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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900192/vertical-stiffness-is-not-related-to-anterior-cruciate-ligament-elongation-in-professional-rugby-union-players
#1
Benjamin G Serpell, Jennie M Scarvell, Mark R Pickering, Nick B Ball, Diana Perriman, John Warmenhoven, Paul N Smith
BACKGROUND: Novel research surrounding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is necessary because ACL injury rates have remained unchanged for several decades. An area of ACL risk mitigation which has not been well researched relates to vertical stiffness. The relationship between increased vertical stiffness and increased ground reaction force suggests that vertical stiffness may be related to ACL injury risk. However, given that increased dynamic knee joint stability has been shown to be associated with vertical stiffness, it is possible that modification of vertical stiffness could help to protect against injury...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895052/evidence-toads-may-modulate-landing-preparation-without-predicting-impact-time
#2
S M Cox, Gary Gillis
Within anurans (frogs and toads), cane toads (Bufo marinus) perform particularly controlled landings in which the forelimbs are exclusively used to decelerate and stabilize the body after impact. Here we explore how toads achieve dynamic stability across a wide range of landing conditions. Specifically, we suggest that torques during landing could be reduced by aligning forelimbs with the body's instantaneous velocity vector at impact (impact angle). To test whether toad forelimb orientation varies with landing conditions, we used high-speed video to collect forelimb and body kinematic data from six animals hopping off platforms of different heights (0, 5 and 9 cm)...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872403/biomechanical-analysis-of-weighted-ball-exercises-for-baseball-pitchers
#3
Glenn S Fleisig, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Kyle T Aune, Brett Ivey, Walter A Laughlin
BACKGROUND: Weighted-ball throwing programs are commonly used in training baseball pitchers to increase ball velocity. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematics and kinetics among weighted-ball exercises with values from standard pitching (ie, pitching standard 5-oz baseballs from a mound). HYPOTHESIS: Ball and arm velocities would be greater with lighter balls and joint kinetics would be greater with heavier balls. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
November 21, 2016: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799670/correlation-between-hip-function-and-knee-kinematics-evaluated-by-three-dimensional-motion-analysis-during-lateral-and-medial-side-hopping
#4
Hiromitsu Itoh, Kohei Takiguchi, Yohei Shibata, Satoshi Okubo, Shinichi Yoshiya, Ryosuke Kuroda
[Purpose] Kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the limb during side-hopping and hip/knee interaction during this motion have not been clarified. The purposes of this study were to examine the biomechanical parameters of the knee during side hop and analyze its relationship with clinical measurements of hip function. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven male college rugby players were included. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to assess motion characteristics of the knee during side hop. In addition, hip range of motion and muscle strength were evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770784/effects-of-two-neuromuscular-training-programs-on-running-biomechanics-with-load-carriage-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699696/neuromechanical-modulation-of-the-achilles-tendon-during-bilateral-hopping-in-patients-with-unilateral-achilles-tendon-rupture-over-1-year-after-surgical-repair
#6
Hiroyuki Oda, Kanae Sano, Yoko Kunimasa, Paavo V Komi, Masaki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Patients who have had an Achilles tendon (AT) rupture repaired are potentially at higher risk for re-rupture than those without previous rupture. Little attention has been given to the neuromechanical modulation of muscle-tendon interaction and muscle activation profiles during human dynamic movements after AT rupture repair. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine muscle-tendon behavior and muscle activation during bilateral hopping. METHODS: We enrolled nine subjects who had undergone surgical repair of unilateral AT rupture within the past 1-2 years...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632850/eccentric-loading-of-triceps-surae-modulates-stretch-shortening-cycle-behaviour-a-possible-therapeutic-mechanism
#7
James R Debenham, William I Gibson, Mervyn J Travers, Amity C Campbell, Garry T Allison
CONTEXT: Eccentric exercises are increasingly being used to treat lower limb musculoskeletal conditions such as Achilles tendinopathy. Despite widespread clinical application and documented efficacy, mechanisms underpinning clinical benefit remain unclear. Positive adaptations in motor performance are one potential mechanism. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how an eccentric loading intervention influences measures of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) behaviour during a hopping task...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614614/characteristics-and-adaptive-strategies-linked-with-falls-in-stroke-survivors-from-analysis-of-laboratory-induced-falls
#8
Claire F Honeycutt, Masood Nevisipour, Mark D Grabiner
Falls are the most common and expensive medical complication in stroke survivors. There is remarkably little information about what factors lead to a fall in stroke survivors. With few exceptions, the falls literature in stroke has focused on relating metrics of static balance and impairment to fall outcomes in the acute care setting or in community. While informative, these studies provide little information about what specific impairments in a stroke-survivor's response to dynamic balance challenges lead to a fall...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470227/kinematic-and-electromyographic-analysis-in-patients-with-patellofemoral-pain-syndrome-during-single-leg-triple-hop-test
#9
Marcelo Martins Kalytczak, Paulo Roberto Garcia Lucareli, Amir Curcio Dos Reis, André Serra Bley, Daniela Aparecida Biasotto-Gonzalez, João Carlos Ferrari Correa, Fabiano Politti
Possible delays in pre-activation or deficiencies in the activity of the dynamic muscle stabilizers of the knee and hip joints are the most common causes of the patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The aim of the study was to compare kinematic variables and electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles between patients with PFPS and health subjects during the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT). This study included 14 female with PFPS (PFPS group) and 14 female healthy with no history of knee pain (Healthy group)...
