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Open water swimming

Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Caio V de Sousa, Beat Knechtle
In open-water swimming events with non-elite swimmers held in the USA, but not in Europe, women were faster than men. We examined the sex difference in elite long-distance open-water swimming races and the role of nationality by investigating 7,468 swimmers competing in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km FINA races held between 2000 and 2016. More men participated in 10 km and 25 km than in 5km races. Men were faster than women and the sex difference was similar in all race distances. Swimming speed was faster for 5km than for 10km, which in turn was faster than 25km...
March 6, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Caio Victor Sousa, Beat Knechtle
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of wearing a wetsuit with sex, age group, nationality, calendar year, and performance in crossing the "Strait of Gibraltar"(14.3 km). Materials and methods: A sample of 1,130 open-water (females, n=180, age 35.9±11.9 years; males, n=950, age 40.0±10.2 years) ultra-distance swimmers crossing the "Strait of Gibraltar" since 1950 was analyzed. Results: Male, older, and Spanish swimmers used wetsuits more often than female, younger, and athletes of other nationalities, respectively, and the use of the wetsuit has increased during the past three decades...
2018: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Michael F Cameron, Kathryn J Frost, Jay M Ver Hoef, Greg A Breed, Alex V Whiting, John Goodwin, Peter L Boveng
The first year of life is typically the most critical to a pinniped's survival, especially for Arctic phocids which are weaned at only a few weeks of age and left to locate and capture prey on their own. Their seasonal movements and habitat selection are therefore important factors in their survival. During a cooperative effort between scientists and subsistence hunters in October 2004, 2005, and 2006, 13 female and 13 male young (i.e., age <2) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) were tagged with satellite-linked dive recorders (SDRs) in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska...
2018: PloS One
Frank E Fish, Allison Kolpas, Andrew Crossett, Michael A Dudas, Keith W Moored, Hilary Bart-Smith
For aquatic animals, turning maneuvers represent a locomotor activity that may not be confined to a single coordinate plane, making analysis difficult particularly in the field. To measure turning performance in a three-dimensional space for the manta ray ( Mobula birostris ), a large open-water swimmer, scaled stereo video recordings were collected. Movements of the cephalic lobes, eye and tail base were tracked to obtain three-dimensional coordinates. A mathematical analysis was performed on the coordinate data to calculate the turning rate and curvature (1/turning radius) as a function of time by numerically estimating the derivative of manta trajectories through three-dimensional space...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Y Yusha'u, U A Muhammad, M Nze, J M Egwuma, O J Igomu, M Abdulkadir
Flavonoids have been demonstrated to possess an anti-depressant effect and less adverse effects than tricyclic anti-depressants. For this reason, flavonoids in natural products have attracted growing attention. Rutin is a glycoside flavonoid which belongs to an important class of flavonoids, abundantly found in plants, such as buckwheat seeds, asparagus, red pepper, apples, citrus fruits and leaves of many herbs such as rosemary, dandelion or sage, and black and green tea.  It is a vital nutritional component of food stuff...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
A M M Sequeira, J P Rodríguez, V M Eguíluz, R Harcourt, M Hindell, D W Sims, C M Duarte, D P Costa, J Fernández-Gracia, L C Ferreira, G C Hays, M R Heupel, M G Meekan, A Aven, F Bailleul, A M M Baylis, M L Berumen, C D Braun, J Burns, M J Caley, R Campbell, R H Carmichael, E Clua, L D Einoder, Ari Friedlaender, M E Goebel, S D Goldsworthy, C Guinet, J Gunn, D Hamer, N Hammerschlag, M Hammill, L A Hückstädt, N E Humphries, M-A Lea, A Lowther, A Mackay, E McHuron, J McKenzie, L McLeay, C R McMahon, K Mengersen, M M C Muelbert, A M Pagano, B Page, N Queiroz, P W Robinson, S A Shaffer, M Shivji, G B Skomal, S R Thorrold, S Villegas-Amtmann, M Weise, R Wells, B Wetherbee, A Wiebkin, B Wienecke, M Thums
