to arm stroke and leg kick contribution to forward speed. METHODS: twenty-nine master swimmers (21 males, 8 females) performed SAO and FCS at six self-selected speeds from very slow to maximal speed...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Jan L Münch, Davod Alizadehrad, Sujin B Babu, Holger Stark
Microorganisms naturally move in microstructured fluids. Using the simulation method of multi-particle collision dynamics, we study in two dimensions an undulatory Taylor line swimming in a microchannel and in a cubic lattice of obstacles, which represent simple forms of a microstructured environment. In the microchannel the Taylor line swims at an acute angle along a channel wall with a clearly enhanced swimming speed due to hydrodynamic interactions with the bounding wall. While in a dilute obstacle lattice swimming speed is also enhanced, a dense obstacle lattice gives rise to geometric swimming...
September 21, 2016: Soft Matter
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
Pacing strategies have been investigated for elite-standard freestyle swimmers, but little is known about pacing in age-group freestyle swimmers. We investigated changes in swimming time across distances in 4,481 women and men swimmers who competed in 100, 200, 400, and 800 m freestyle age groups from 25-29 years to 90-94 years in the FINA World Masters Championships 2014. In 100 to 800 m, there was a small lap×sex interaction (P < 0.001, 0.033 ≤ η(2) ≤ 0.045) whereby women had larger lap-to-lap changes in swimming time than men...
July 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Mario C Espada, Mario J Costa, Aldo M Costa, Antonio J Silva, Tiago M Barbosa, Ana F Pereira
The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationships between sprint swimming performance, dry-land power, and kinematics in master swimmers. Twenty-two male master swimmers were separated in two groups based on their chronological age: (i) 30-39 years and; (ii) 40-49 years. Maximum dry-land power was determined through counter movement jump and 3 kg medicine ball throwing (Hmax and Tmax, respectively). Kinematic determinants of performance were measured during a maximal bout of 15, 25 and 50 m front crawl (T15, T25, T50)...
2016: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
Maria I Ferreira, Tiago M Barbosa, Mário J Costa, Henrique P Neiva, Daniel A Marinho
Ferreira, MI, Barbosa, TM, Costa, MJ, Neiva, HP, and Marinho, DA. Energetics, biomechanics, and performance in masters' swimmers: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2069-2081, 2016-This study aimed to summarize evidence on masters' swimmers energetics, biomechanics, and performance gathered in selected studies. An expanded search was conducted on 6 databases, conference proceedings, and department files. Fifteen studies were selected for further analysis. A qualitative evaluation of the studies based on the Quality Index (QI) was performed by 2 independent reviewers...
July 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Chiara M Unterweger, Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph A Rüst
Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated for different sport disciplines, but not for master swimmers. The knowledge on this topic is still missing for a particular stroke such as backstroke. Changes in participation and performance of male and female age group backstroke swimmers (≥25 years) competing in 50, 100 and 200 m pool swimming at the FINA World Masters Championships held between 1986 and 2014 were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses. The overall participation was n = 26,217 including n = 13,708 women and n = 12,509 men...
2016: SpringerPlus
Mirko Tomić, Đurđica Ignjatović, Gordana Tovilović-Kovačević, Dijana Krstić-Milošević, Slavica Ranković, Tamara Popović, Marija Glibetić
The treatment of mood and anxiety disorders by nutraceuticals is gaining growing awareness. Berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Black chokeberry) and their extracts, exceptionally abundant in diverse phenolic compounds, have become famous for the highest in vitro antioxidant activity among fruits and notable health benefits (e.g. anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective). This study was designed to investigate the behavioral effects of month-long unlimited consumption of Aronia master juice (AJ) and/or juice reconstruct without polyphenols (RJ), in young male rats...
July 13, 2016: Food & Function
Janina Braun, Magd Masoud, Klara Brixius, Christian Brinkmann
Increased oxidative stress (OS) can promote diseases in the long term, but it can also trigger cellular adaptations in the short term. The present study aims to analyze whether a 3-month high-intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T) affects OS in 24 Masters swimmers (22-67 years) before (= basal) and after an all-out performance (swimming step-test). Data were analyzed for the entire group and differentiated according to sex and age (under 50 years (U50) and over 50 years (O50)). Prior to the HI(I)T intervention, a significant increase in OS from the basal to the all-out value was observed among the entire group and in the O50-subjects (subgroup analysis)...
May 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Maria F Piacentini, Giulia DE Ioannon, Giuseppe Cibelli, Sergio Mignardi, Agnese Antonelli, Laura Capranica
AIM: The purpose of the present study was to report the training of a master athlete in preparation to an ultra-marathon swimming event. METHODS: For 32 weeks prior to a 78km "solo" open water swim from Italy to Albania, a male long distance master (48 yrs) swimmer was monitored. Training volume was recorded as total time and distance while intensities were recorded according to international classifications utilizing the primary goal of the session method. Thereafter, time spent in the three training zones: Z1 (low intensity training), Z2 (threshold training) and Z3 (high intensity training) was calculated...
April 7, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Hannah G Hampton, Matthew B McNeil, Thomas J Paterson, Blair Ney, Neil R Williamson, Richard A Easingwood, Mihnea Bostina, George P C Salmond, Peter C Fineran
SdhE is required for the flavinylation and activation of succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase (FRD). In addition, SdhE is conserved in proteobacteria (α, β and γ) and eukaryotes. Although the function of this recently characterized family of proteins has been determined, almost nothing is known about how their genes are regulated. Here, the RsmA (CsrA) and RsmC (HexY) post-transcriptional and post-translational regulators have been identified and shown to repress sdhEygfX expression in Serratia sp...
