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Knee biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813992/review-of-the-actuators-of-active-knee-prostheses-and-their-target-design-outputs-for-activities-of-daily-living
#1
Dominik Simon Pieringer, Martin Grimmer, Michael Friedrich Russold, Robert Riener
Active prosthetic knees have the capability to provide net positive work, which is required in daily activities like stair and ramp negotiation or sit-to-stand transfers. Adding this capability might help to increase user mobility, safety, and independence. This article summarizes the biomechanical knee requirements for different activities of daily living and critically compares them with the actuator characteristics of state-of-the-art active prosthetic knee joints. As a result of a systematic literature research 22 active prosthetic knee joints were identified...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813868/relationship-between-assistive-torque-and-knee-biomechanics-during-exoskeleton-walking-in-individuals-with-crouch-gait
#2
Zachary F Lerner, Diane L Damiano, Thomas C Bulea
Crouch or "flexed knee" gait is a pathological gait pattern affecting many individuals with cerebral palsy. One proposed method to alleviate crouch is to provide robotic assistance to knee extension during walking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the magnitude of knee extensor torque affects knee kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity. Motion capture, ground reaction force and electromyography data were collected while four participants with crouch gait from cerebral palsy walked with assistance from a novel robotic exoskeleton on an instrumented treadmill...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813827/biomechanical-effects-of-robot-assisted-walking-on-knee-joint-kinematics-and-muscle-activation-pattern
#3
Pavithra Thangavel, S Vidhya, Junhua Li, Effie Chew, Anastasios Bezerianos, Haoyong Yu
Since manual rehabilitation therapy can be taxing for both the patient and the physiotherapist, a gait rehabilitation robot has been built to reduce the physical strain and increase the efficacy of the rehabilitation therapy. The prototype of the gait rehabilitation robot is designed to provide assistance while walking for patients with abnormal gait pattern and it can also be used for rehabilitation therapy to restore an individual's normal gait pattern by aiding motor recovery. The Gait Rehabilitation Robot uses gait event based synchronization, which enables the exoskeleton to provide synchronous assistance during walking that aims to reduce the lower-limb muscle activation...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812039/three-dimensional-biomechanical-analysis-of-rearfoot-and-forefoot-running
#4
Sebastian Knorz, Felix Kluge, Kolja Gelse, Stefan Schulz-Drost, Thilo Hotfiel, Matthias Lochmann, Björn Eskofier, Sebastian Krinner
BACKGROUND: In the running community, a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern is increasingly preferred compared with a rearfoot strike (RFS) pattern. However, it has not been fully understood which strike pattern may better reduce adverse joint forces within the different joints of the lower extremity. PURPOSE: To analyze the 3-dimensional (3D) stress pattern in the ankle, knee, and hip joint in runners with either a FFS or RFS pattern. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812035/bioabsorbable-versus-metal-screw-in-the-fixation-of-tibial-tubercle-transfer-a-cadaveric-biomechanical-study
#5
Janne T Nurmi, Ari Itälä, Raine Sihvonen, Petri Sillanpää, Pekka Kannus, Harri Sievänen, Teppo L N Järvinen
BACKGROUND: In tibial tubercle transfer (TTT) procedures, the osteotomized and transferred tibial tubercle is usually fixed into the host bone using metal screws. PURPOSE: To compare the strength of fixation provided by a single bioabsorbable screw versus a metal screw for TTT. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Twenty-two pairs of human cadaveric tibiae were used to compare the fixation strength of a single 4...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810990/gait-and-functional-outcomes-for-young-active-males-with-traumatic-unilateral-transfemoral-limb-loss
#6
Caitlin E Mahon, Alison L Pruziner, Brad D Hendershot, Erik J Wolf, Benjamin J Darter, K Bo Foreman, Joseph B Webster
OBJECTIVE: Altered body structures that occur with the loss of a lower limb can impact mobility and quality of life. Specifically, biomechanical changes that result from wearing a prosthesis have been associated with an increased risk of falls or joint degeneration, as well as increased energy demands. While previous studies describing these outcomes are typically limited by number of outcome measures and/or small, diverse patient groups, recent military conflicts present a unique opportunity to collect outcomes from a relatively homogenous, active patient population with limb loss...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808736/the-role-of-isolated-posterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-in-knees-with-combined-posterior-cruciate-ligament-and-posterolateral-complex-injury
#7
REVIEW
Dong-Yeong Lee, Young-Jin Park, Dong-Hee Kim, Hyun-Jung Kim, Dae-Cheol Nam, Jin-Sung Park, Sun-Chul Hwang
PURPOSE: This is a meta-analysis comparing biomechanical outcomes to determine whether an isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction can restore normal knee kinematics in a combined PCL/posterolateral complex (PLC) injury and whether double-bundle (DB) PCL reconstruction is superior in controlling posterior and rotational laxity compared with single-bundle (SB) PCL reconstruction in a PCL/PLC-deficient knee. METHODS: A number of electronic databases were searched for relevant articles published through August 2016 that compared biomechanical outcomes of PCL reconstruction in patients who underwent reconstruction for combined PCL/PLC deficiencies...
