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Knee biomechanics

E K Greska, N Cortes, S I Ringleb, J A Onate, B L Van Lunen
Previous studies have shown conflicting information regarding leg dominance as an etiological factor for the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. It remains unclear if lower extremity neuromechanical limb asymmetries exist in experienced athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower extremity neuromechanical effects of leg dominance in female collegiate soccer athletes during an unanticipated side-step cutting task. Twenty female collegiate soccer players completed an unanticipated side-step cutting task, using their dominant and non-dominant legs...
October 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jeong-Ku Ha, Dhong-Won Lee, Jin-Goo Kim
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have elucidated the functional anatomy and biomechanics of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), as a result, double-bundle (DB) ACL reconstruction has received much attention and has become a popular choice because it gives better rotational stability. Many other studies, however, found no differences with respect to stability, and/or other clinical outcomes between the DB and single-bundle (SB) techniques. There is still not enough evidence as to whether the anatomical DB anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is superior to anatomical SB reconstruction...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Douglas W Powell, Samantha Andrews, Cris Stickley, D S Blaise Williams
: High- (HA) and low-arched athletes (LA) experience distinct injury patterns. These injuries are the result of the interaction of structure and biomechanics. A suggested mechanism of patellofemoral pain pertains to frontal plane knee moments which may be exaggerated in LA athletes. We hypothesize that LA athletes will exhibit greater peak knee abduction moments than high-arched athletes. METHODS: Twenty healthy female recreational athletes (10HA and 10LA) performed five over-ground barefoot walking and five barefoot running trials at a self-selected velocity while three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded...
October 13, 2016: Human Movement Science
D S Blaise Williams, Jonathan H Cole, Douglas W Powell
Running during sports and for physical activity often requires changes in velocity through acceleration and deceleration. While it is clear that lower extremity biomechanics vary during these accelerations and decelerations, the work requirements of the individual joints are not well understood. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the sagittal plane mechanical work of the individual lower extremity joints during acceleration, deceleration and steady state running. 10 runners were compared during acceleration, deceleration and steady state running using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics measures...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Takayuki Furumatsu, Toshifumi Ozaki
The multifunctional growth factor CYR61/CTGF/NOV (CCN) 2, also known as connective tissue growth factor, regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, and tissue regeneration. Recent literatures have described important roles of CCN2 in the meniscus metabolism. However, the mechanical stress-mediated transcriptional regulation of CCN2 in the meniscus remains unclear. The meniscus is a fibrocartilaginous tissue that controls complex biomechanics of the knee joint. Therefore, the injured unstable meniscus has a poor healing potential especially in the avascular inner region...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nikolai Briffa, Raju Karthickeyan, Joshua Jacob, Arshad Khaleel
The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of medial and lateral plating of a medially comminuted supracondylar femoral fracture. A supracondylar femoral fracture model comparing two fixation methods was tested cyclically in axial loading. One-centimetre supracondylar gap osteotomies were created in six synthetic femurs approximately 6 cm proximal to the knee joint. There were two constructs investigated: group 1 and group 2 were stabilized with an 8-hole LC-DCP, medially and laterally, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction
Kade L Paterson, Kim L Bennell, Tim V Wrigley, Ben R Metcalf, Jessica Kasza, Rana S Hinman
OBJECTIVE: To validate simple criteria that distinguish flat flexible from stable supportive walking shoes by comparing their effects on the knee adduction moment (KAM) in people with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional biomechanical study. We proposed five criteria to differentiate flat flexible from stable supportive shoes, and selected three pairs of shoes representing each class for biomechanical testing. 28 participants aged ≥50 years with symptomatic medial knee OA underwent gait analysis barefoot and wearing each of the six selected shoes, in random order...
October 8, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Alison H Chang, Joan S Chmiel, Orit Almagor, Ali Guermazi, Pottumarthi V Prasad, Kirsten C Moisio, Laura Belisle, Yunhui Zhang, Karen Hayes, Leena Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Knee sagittal dynamic joint stiffness (DJS) describes the biomechanical interaction between change in external knee flexion moment and flexion angular excursion during gait. In theory, greater DJS may particularly stress the patellofemoral (PF) compartment and thereby contribute to PF osteoarthritis (OA) worsening. We hypothesized that greater baseline knee sagittal DJS is associated with PF cartilage damage worsening 2 years later. METHODS: Participants all had OA in at least one knee...
October 8, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Michael A Samaan, Benedikt J Schwaiger, Matthew C Gallo, Thomas M Link, Alan L Zhang, Sharmila Majumdar, Richard B Souza
BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a morphological abnormality of the hip joint that causes pain when performing a mechanically demanding activity of daily living such as the sit-to-stand (STS) task. Previous studies have assessed lower extremity joint mechanics during a STS task in various pathologies yet the STS task has not been studied in FAI patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in joint kinetics and performance between FAI patients and healthy controls during a STS task...