June 2016: Microbiology
Tatyana Strekalova, João P Costa-Nunes, Ekaterina Veniaminova, Aslan Kubatiev, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Vladimir P Chekhonin, Matthew C Evans, Harry W M Steinbusch
BACKGROUND: High cholesterol intake in mice induces hepatic lipid dystrophy and inflammation, signs of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and the up-regulation of brain and liver Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4). Here, we investigated whether dicholine succinate (DS), an insulin receptor sensitizer and mitochondrial complex II substrate would interact with these effects. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were given a 0.2%-cholesterol diet for 3 weeks, alone or along with oral DS administration, or a control feed...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Beata M Walter, Stephen T Cartman, Nigel P Minton, Matej Butala, Maja Rupnik
The LexA regulated SOS network is a bacterial response to DNA damage of metabolic or environmental origin. In Clostridium difficile, a nosocomial pathogen causing a range of intestinal diseases, the in-silico deduced LexA network included the core SOS genes involved in the DNA repair and genes involved in various other biological functions that vary among different ribotypes. Here we describe the construction and characterization of a lexA ClosTron mutant in C. difficile R20291 strain. The mutation of lexA caused inhibition of cell division resulting in a filamentous phenotype...
2015: PloS One
Sally K Guthrie, Steven R Erickson
The use of dietary supplements was compared between a cohort of committed exercisers, U.S. Masters Swimming (USMS) members (n = 1,042), and the general U.S. population, exemplified by respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 to 2010 (n = 6,209). USMS swimmers were significantly more likely to take dietary supplements (62%) than the general U.S. adult population, as represented by the NHANES population (37%). Those taking dietary supplements were older, more likely to be female and Caucasian, and more highly educated and affluent than those not taking supplements (p < ...
April 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
François Potdevin, Gilles Vanlerberghe, Gautier Zunquin, Thierry Pezé, Denis Theunynck
BACKGROUND: Swimming is often recommended as a means of increasing physical activity and gaining health benefits. The present study examined the psychological, social, and physical health states in competitive swimmers engaged in long-term training. METHODS: The study took place during the 4 days of the French master championships in France in 2011 (from 10 to 13 March). Global health parameters were evaluated and compared with general values reported in studies aiming to describe health standard values in France or Europe...
2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Angela Tate, Shana Harrington, Melissa Buness, Susan Murray, Caitlin Trout, Corinne Meisel
CONTEXT: Youth- through masters-level competitive swimmers incur significant shoulder pain. Risk factors associated with shoulder pain include high swimming yardage, a lack of cross-training, decreased shoulder strength and reduced core endurance, and limited posterior shoulder and pectoral length. Since training, swimming exposure, and physical-performance measures have all been associated with shoulder pain, the methods used to train swimmers may influence the development of shoulder pain, yet studies delineating training methods are lacking...
November 2015: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Zheng Ping, Long-fei Zhang, Yu-juan Cui, Yu-mei Chang, Cai-wu Jiang, Zhen-zhi Meng, Peng Xu, Hai-yan Liu, Dong-ying Wang, Xue-bin Cao
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that salidroside (SAL) can protect heart from exhaustive exercise-induced injury by enhancing mitochondrial respiratory function and mitochondrial biogenesis key signaling pathway PGC-1α-NRF1/NRF2 in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (C), exhaustive exercise (EE), low-dose SAL (LS), and high-dose SAL (HS). After one-time exhaustive swimming exercise, we measured the changes in cardiomyocyte ultrastructure and cardiac marker enzymes and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) complexes activities in situ...
2015: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Ahmed R Elmenshawy, Daniel R Machin, Hirofumi Tanaka
It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data...
June 2015: Age (2005-)
Nadine J Bode, Irina Debnath, Lisa Kuan, Anjelique Schulfer, Maureen Ty, Melanie M Pearson
The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is associated with a significant number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Strict regulation of the antagonistic processes of adhesion and motility, mediated by fimbriae and flagella, respectively, is essential for disease progression. Previously, the transcriptional regulator MrpJ, which is encoded by the mrp fimbrial operon, has been shown to repress both swimming and swarming motility. Here we show that MrpJ affects an array of cellular processes beyond adherence and motility...
June 2015: Infection and Immunity
Giorgio Gatta, Bruno Leban, Maurizio Paderi, Johnny Padulo, Gian Mario Migliaccio, Massimiliano Pau
PURPOSE: the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the transfer strength training method on swimming power. METHODS: twenty male swimmers "master" were randomly allocated to strength (n= 10, ST) and swimming training (n=10, SW) groups. Both groups performed six-weeks training based on swimming training for SW and strength training which consisted in a weight training session immediately followed by the maximum swimming velocity. The performance in both groups was assessed by Maximal-Mechanical-External-Power (MMEP) before and after the six-weeks period, using a custom ergometer that provided force, velocity, and power measurement in water...
October 2014: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
Amanda Akkari, Daniel Machin, Hirofumi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: The number of new world records has decreased substantially in most athletic events in recent years. There has been enormous growth in participation at Masters events, and older athletes have been competing at the highest levels with much younger athletes. However, the progression of athletic performance over time has not been well investigated in Masters athletes. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To determine whether older Masters athletes improved athletic performance over time, running and swimming times from 1975 to 2013 were collected biennially...
July 2015: Age and Ageing
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