August 14, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801826/brain-activity-changes-in-somatosensory-and-emotion-related-areas-with-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-deficiency
#8
Masaru Kadowaki, Taku Tadenuma, Nobuyuki Kumahashi, Yuji Uchio
BACKGROUND: Patellar instability with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) deficiency is a common sports injury among young people. Although nonoperative and surgical treatment can provide stability of the patella, patients often have anxiety related to the knee. We speculate that neural dysfunction may be related to anxiety in these patients; however, the mechanism in the brain that generates this anxiety remains unknown. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How does brain activity in patients with MPFL deficiency change in the areas related to somatic sensation against lateral shift of the patella? (2) How does patella instability, which can lead to continuous fear or apprehension for dislocation, influence brain activity in the areas related to emotion? METHODS: Nineteen patients with MPFL deficiency underwent surgical reconstruction in our hospital from April 2012 to March 2014...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800252/progressive-changes-in-walking-kinematics-and-kinetics-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-and-reconstruction-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Lindsay V Slater, Joseph M Hart, Adam R Kelly, Christopher M Kuenze
CONTEXT:   Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and ACL reconstruction (ACLR) result in persistent alterations in lower extremity movement patterns. The progression of lower extremity biomechanics from the time of injury has not been described. OBJECTIVE:   To compare the 3-dimensional (3D) lower extremity kinematics and kinetics of walking among individuals with ACL deficiency (ACLD), individuals with ACLR, and healthy control participants from 3 to 64 months after ACLR...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797238/with-a-biomechanical-treatment-in-knee-osteoarthritis-less-knee-pain-did-not-correlate-with-synovitis-reduction
#10
Vikram Swaminathan, Matthew J Parkes, Michael J Callaghan, Terence W O'Neill, Richard Hodgson, Andrew D Gait, David T Felson
BACKGROUND: Braces are used to treat pain in patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (PFJOA). In a trial, we previously reported pain improvement after 6-weeks brace use. The pain reduction did not correlate with changes in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) assessed Bone Marrow Lesion volume or static synovial volume. Studies show that changes in the synovium on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI are more closely associated with symptom change than static synovial volume changes. We hypothesised change in synovitis assessed using dynamic imaging could explain the reduction in pain...
August 10, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795010/evaluation-and-management-of-knee-pain-in-young-athletes-overuse-injuries-of-the-knee
#11
REVIEW
Dilip R Patel, Ana Villalobos
Recurrent or chronic activity related knee pain is common in young athletes. Numerous intrinsic conditions affecting the knee can cause such pain. In addition, knee pain can be referred pain from low back, hip or pelvic pathology. The most common cause of knee pain in young athletes is patellofemoral pain syndrome, or more appropriately termed idiopathic anterior knee pain. Although, numerous anatomical and biomechanical factors have been postulated to contribute the knee pain in young athletes, the most common underlying reason is overuse injury...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793978/patellofemoral-arthroplasty-conversion-to-total-knee-arthroplasty-retrieval-analysis-and-clinical-correlation
#12
Alexander B Christ, Elexis Baral, Chelsea Koch, Beth E Shubin Stein, Alejandro Gonzalez Della Valle, Sabrina M Strickland
BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) can be a successful, bone-sparing treatment for isolated patellofemoral arthritis. However, progression of tibio-femoral arthritis or incorrect indications may predispose patients to early conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to review the clinical cases and perform retrieval analysis of PFA conversions to TKA at our institution. METHODS: Twenty one patellofemoral arthroplasties in 18 patients that were converted to TKA were identified through our implant retrieval registry...