The extent of increasing anthropogenic impacts on large marine vertebrates partly depends on the animals' movement patterns. Effective conservation requires identification of the key drivers of movement including intrinsic properties and extrinsic constraints associated with the dynamic nature of the environments the animals inhabit. However, the relative importance of intrinsic versus extrinsic factors remains elusive. We analyze a global dataset of ∼2.8 million locations from >2,600 tracked individuals across 50 marine vertebrates evolutionarily separated by millions of years and using different locomotion modes (fly, swim, walk/paddle)...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dool-Ri Oh, Yujin Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Myung-A Jung, Kyo-Nyeo Oh, Ji-Ae Hong, Donghyuck Bae, Kwangsu Kim, Huwon Kang, Jaeyong Kim, Young Ran Kim, Seung Sik Cho, Chul-Young Choi
The fruit of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. (VBF) is commonly known as the oriental blueberry in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of water VBF extract (VBFW) in a mouse model of chronic restraint stress (CRS) and to identify the underlying mechanisms of its action. The behavioral effects of VBFW were assessed in the forced swim test (FST) and open field test (OFT). The levels of serum corticosterone (CORT), brain monoamines, in addition to the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway were evaluated...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Tom B Mole, Pieter Mackeith
Postoperative neuropathic pain exacerbated by movement is poorly understood and difficult to treat but a relatively common complication of surgical procedures such as endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy. Here, we describe a case of unexpected, immediate, complete and sustained remission of postoperative intercostal neuralgia after the patient engaged in an open-water swim in markedly cold conditions. Though an incidental chance association is possible, the clear temporal proximity linking the swim with pain remission makes a causal relationship possible...
February 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Joana Costa d'Avila, Luciana Domett Siqueira, Aurélien Mazeraud, Estefania Pereira Azevedo, Debora Foguel, Hugo Caire Castro-Faria-Neto, Tarek Sharshar, Fabrice Chrétien, Fernando Augusto Bozza
BACKGROUND: Microglia function is essential to maintain the brain homeostasis. Evidence shows that aged microglia are primed and show exaggerated response to acute inflammatory challenge. Systemic inflammation signals to the brain inducing changes that impact cognitive function. However, the mechanisms involved in age-related cognitive decline associated to episodic systemic inflammation are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to identify neuropathological features associated to age-related cognitive decline in a mouse model of episodic systemic inflammation...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Kelly Lynne Weinersmith, Caroline E Brown, Kira B Clingen, Marie C Jacobsen, Leah B Topper, Ryan F Hechinger
Parasites often use external cues to identify and move toward environments where they are likely to encounter suitable hosts. The trematode parasite Euhaplorchis californiensis produces cercariae that emerge from California horn snails (Cerithideopsis californica (=Cerithidea californica)) to infect California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis) as second intermediate hosts. Based on work on a congeneric Euhaplorchis species from Florida, and based on the ecology of its killifish host, we hypothesized that E. californiensis cercariae in southern California estuaries are positively phototactic and negatively geotactic, using both sunlight and gravity to guide their movement to the upper water column...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Leon Hosang, Rashad Yusifov, Siegrid Löwel
For routine behavioral tasks, mice predominantly rely on olfactory cues and tactile information. In contrast, their visual capabilities appear rather restricted, raising the question whether they can improve if vision gets more behaviorally relevant. We therefore performed long-term training using the visual water task (VWT): adult standard cage (SC)-raised mice were trained to swim toward a rewarded grating stimulus so that using visual information avoided excessive swimming toward nonrewarded stimuli. Indeed, and in contrast to old mice raised in a generally enriched environment (Greifzu et al...
