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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490880/protective-efficacy-of-a-single-salvianolic-acid-a-treatment-on-photothrombosis-induced-sustained-spatial-memory-impairments
#1
Chun-Xiang Jiao, Heng Zhou, Chun-Xian Yang, Chen Ma, Yue-Xiong Yang, Rong-Rong Mao, Lin Xu, Qi-Xin Zhou
With respect to the high burden of ischemic stroke and the absence of pharmacological treatment for promoting rehabilitation, promising candidates with specific effects on long-term functional recovery are highly desired. Candidates need reasonable experimental paradigms to evaluate the long-term functional outcome focused on ischemia-induced sensorimotor and memory deficits. "Danshen", a traditional Chinese herb, has long been used to treat coronary and cerebral vascular diseases as well as dementia. Salvianolic acid A (SAA), one of the major active ingredients of Danshen, was demonstrated to be effective in protecting against cerebral ischemic injury...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489717/coliphages-and-gastrointestinal-illness-in-recreational-waters-pooled-analysis-of-six-coastal-beach-cohorts
#2
Jade Benjamin-Chung, Benjamin F Arnold, Timothy J Wade, Kenneth Schiff, John F Griffith, Alfred P Dufour, Stephen B Weisberg, John M Colford
BACKGROUND: Coliphages have been proposed as indicators of fecal contamination in recreational waters because they better mimic the persistence of pathogenic viruses in the environment and wastewater treatment than fecal indicator bacteria. We estimated the association between coliphages and gastrointestinal illness and compared it to the association with culturable enterococci. METHODS: We pooled data from six prospective cohort studies that enrolled coastal beachgoers in California, Alabama, and Rhode Island...
May 9, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459347/characteristics-and-challenges-of-open-water-swimming-performance-a-review
#3
Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo, Maria Francesca Piacentini
PURPOSE: Although the popularity of open water swimming (OWS) events has significantly increased in the last decades, specific studies regarding performance of elite or age group athletes in these events are scarce. The purpose of this review is to analyse the existing literature on OWS. METHODS: Relevant literature was located via computer-generated citations: during August 2016, online computer searches on PubMed and Scopus databases were conducted to locate published research...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424217/use-of-life-jackets-and-other-types-of-flotation-for-in-water-recreation-in-designated-swim-areas-in-washington-state
#4
Linda Quan, Thomas Mangione, Elizabeth Bennett, Wendy Chow
Most fatal drownings worldwide occur in open water. Flotation devices may protect swimmers. Their use by those recreating in water has not been described. METHODS: Observational survey of swimmers and waders at designated swim sites at lakes and rivers evaluated them by age group, sex, type of flotation used (life jacket vs substandard flotation, eg, water wings, noodles, inflatables) and, for children <6 years, being within arm's reach of an adult. RESULTS: Of 1967 swimmers/waders observed, 37% used some type of flotation device...
April 19, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410356/water-exposure-is-a-common-risk-behavior-among-soft-and-gas-permeable-contact-lens-wearers
#5
Aaron B Zimmerman, Kathryn Richdale, Gladys Lynn Mitchell, Beth T Kinoshita, Dawn Y Lam, Heidi Wagner, Luigina Sorbara, Robin L Chalmers, Sarah A Collier, Jennifer R Cope, Maya M Rao, Michael J Beach, Jonathan S Yoder
PURPOSE: To understand soft contact lens (SCL) and gas-permeable (GP) lens wearers' behaviors and knowledge regarding exposure of lenses to water. METHODS: The Contact Lens Risk Survey (CLRS) and health behavior questions were completed online by a convenience sample of 1056 SCL and 85 GP lens wearers aged 20 to 76 years. Participants were asked about exposing their lenses to water and their understanding of risks associated with these behaviors. Chi-square analyses examined relationships between patient behaviors and perceptions...
