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Knee biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154692/landing-kinematics-and-kinetics-at-the-knee-during-different-landing-tasks
#1
Nicholas R Heebner, Deirdre M Rafferty, Meleesa F Wohleber, Andrew J Simonson, Mita Lovalekar, Andrew Reinert, Timothy C Sell
CONTEXT:   Several tasks have been used to examine landing biomechanics for evaluation and rehabilitation, especially as related to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, comparing results among studies in which different tasks were used can be difficult, and it is unclear which task may be most appropriate. OBJECTIVE:   To compare lower extremity biomechanics across 5 commonly used landing tasks. DESIGN:   Descriptive laboratory study...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153477/biomechanical-adaptations-during-running-differ-based-on-type-of-exercise-and-fitness-level
#2
Lindsay V Slater, Austin S Simpson, Silvia S Blemker, Jay Hertel, Susan A Saliba, Arthur L Weltman, Joseph M Hart
Lower extremity injuries are most common in more active and fit individuals, suggesting that adaptations from neuromuscular fatigue may differ depending on type of exercise and fitness level. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in gait in highly fit and recreationally active individuals before and after two exercise protocols. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were measured on the dominant leg during running before and after two exercise protocols (walking/sport) from 0 to 100% of gait in 24 healthy individuals divided into higher (n=13) and lower fitness (n=11) groups...
November 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150344/biomechanical-mechanism-of-lateral-trunk-lean-gait-for-knee-osteoarthritis-patients
#3
Kazuki Tokuda, Masaya Anan, Makoto Takahashi, Tomonori Sawada, Kenji Tanimoto, Nobuhiro Kito, Koichi Shinkoda
The biomechanical mechanism of lateral trunk lean gait employed to reduce external knee adduction moment (KAM) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients is not well known. This mechanism may relate to the center of mass (COM) motion. Moreover, lateral trunk lean gait may affect motor control of the COM displacement. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis is an evaluation index used to understand motor control and variability of the motor task. Here we aimed to clarify the biomechanical mechanism to reduce KAM during lateral trunk lean gait and how motor variability controls the COM displacement...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150301/is-subchondral-bone-cyst-formation-in-non-load-bearing-region-of-osteoarthritic-knee-a-vascular-problem
#4
Pok Man Boris Chan, Chunyi Wen, Wai Ching Yang, Chunhoi Yan, KwongYuen Chiu
Subchondral bone cyst is common in the progressive knee osteoarthritis yet its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In addition to the existing theories such as synovial fluid influx and mechanical contusion, we identified the potential link between vascular pathology and osteoarthritic bone pathologies including cystic lesion formation, particularly in the non-load-bearing region. This new hypothesis for SBC formation in non-load-bearing region for knee, which cannot be explained by the existing theories, will provide us a new angle to understand the pathomechanism and pathophysiology of subchondral bone disturbance in osteoarthritis in addition to the classical biomechanical overloading theories...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148611/biomechanical-investigation-of-the-modified-tardieu-scale-in-assessing-knee-extensor-spasticity-poststroke
#5
Samaneh Gholami, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi, Azadeh Tabatabaei, Davood Jannat, Maryam Senobari, Mahdi Dadgoo
OBJECTIVE: The modified Tardieu Scale (MTS) is a clinical tool for the measurement of muscle spasticity. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the MTS and the slope of the work-velocity curve as a biomechanical measure in assessing knee extensor muscle spasticity in patients with stroke. METHODS: Thirty patients with stroke (22 female, 8 male; mean age 55.4 ± 12.0 years) participated in this study. The knee extensor spasticity was assessed with the MTS...
November 17, 2017: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146284/supervised-learning-techniques-and-their-ability-to-classify-a-change-of-direction-task-strategy-using-kinematic-and-kinetic-features
#6
Chris Richter, Enda King, Eanna Falvey, Andrew Franklyn-Miller
This study examines the ability of commonly used supervised learning techniques to classify the execution of a maximum effort change of direction task into predefined movement pattern as well as the influence of fuzzy executions and the impact of selected features (e.g. peak knee flexion) towards classification accuracy. The experiment utilized kinematic and kinetic data from 323 male subjects with chronic athletic groin pain. All subjects undertook a biomechanical assessment and had been divided previously into 3 different movement strategies in an earlier paper...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146283/a-computational-framework-for-estimating-statistical-power-and-planning-hypothesis-driven-experiments-involving-one-dimensional-biomechanical-continua
#7
Todd C Pataky, Mark A Robinson, Jos Vanrenterghem
Statistical power assessment is an important component of hypothesis-driven research but until relatively recently (mid-1990s) no methods were available for assessing power in experiments involving continuum data and in particular those involving one-dimensional (1D) time series. The purpose of this study was to describe how continuum-level power analyses can be used to plan hypothesis-driven biomechanics experiments involving 1D data. In particular, we demonstrate how theory- and pilot-driven 1D effect modeling can be used for sample-size calculations for both single- and multi-subject experiments...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146161/intraoperative-workflow-for-all-inside-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-biomechanical-evaluation-of-preconditioning-and-knot-tying
#8
Edoardo Monaco, Samuel Bachmaier, Mattia Fabbri, Riccardo Maria Lanzetti, Coen A Wijdicks, Andrea Ferretti
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the effect of preconditioning according to intraoperative workflow on the elongation behavior of single-side and fully knotted all-inside anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction configurations in a biomechanical in vitro study. METHODS: Four full construct all-inside ACL reconstruction groups (n = 8 per group) were tested using porcine tibias and bovine tendons. Groups included both an all-inside configuration with one- (group 1) and both-side knotted adjustable loop-length devices (group 2), without and with performing intraoperative preconditioning (group 1-intraoperative preconditioned [IPC], group 2-IPC)...