January 2018: ENeuro
Atsushi Toyoda, Hikari Shimonishi, Mizuho Sato, Kento Usuda, Natsuki Ohsawa, Kentaro Nagaoka
Diverse commercially available feeds are used in animal studies according to the purpose of the studies. We sought to understand the relationship between feed ingredients and their effects on animal physiology and behaviors. Here, we investigated how male laboratory mice (C57BL/6J ("B6") mice) were affected by chronic feeding with two commercially available diets, a non-purified diet (MF) and a semi-purified diet (AIN-93G). In B6 mice, both diets similarly induced spontaneous activities in the home cage and the open field box, anxiety in the elevated plus maze test, and depressive-like behaviors in tail-suspension and forced-swimming tests, and with both diets, similar data were obtained on calorie intake, water intake, body weight gain, and plasma corticosterone levels...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Vandreza Cardoso Bortolotto, Franciane Cabral Pinheiro, Stífani Machado Araujo, Márcia Rósula Poetini, Bianca Santos Bertolazi, Mariane Trindade de Paula, Luana Barreto Meichtry, Francielli Polet de Almeida, Shanda de Freitas Couto, Cristiano Ricardo Jesse, Marina Prigol
Hypothyroidism is often associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chrysin on depressive-like behavior and monoamine levels in hypothyroid female mice. Hypothyroidism was induced by continuous exposure to 0.1% methimazole (MTZ) in drinking water for 31 days. Exposure to MTZ was associated with low plasma levels of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 compared with the control group. Subsequently, euthyroid and MTZ-induced hypothyroid mice were intragastrically administered vehicle or chrysin (20mg/kg) once a day for 28 consecutive days...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Anastasia Noël, Libin Zhou, Bénédicte Foveau, P Jesper Sjöström, Andréa C LeBlanc
Active cysteinyl protease Caspase-6 is associated with early Alzheimer and Huntington diseases. Higher entorhinal cortex and hippocampal Caspase-6 levels correlate with lower cognitive performance in aged humans. Caspase-6 induces axonal degeneration in human primary neuron cultures and causes inflammation and neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus, and age-dependent memory impairment. To assess whether Caspase-6 causes damage to another neuronal system, a transgenic knock-in mouse overexpressing a self-activated form of Caspase-6 five-fold in the striatum, the area affected in Huntington disease, and 2...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Silvia Gancheva, Bistra Galunska, Maria Zhelyazkova-Savova
Epidemiological studies reveal associations between obesity/metabolic syndrome and mood disorders. We assessed behavioural changes in rats fed diets enriched in fat and fructose in different proportions and correlated the observed alterations with biochemical changes induced by the diets. Three groups of rats were used as follows: control (C) animals fed regular rat chow, rats fed high-fat diet (HF) and rats fed high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFHF). HF and HFHF animals were also given a 10% fructose solution as drinking water...
October 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Jun-Ping Zhang, Ke-Ying Zhang, Ling Guo, Qi-Liang Chen, Peng Gao, Tian Wang, Jing Li, Guo-Zhen Guo, Gui-Rong Ding
The increasing use of mobile phones by teenagers has raised concern about the cognitive effects of radiofrequency (RF) fields. In this study, we investigated the effects of 4-week exposure to a 1.8 GHz RF field on the emotional behavior and spatial memory of adolescent male mice. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated by open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test, while depression-like behavior was evaluated by sucrose preference test (SPT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The spatial learning and memory ability were evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) experiments...
November 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Miguel A Garcia, Michael A Anderson
Monochloramine is a secondary disinfectant used in drinking water and is also formed in chlorinated wastewater. While known to hydrolyze over time and react with dissolved organic matter, its partitioning between the aqueous and gas phase has not been extensively studied. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that monochloramine concentrations in solutions open to the atmosphere or actively aerated decreased more rapidly than in sealed solutions, indicating significant losses to the atmosphere. For example, a monochloramine solution open to the atmosphere yielded a loss rate constant of 0...
October 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Sarawut Lapmanee, Jantarima Charoenphandhu, Jarinthorn Teerapornpuntakit, Nateetip Krishnamra, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known...
2017: PloS One
Hesong Liu, Gaurav Patki, Ankita Salvi, Matthew Kelly, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Earlier, we have reported that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like behaviors developed in rats that witnessed their cage mates undergo repeated traumatic stress. More recently, we published that early life physical traumatic stress leads to later life depression-like behaviors in rats. Whether early life trauma witness causes later life PTSD-like behaviors is not known. Also unclear are sex-specific stress-induced behavioral variations in later life. The early life witness component of stress is an important aspect of stress-induced psychopathologies and must be investigated...
February 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Grant E Haines, S Laurie Sanderson
Ram suspension-feeding fishes swim with an open mouth to force water through the oral cavity and extract prey items that are too small to be pursued individually. Recent research has indicated that, rather than using a dead-end mechanical sieve, American paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula ) employ vortical cross-step filtration. In this filtration mechanism, vortical flow that is generated posterior to the branchial arches organizes crossflow filtration processes into a spatial structure across the gill rakers...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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