August 6, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779802/editorial-commentary-is-anterolateral-ligament-reconstruction-of-the-knee-needed-the-debate-rages-on
#13
EDITORIAL
Bruce A Levy, Orlando D Sabbag
A recent systematic review on the techniques, biomechanics, and clinical outcomes of anterolateral ligament reconstruction of the knee summarizes our current understanding of this hotly debated topic. In 2017, it is not clear if an anterolateral ligament reconstruction is needed in the setting of primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
August 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777956/frontal-plane-kinematics-predict-three-dimensional-hip-adduction-during-running
#14
Mark W Creaby, Scott Le Rossignol, Zachary J Conway, Eva Ageberg, Matthew Sweeney, Melinda M Franettovich Smith
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if frontal plane kinematics are predictive of three dimensional (3D) hip adduction and hip internal rotation during running. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Biomechanics laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty healthy male runners aged 18-45 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two dimensional (2D) angles in the frontal plane (peak pelvic obliquity, peak hip adduction, peak femoral valgus, peak knee valgus and peak tibial valgus) and 3D hip adduction and hip internal rotation during stance phase of running were obtained...
June 15, 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770530/erratum-to-rotational-laxity-control-by-the-anterolateral-ligament-and-the-lateral-meniscus-is-dependent-on-knee-flexion-angle-a-cadaveric-biomechanical-study
#15
Timothy Lording, Gillian Corbo, Dianne Bryant, Timothy A Burkhart, Alan Getgood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768774/the-use-of-highly-crosslinked-polyethylene-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#16
REVIEW
T S Brown, D W Van Citters, D J Berry, M P Abdel
Advances in polyethylene (PE) in total hip arthroplasty have led to interest and increased use of highly crosslinked PE (HXLPE) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Biomechanical data suggest improved wear characteristics for HXLPE inserts over conventional PE in TKA. Short-term results from registry data and few clinical trials are promising. Our aim is to present a review of the history of HXLPEs, the use of HXLPE inserts in TKA, concerns regarding potential mechanical complications, and a thorough review of the available biomechanical and clinical data...
August 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768339/habitual-minimalist-shod-running-biomechanics-and-the-acute-response-to-running-barefoot
#17
Nicholas Tam, Ian A J Darragh, Nikhil V Divekar, Robert P Lamberts
The aim of the study was to determine whether habitual minimalist shoe runners present with purported favorable running biomechanithat reduce running injury risk such as initial loading rate. Eighteen minimalist and 16 traditionally cushioned shod runners were assessed when running both in their preferred training shoe and barefoot. Ankle and knee joint kinetics and kinematics, initial rate of loading, and footstrike angle were measured. Sagittal ankle and knee joint stiffness were also calculated. Results of a two-factor ANOVA presented no group difference in initial rate of loading when participants were running either shod or barefoot; however, initial loading rate increased for both groups when running barefoot (p=0...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768338/combined-effects-of-fatigue-and-surface-instability-on-jump-biomechanics-in-elite-athletes
#18
Olaf Prieske, Marie Demps, Melanie Lesinski, Urs Granacher
The present study aimed to examine the effects of fatigue and surface instability on kinetic and kinematic jump performance measures. Ten female and 10 male elite volleyball players (18±2 years) performed repetitive vertical double-leg box jumps until failure. Pre and post fatigue, jump height/performance index, ground reaction force and knee flexion/valgus angles were assessed during drop and countermovement jumps on stable and unstable surfaces. Fatigue, surface condition, and sex resulted in significantly lower drop jump performance and ground reaction force (p≤0...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763712/crossover-study-of-amputee-stair-ascent-and-descent-biomechanics-using-genium-and-c-leg-prostheses-with-comparison-to-non-amputee-control
#19
Derek J Lura, Matthew W Wernke, Stephanie L Carey, Jason T Kahle, Rebecca M Miro, M Jason Highsmith
This study was a randomized crossover of stair ambulation of Transfemoral Amputees (TFAs) using the Genium and C-Leg prosthetic knees. TFAs typically have difficulty ascending and descending stairs, limiting community mobility. The objective of this study was to determine the relative efficacy of the Genium and C-Leg prostheses for stair ascent and descent, and their absolute efficacy relative to non-amputees. Twenty TFAs, and five non-amputees participated in the study. TFAs were randomized to begin the study with the Genium or C-Leg prosthesis...
July 25, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763623/the-effects-of-anterolateral-tenodesis-on-tibiofemoral-contact-pressures-and-kinematics
#20
Eivind Inderhaug, Joanna M Stephen, Hadi El-Daou, Andy Williams, Andrew A Amis
BACKGROUND: Anterolateral tenodeses are increasingly popular in combination with intra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Despite the perception of risk of overconstraint and lateral osteoarthritis, evidence is lacking regarding the effect of graft tensioning on knee kinematics and intra-articular compartmental joint pressures. PURPOSE: To investigate tibiofemoral joint contact pressures and kinematics related to an anterolateral lesion and the effectiveness of a MacIntosh tenodesis in restoring these when varying (1) graft tension and (2) tibial rotation during graft fixation...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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