September 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362587/medial-gastrocnemius-muscle-tendon-interaction-and-architecture-change-during-exhaustive-hopping-exercise
#10
Daniel E Lidstone, Herman van Werkhoven, Justin A Stewart, Reed Gurchiek, Madison Burris, Paige Rice, Garrett Feimster, Jeffrey M McBride
BACKGROUND: Previous literature has shown in vivo changes in muscle-tendon interaction during exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise. It is unclear whether these changes in muscle-tendon length during exhaustive SSC exercise are associated with changes in mechanical efficiency (ME). The purpose of the study was to investigate whether changes in platarflexor contractile component (CC) length, tendon length, and changes in plantarflexor muscle activity could explain reduction in ME during exhaustive SSC exercise...
October 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280324/influence-of-a-knee-brace-intervention-on-perceived-pain-and-patellofemoral-loading-in-recreational-athletes
#11
Jonathan K Sinclair, James Selfe, Paul J Taylor, Hannah F Shore, Jim D Richards
BACKGROUND: The current investigation aimed to investigate the effects of an intervention using knee bracing on pain symptoms and patellofemoral loading in male and female recreational athletes. METHODS: Twenty participants (11 males & 9 females) with patellofemoral pain were provided with a knee brace which they wore for a period of 2weeks. Lower extremity kinematics and patellofemoral loading were obtained during three sport specific tasks, jog, cut and single leg hop...
August 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188685/knee-kinematics-and-kinetics-are-associated-with-early-patellofemoral-osteoarthritis-following-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#12
A G Culvenor, L Perraton, A Guermazi, A L Bryant, T S Whitehead, H G Morris, K M Crossley
OBJECTIVE: Patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) commonly occurs following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Our study aimed to compare knee kinematics and kinetics during a hop-landing task between individuals with and without early PFOA post-ACLR. DESIGN: Forty-five individuals (mean ± SD 26 ± 5 years) 1-2 years post-ACLR underwent 3T isotropic MRI scans and 3D biomechanical assessment of a standardised forward hop task. Knee kinematics (initial contact, peak, excursion) in all three planes and sagittal plane kinetics (peak) were compared between 15 participants with early PFOA (MRI-defined patellofemoral cartilage lesion) and 30 participants with no PFOA (absence of patellofemoral cartilage lesion on MRI) using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), adjusted for age, BMI, sex and the presence of early tibiofemoral OA...
September 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185513/landing-strategies-focusing-on-the-control-of-tibial-rotation-in-the-initial-contact-period-of-one-leg-forward-hops
#13
W-L Chen, Y-T Chen, S-Y Huang, C-Y Yang, C-D Wu, C-W Chang
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) surgeries successfully restore anterior tibial translation but not tibial rotation. This study aimed to explore landing strategies focusing on the control of tibial rotation at landing when the ACL is most vulnerable. Three groups of male subjects (50 ACLRs, 26 basketball players, and 31 controls) participated in one-leg forward hop tests for determining the tibial rotatory landing strategies adopted during the initial landing phase. The differences in knee kinematics and muscle activities between internal and external tibial rotatory (ITR, ETR) landing strategies were examined...