November 13, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145876/standing-on-slopes-how-current-microprocessor-controlled-prosthetic-feet-support-transtibial-and-transfemoral-amputees-in-an-everyday-task
#9
Michael Ernst, Björn Altenburg, Malte Bellmann, Thomas Schmalz
BACKGROUND: Conventional prosthetic feet like energy storage and return feet provide only a limited range of ankle motion compared to human ones. In order to overcome the poor rotational adaptability, prosthetic manufacturers developed different prosthetic feet with an additional rotational joint and implemented active control in different states. It was the aim of the study to investigate to what extent these commercially available microprocessor-controlled prosthetic feet support a natural posture while standing on inclines and which concept is most beneficial for lower limb amputees...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143300/effect-of-restraining-the-base-of-support-on-the-other-biomechanical-features-in-patients-with-cerebellar-ataxia
#10
C Conte, Mariano Serrao, L Cuius, A Ranavolo, S Conforto, F Pierelli, L Padua
This study aimed to analyze the biomechanical consequences of reducing the base of support in patients with ataxia. Specifically, we evaluated the spatio-temporal parameters, upper- and lower-body kinematics, muscle co-activation, and energy recovery and expenditure. The gaits of 13 patients were recorded using a motion analysis system in unperturbed and perturbed walking conditions. In the latter condition, patients had to walk using the same step width and speed of healthy controls. The perturbed walking condition featured reduced gait speed, step length, hip and knee range of motion, and energy recovery and increased double support duration, gait variability, trunk oscillation, and ankle joint muscle co-activation...
November 15, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142272/individuals-of-the-common-namib-day-gecko-vary-in-how-adaptive-simplification-alters-sprint-biomechanics
#11
Clint E Collins, Timothy E Higham
Locomotion inextricably links biomechanics to ecology as animals maneuver through mechanically challenging environments. Faster individuals are more likely to escape predators, surviving to produce more offspring. Fast sprint speed evolved several times in lizards, including geckos. However, the underlying mechanisms determining performance await discovery in many clades. Novel morphological structures influence these mechanisms by adding complexity to the government of locomotion. Gecko adhesion coevolves with modified muscles, tendons, and reflexes...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141879/lower-limb-biomechanical-analysis-during-an-unanticipated-step-on-a-bump-reveals-specific-adaptations-of-walking-on-uneven-terrains
#12
Fausto A Panizzolo, Sangjun Lee, Taira Miyatake, Denise Martineli Rossi, Christopher Siviy, Jozefien Speeckaert, Ignacio Galiana, Conor J Walsh
Although it is clear that walking over different irregular terrain is associated with altered biomechanics, there is little understanding of how we quickly adapt to unexpected variations in terrain. This study aims to investigate which adaptive strategies humans adopt when performing an unanticipated step on an irregular surface, specifically a small bump. Nine healthy male participants walked at their preferred walking speed along a straight walkway during five conditions: four involving unanticipated bumps of two different heights, and one level walking condition...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140159/athletes-rated-as-poor-single-leg-squat-performers-display-measureable-differences-in-single-leg-squat-biomechanics-compared-to-good-performers
#13
Lachlan E Garrick, Bryce C Alexander, Anthony G Schache, Marcus G Pandy, Kay M Crossley, Natalie J Collins
CONTEXT: It is important to validate single-leg squat visual rating criteria used in clinical practice and research. Foot orthoses may improve single-leg squat performance in those who demonstrate biomechanics associated with increased risk of lower-limb injury. OBJECTIVE: Validate visual rating criteria proposed by Crossley et al, by determining whether athletes rated as poor single-leg squat performers display different single-leg squat biomechanics than good performers; and evaluate immediate effects of foot orthoses on single-leg squat biomechanics in poor performers...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139573/gait-patterns-symptoms-and-function-in-patients-with-isolated-tibiofemoral-osteoarthritis-and-combined-tibiofemoral-and-patellofemoral-osteoarthritis
#14
Harvi F Hart, Kay M Crossley, Michael A Hunt
The purpose of this study was to compare hip and knee biomechanics during walking in individuals with isolated TFOA, combined TFOA and PFOA, and those without knee OA, and to compare patient-reported symptoms and function in individuals with isolated TFOA and those with combined TFOA and PFOA. Participants with and without knee OA were assessed and categorized into (i) no OA, (ii) isolated TFOA, and (iii) combined TFOA and PFOA, based on Kellgren and Lawrence diagnostic criteria. Quantitative motion analyses were conducted during walking, and hip and knee kinematics and external moments were calculated...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132264/leg-amputation-side-determines-performance-in-curve-sprinting-a-case-study-on-a-paralympic-medalist
#15
Johannes Funken, Kai Heinrich, Steffen Willwacher, Ralf Müller, Jonas Böcker, Hiroaki Hobara, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Wolfgang Potthast
The lower limb kinetics of curve sprinting in amputees are not well described in the literature, particularly with respect to the effect of the side of amputation. This is an issue due to the importance of the knowledge for prosthetic design and classification of athletes. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of side of amputation on curve sprinting performance in athletes with a unilateral leg amputation. A three-dimensional motion analysis system (Vicon), four force plates (Kistler) and a modified mathematical human model (ALASKA) were used to compare clockwise and counter clockwise curve sprinting lower limb kinematics and kinetics of a Paralympic medalist with a left-sided knee exarticular amputation...