April 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392460/mesoporous-hydroxyapatite-as-a-carrier-of-olanzapine-for-long-acting-antidepression-treatment-in-rats-with-induced-depression
#6
Yan-Jye Shyong, Mao-Hsien Wang, Li-Wei Kuo, Chang-Fu Su, Wei-Ting Kuo, Kuo-Chi Chang, Feng-Huei Lin
An antidepressant carrier, mesoporous hydroxyapatite olanzapine (mesoHAP-OLZ), was designed to maintain 3weeks of constant medication release. The carrier was intramuscularly (IM) injected, where cellular activity played a role in achieving the goal of constant release. The efficiency of the treatment was evaluated from 3 perspectives in in vivo studies: locomotor activities, biomarkers, and learning and memory ability. MesoHAP-OLZ can increase the locomotor activity in rats with induced depression determined by open field test (OFT) and forced swim test (FST)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390940/ginkgo-biloba-l-attenuates-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-and-associated-neurological-conditions-in-lithium-pilocarpine-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-through-inhibition-of-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway-hyperactivation
#7
Arindam Ghosh Mazumder, Pallavi Sharma, Vikram Patial, Damanpreet Singh
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) has been widely used in traditional medicine for variety of neurological conditions particularly behavioral and memory impairments. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was envisaged to explore the effect of a standardized fraction of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBbf) in rat model of lithium-pilocarpine induced spontaneous recurrent seizures, and associated behavioral impairments and cognitive deficit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats showing appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures following lithium pilocarpine (LiPc)-induced status epilepticus (SE) were treated with different doses of GBbf or vehicle for subsequent 4 weeks...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380075/repeated-brief-isoflurane-anesthesia-during-early-postnatal-development-produces-negligible-changes-on-adult-behavior-in-male-mice
#8
Marko Rosenholm, Emmi Paro, Hanna Antila, Vootele Võikar, Tomi Rantamäki
Brain development is a complex process regulated by genetic programs and activity-dependent neuronal connectivity. Anesthetics profoundly alter neuronal excitability, and anesthesia during early brain development has been consistently associated with neuroapoptosis, altered synaptogenesis, and persistent behavioral abnormalities in experimental animals. However, the depth, and even more the duration and developmental time point(s) of exposure to anesthesia determine the neuropathological and long-term behavioral consequences of anesthetics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369101/risk-factors-for-gastroenteritis-associated-with-canal-swimming-in-two-cities-in-the-netherlands-during-the-summer-of-2015-a-prospective-study
#9
Rosa Joosten, Gerard Sonder, Saara Parkkali, Diederik Brandwagt, Ewout Fanoy, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Willemijn Lodder, Erik Ruland, Evelien Siedenburg, Suzanne Kliffen, Wilfrid van Pelt
Urban canal swimming events are popular in the Netherlands. In 2015, two city canal swimming events took place, in Utrecht (Utrecht Singel Swim, USS) and in Amsterdam (Amsterdam City Swim, ACS). This prospective study characterizes the health risks associated with swimming in urban waters. Online questionnaires were sent to 160 (USS) and 2,692 (ACS) participants, with relatives of participants who did not swim completing the questionnaire as a control. Swimming water specimens and stool specimens of diarrheic participants in the ACS group were analysed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302445/agmatine-attenuates-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-anxiety-depression-like-behaviours-and-cognitive-impairment-by-modulating-nitrergic-signalling-pathway
#10
Nitin B Gawali, Vipin D Bulani, Malvika S Gursahani, Padmini S Deshpande, Pankaj S Kothavade, Archana R Juvekar
Agmatine, a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, has shown to exert numerous effects on the CNS. Chronic stress is a risk factor for development of depression, anxiety and deterioration of cognitive performance. Compelling evidences indicate an involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway in these disorders. Hence, investigation of the beneficial effects of agmatine on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression, anxiety and cognitive performance with the involvement of nitrergic pathway was undertaken...
March 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298467/swimming-and-diving-energetics-in-dolphins-a-stroke-by-stroke-analysis-for-predicting-the-cost-of-flight-responses-in-wild-odontocetes
#11
Terrie M Williams, Traci L Kendall, Beau P Richter, Courtney R Ribeiro-French, Jason S John, Kim L Odell, Barbara A Losch, David A Feuerbach, M Andrew Stamper
Exponential increases in hydrodynamic drag and physical exertion occur when swimmers move quickly through water, and underlie the preference for relatively slow routine speeds by marine mammals regardless of body size. Because of this and the need to balance limited oxygen stores when submerged, flight (escape) responses may be especially challenging for this group. To examine this, we used open-flow respirometry to measure the energetic cost of producing a swimming stroke during different levels of exercise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241029/squamation-and-ecology-of-thelodonts
#12
Humberto G Ferrón, Héctor Botella
Thelodonts are an enigmatic group of Paleozoic jawless vertebrates that have been well studied from taxonomical, biostratigraphic and paleogeographic points of view, although our knowledge of their ecology and mode of life is still scant. Their bodies were covered by micrometric scales whose morphology, histology and the developmental process are extremely similar to those of extant sharks. Based on these similarities and on the well-recognized relationship between squamation and ecology in sharks, here we explore the ecological diversity and lifestyles of thelodonts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229104/prenatal-stressors-in-rodents-effects-on-behavior