October 8, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Andrew R Palisch, Ronald R Winters, Marc H Willis, Collin D Bray, Theodore B Shybut
The menisci play an important biomechanical role in axial load distribution of the knees by means of hoop strength, which is contingent on intact circumferentially oriented collagen fibers and meniscal root attachments. Disruption of the meniscal root attachments leads to altered biomechanics, resulting in progressive cartilage loss, osteoarthritis, and subchondral edema, with the potential for development of a subchondral insufficiency fracture. Identification of meniscal root tears at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is crucial because new arthroscopic surgical techniques (transtibial pullout repair) have been developed to repair meniscal root tears and preserve the tibiofemoral cartilage of the knee...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Humberto G Rosas
Although rare, posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries can result in sustained instability and failed cruciate ligament reconstruction if they are not diagnosed. The anatomy of the PLC was once thought to be perplexing and esoteric-in part because of the varying nomenclature applied to this region in the literature, which added unnecessary complexity. More recently, three major structures have been described as the primary stabilizers of the PLC on the basis of biomechanical study findings: the lateral collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteofibular ligament...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Ssu-Yu Chang, Yi-Jia Lin, Wei-Chun Hsu, Lin-Fen Hsieh, Yuan-Hsiang Lin, Chao-Chin Chang, You-Cai Chou, Li-Fei Chen
Six female patients with bilateral medial knee OA and 6 healthy controls were recruited. Patients with knee OA received a 6-week physiotherapist-supervised and home-based exercise program. Outcome measures, including the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and Short Form-36 Health Survey as well as objective biomechanical indices were obtained at baseline and follow-up. After treatment, no significant difference was observed in the knee abductor moment (KAM), lever arm, and ground reaction force...
2016: BioMed Research International
Camila Cohen Kaleka, Leandro Jun Aihara, Anderson Rodrigues, Sebastião Ferreira de Medeiros, Victor Marques de Oliveira, Ricardo de Paula Leite Cury
PURPOSE: To detail the anatomy of the medial patella stabilizers, medial patellotibial (MPTL), and medial patellomeniscal ligaments (MPML), focusing on the points of origin and insertion, length, thickness, width, and fibres orientation to study the frequency of anatomical variations and the anatomy of these ligaments, thereby improving surgical techniques. METHODS: Thirty dissected knees were analysed. A digital caliper was used to measure the length, thickness, and width, as well as the mid-point of the ligaments insertion and the distance from the MPTL insertion to the articular surface of the tibia...
October 8, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Jacob Matz, James L Howard, David J Morden, Steven J MacDonald, Matthew G Teeter, Brent A Lanting
BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral joint biomechanics contribute to anterior knee pain, instability, and dysfunction following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Information about specific factors leading to anterior knee pain and dysfunction is currently limited. Changes in patellofemoral joint offset (PFO) refers to a mismatch between the preoperative and postoperative anteroposterior geometry of the patellofemoral joint. It remains unclear whether these changes lead to adverse outcomes in TKA...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Zhiguo Yuan, Shuyun Liu, Chunxiang Hao, Weimin Guo, Shuang Gao, Mingjie Wang, Mingxue Chen, Zhen Sun, Yichi Xu, Yu Wang, Jiang Peng, Mei Yuan, Quan-Yi Guo
Tissue-engineered meniscus regeneration is a very promising treatment strategy for meniscus lesions. However, generating the scaffold presents a huge challenge for meniscus engineering as this has to meet particular biomechanical and biocompatibility requirements. In this study, we utilized acellular meniscus extracellular matrix (AMECM) and demineralized cancellous bone (DCB) to construct three different types of three-dimensional porous meniscus scaffold: AMECM, DCB, and AMECM/DCB, respectively. We tested the scaffolds' physicochemical characteristics and observed their interactions with meniscus fibrochondrocytes to evaluate their cytocompatibility...
September 28, 2016: Biomaterials
Nicole L Zaino, Mark J Hedgeland, Mario J Ciani, Alexander Martin Clark, Laurel Kuxhaus, Arthur J Michalek
Animal joints are valuable proxies for those of humans in biomechanical studies, however commonly used quadruped knees differ greatly from human knees in scale and morphometry. To test the suitability of the cervine stifle joint (deer knee) as a laboratory model, gross morphometry, ACL cross section, and ACL rupture strength were measured and compared to values previously reported for the knees of humans and commonly studied animals. Twelve knee joints from wild white-tailed deer were tested. Several morphometry parameters, including bicondylar width (53...
October 7, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
James L Cook, Keiichi Kuroki, Aaron M Stoker, Farrah A Monibi, Brandon L Roller
The knee is a fascinating yet complex joint. Researchers and clinicians agree that the joint is an organ comprised of highly specialized intrinsic and extrinsic tissues contributing to both health and disease. Key to the function and movement of the knee are the menisci, exquisite fibrocartilage structures that are critical structures for maintaining biologic and biomechanical integrity of the joint. The biologic/physiologic functions of the menisci must be understood at the tissue, cellular and even molecular levels in order to determine clinically relevant methods for assessing it and influencing it...
October 7, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
Ayoosh Pareek, Michael P O'Malley, Bruce A Levy, Michael J Stuart, Aaron J Krych
Understanding of meniscal function through basic science, natural history, and biomechanics has highlighted the importance of preserving the meniscus to maintain normal knee biomechanics. Tears that may alter these biomechanics can contribute to the progressive nature of degenerative joint disease in the knee. Radial tears result in the disruption of the circumferential fibers causing inability of the native meniscus to resist normal hoop stresses, thereby leading to increased focal areas of pressure that cause complications such as early onset arthrosis...
August 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
Ahmad M Wagih, Ahmed M F Elguindy
Recent advances in surgeons' understanding of the anatomic, biomechanical, and radiologic features of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee have led to an increased interest in reconstruction of this structure as part of the management of knee instability. Even without any technical flaws and proper positioning of the bone tunnels, there is a small subset of patients, approximately 7% of all patients, who experience some residual anterolateral rotational instability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction...
August 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
Arielle G Fischer, Alon Wolf
BACKGROUND: Body weight unloading is a common method of gait rehabilitation. However, little is known about its effects on the overground gait biomechanical parameters which were often confounded by the walking modality (treadmill) or the speed variability when subjects walked overground while having to pull the body weight unloading system to which they were attached. By designing a mechanical device that pulled the system at a constant speed, we were able to assess the unique effects of body weight unloading on healthy subjects' kinetics during overground gait...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
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