May 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111833/key-motion-characteristics-of-side-step-movements-in-hip-hop-dance-and-their-effect-on-the-evaluation-by-judges
#14
Nahoko Sato, Hiroyuki Nunome, Yasuo Ikegami
In hip-hop dance, the elements of motion that discriminate the skill levels of dancers and that influence the evaluations by judges have not been clearly identified. This study set out to extract these motion characteristics from the side-step movements of hip-hop dancing. Eight expert and eight non-expert dancers performed side-step movements, which were recorded using a motion capture system. Nine experienced judges evaluated the dancers' performances. Several parameters, including the range of motion (ROM) of the joint angles (neck, trunk, hip, knee, and face inclination) and phase delays between these angular motions were calculated...
June 2016: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103604/motion-task-selection-for-kinematic-evaluation-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Eldrich Norwin Chua, Man Yi Yeung, Sai Chuen Fu, Patrick Shu Hang Yung, Yu Zhang, Hua Feng, Kai Ming Chan
PURPOSE: To examine the different motion tasks and the protocols used to objectively quantify dynamic stability in terms of knee kinematics at different stages of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) recovery. METHODS: A systematic search was done using OVID in Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, PsychINFO, and AMED. A combination of the following keywords and their variations were used: anterior cruciate ligament, motion tasks (e...
July 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26839607/interaction-between-leg-muscle-performance-and-sprint-acceleration-kinematics
#16
Robert G Lockie, Farzad Jalilvand, Samuel J Callaghan, Matthew D Jeffriess, Aron J Murphy
This study investigated relationships between 10 m sprint acceleration, step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time), and leg muscle performance (power, stiffness, strength). Twenty-eight field sport athletes completed 10 m sprints that were timed and filmed. Velocity and step kinematics were measured for the 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m intervals to assess acceleration. Leg power was measured via countermovement jumps (CMJ), a five-bound test (5BT), and the reactive strength index (RSI) defined by 40 cm drop jumps...
December 22, 2015: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26803830/landing-on-branches-in-the-frog-trachycephalus-resinifictrix-anura-hylidae
#17
Nienke N Bijma, Stanislav N Gorb, Thomas Kleinteich
Frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura) are famous for their saltatory or hopping locomotion, which is related to numerous anatomical specialisations that are characteristic for the group. However, while the biomechanics of take-off in frogs have been studied in detail, much less is known on how frogs land after a jump. Besides terrestrial and aquatic species, several lineages of frogs adopted an arboreal lifestyle and especially the biomechanics of landing on challenging, small, and unpredictable substrates, such as leaves or branches, are virtually unknown...
April 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26797247/eccentric-loading-of-triceps-surae-modulates-stretch-shortening-cycle-behaviour-a-possible-therapeutic-mechanism
#18
James R Debenham, William I Gibson, Mervyn J Travers, Amity C Campbell, Garry T Allison
CONTEXT: Eccentric exercises are increasingly being used to treat lower limb musculoskeletal conditions such as Achilles tendinopathy. Despite widespread clinical application and documented efficacy, mechanisms underpinning clinical benefit remain unclear. Positive adaptations in motor performance are one potential mechanism. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how an eccentric loading intervention influences measures of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) behaviour during a hopping task...
January 18, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26635350/hopping-locomotion-at-different-gravity-metabolism-and-mechanics-in-humans
#19
Gaspare Pavei, Alberto E Minetti
Previous literature on the effects of low gravity on the mechanics and energetics of human locomotion already dealt with walking, running, and skipping. The aim of the present study is to obtain a comprehensive view on that subject by including measurements of human hopping in simulated low gravity, a gait often adopted in many Apollo Missions and documented in NASA footage. Six subjects hopped at different speeds at terrestrial, Martian, and Lunar gravity on a treadmill while oxygen consumption and 3D body kinematic were sampled...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26509368/eccentric-fatigue-modulates-stretch-shortening-cycle-effectiveness-a-possible-role-in-lower-limb-overuse-injuries
#20
J Debenham, M Travers, W Gibson, A Campbell, G Allison
The role of fatigue in injury development is an important consideration for clinicians. In particular, the role of eccentric fatigue in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) activities may be linked to lower limb overuse conditions. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of ankle plantarflexor eccentric fatigue on SSC effectiveness during a hopping task in healthy volunteers. 11 healthy volunteers (23.2±6.7 years) performed a sub-maximal hopping task on a custom-built sledge system. 3D motion capture and surface EMG were utilised to measure lower limb stiffness, temporal kinematic measures and muscle timing measures at baseline and immediately following an eccentric fatigue protocol...
January 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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