#13
REVIEW
Marta Weinstock
The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211103/impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rats-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-involvement-with-the-imbalance-of-nesfatin-1-abundance-and-copine-6-expression
#14
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Rui Wu, Yin-Xiu Han, Yue Yu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, resulting not only in liver dysfunction, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, but also in neuropsychiatric damage. In the present study, a NAFLD rat model was established via feeding of a high-fat diet, and the behavior was observed via the open field test (OFT), the sucrose preference test (SPT), the elevated plus maze (EPM), the forced swimming test (FST), and the Morris water maze (MWM). The plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194312/will-you-swim-into-my-parlour-in-situ-observations-of-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua-interactions-with-baited-pots-with-implications-for-gear-design
#15
Phillip Meintzer, Philip Walsh, Brett Favaro
Pots (also known as traps) are baited fishing gears widely used in commercial fisheries, and are being considered as a tool for harvesting Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Pots produce lower environmental impacts than many other fishing gears, but they will only be a viable fishing strategy if they are efficient and selective at catching their target species. To study the behaviour of cod in and around pots, and how those behaviours affect pot efficiency, we used long-duration underwater video cameras to assess two models of cod pot deployed in the nearshore waters of Fogo Island, NL...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178297/the-flashlight-fish-anomalops-katoptron-uses-bioluminescent-light-to-detect-prey-in-the-dark
#16
Jens Hellinger, Peter Jägers, Marcel Donner, Franziska Sutt, Melanie D Mark, Budiono Senen, Ralph Tollrian, Stefan Herlitze
Bioluminescence is a fascinating phenomenon occurring in numerous animal taxa in the ocean. The reef dwelling splitfin flashlight fish (Anomalops katoptron) can be found in large schools during moonless nights in the shallow water of coral reefs and in the open surrounding water. Anomalops katoptron produce striking blink patterns with symbiotic bacteria in their sub-ocular light organs. We examined the blink frequency in A. katoptron under various laboratory conditions. During the night A. katoptron swims in schools roughly parallel to their conspecifics and display high blink frequencies of approximately 90 blinks/minute with equal on and off times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162113/a-large-outbreak-of-gastrointestinal-illness-at-an-open-water-swimming-event-in-the-river-thames-london
#17
V Hall, A Taye, B Walsh, H Maguire, J Dave, A Wright, C Anderson, P Crook
Open-water swimming is increasingly popular, often in water not considered safe for bathing. Limited evidence exists on the associated health risks. We investigated gastrointestinal illness in 1100 swimmers in a River Thames event in London, UK, to describe the outbreak and identify risk factors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Our case definition was swimmers with any: diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal cramps lasting ⩾48 h, nausea lasting ⩾48 h, with onset within 9 days after the event. We used an online survey to collect information on symptoms, demographics, pre- and post-swim behaviours and open-water experience...
February 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100802/hydrodynamic-detection-and-localization-of-artificial-flatfish-breathing-currents-by-harbour-seals-phoca-vitulina
#18
Benedikt Niesterok, Yvonne Krüger, Sven Wieskotten, Guido Dehnhardt, Wolf Hanke
Harbour seals are known to be opportunistic feeders, whose diet consists mainly of pelagic and benthic fish, such as flatfish. As flatfish are often cryptic and do not produce noise, we hypothesized that harbour seals are able to detect and localize flatfish using their hydrodynamic sensory system (vibrissae), as fish emit water currents through their gill openings (breathing currents). To test this hypothesis, we created an experimental platform where an artificial breathing current was emitted through one of eight different openings...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097495/the-expression-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-gene-is-not-affected-by-low-oxygen-conditions-in-yellow-perch-perca-flavescens-juveniles
#19
Karolina Kwasek, Simona Rimoldi, Anna Giulia Cattaneo, Timothy Parker, Konrad Dabrowski, Genciana Terova
Hypoxia can affect various fish populations, including yellow perch Perca flavescens, which is an economically and ecologically important species in Lake Erie, a freshwater system that often experiences hypoxia in the hypolimnetic part of the lake. Fish, similarly to mammals, possess molecular oxygen sensor-hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a transcription factor that can affect expression of many downstream genes related to animal growth and locomotion, protein synthesis, as well as ATP and amino acid metabolism...
June 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089854/effects-of-adolescent-methamphetamine-and-nicotine-exposure-on-behavioral-performance-and-map-2-immunoreactivity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-adolescent-mice
#20
Jordan M Buck, Alysse S Morris, Sydney J Weber, Jacob Raber, Jessica A Siegel
The neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (MA) exposure in the developing and adult brain can lead to behavioral alterations and cognitive deficits in adults. Previous increases in the rates of adolescent MA use necessitate that we understand the behavioral and cognitive effects of MA exposure during adolescence on the adolescent brain. Adolescents using MA exhibit high rates of nicotine (NIC) use, but the effects of concurrent MA and NIC in the adolescent brain have not been examined, and it is unknown if NIC mediates any of the effects of MA in the adolescent...
April 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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