November 13, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128508/relative-and-absolute-test-retest-reliabilities-of-biomechanical-risk-factors-for-knee-osteoarthritis-progression-benchmarks-for-meaningful-change
#16
Nicholas M Brisson, Paul W Stratford, Monica R Maly
OBJECTIVE: Biomechanical factors are important treatment targets in knee osteoarthritis. The knee adduction (KAM) and flexion (KFM) moments, quadriceps strength and power, load frequency, and body mass index (BMI) all have the potential to affect knee articular cartilage integrity by modulating forces across the joint. To identify clinically meaningful change, however, these measurements must be reliable and sensitive to change. This study estimated relative and absolute test-retest reliabilities over long periods of biomechanical risk factors for knee osteoarthritis progression...
November 8, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128507/moderators-and-mediators-of-effects-of-unloading-shoes-on-knee-pain-in-people-with-knee-osteoarthritis-an-exploratory-analysis-of-the-shark-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Kade L Paterson, Jessica Kasza, Kim L Bennell, Tim V Wrigley, Ben R Metcalf, Penny K Campbell, David J Hunter, Rana S Hinman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate moderators and biomechanical mediators of effects of unloading shoes on knee pain in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Exploratory analysis from 164 participants in a clinical trial comparing unloading (ASICS GEL-Melbourne OA) to conventional walking shoes. The primary outcome was 6-month change in knee pain (11-point numerical rating scale). Moderators included baseline peak knee adduction moment (KAM), radiographic severity (Kellgren & Lawrence (KL) scale), body mass, foot posture, neuropathic pain and diffuse knee pain...
November 8, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127754/-osteoarthritis-as-part-of-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Karel Pavelka
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent joint disease, whereas etiopathogenesis of OA is not entirely clarified. It is a heterogeneous disorder and genetic as well as biomechanical, endocrine and inflammatory effects may be involved in its origin. The author examines the problems concerning relationships between the metabolic syndrome and OA, and states that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with OA is higher than in those without OA (59 % vs 23 %). It remains problematic that one of the main components of metabolic syndrome is obesity which in itself is a risk factor for arthrosis development in the weight-bearing joints, not for OA in the hands...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124075/the-role-of-lateral-extra-articular-tenodesis-in-primary-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-and-best-evidence-synthesis
#19
Brian M Devitt, Stuart W Bell, Clare L Ardern, Taylor Hartwig, Tabitha J Porter, Julian A Feller, Kate E Webster
Background: The role of lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LEAT) to augment primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) remains controversial. Purpose: To determine whether the addition of LEAT to primary ACLR provides greater control of rotational laxity and improves clinical outcomes compared with ACLR alone and to assess the impact of early versus delayed ACLR. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Two reviewers independently searched 7 databases for randomized and nonrandomized clinical studies comparing ACLR plus LEAT versus ACLR alone...
October 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123919/t2-mapping-and-post-contrast-t1-dgemric-of-the-patellar-cartilage-12-year-follow-up-after-patellar-stabilizing-surgery-in-childhood
#20
Eva Bengtsson Moström, Eveliina Lammentausta, Thröstur Finnbogason, Lars Weidenhielm, Per-Mats Janarv, Carl Johan Tiderius
Background: Cartilage degeneration has been reported after recurrent patellar dislocation. However, effects of surgical stabilization in childhood have not yet been described. Purpose: To examine the cartilage quality in very young adults operated with a patellar stabilizing procedure due to recurrent patellar dislocation in childhood, and evaluate if cartilage quality correlates with clinical parameters and patient-reported outcomes. Material and Methods: Seventeen patients were investigated ≥ 5 years (mean = 11...
October 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
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