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Hop biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872403/biomechanical-analysis-of-weighted-ball-exercises-for-baseball-pitchers
#1
Glenn S Fleisig, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Kyle T Aune, Brett Ivey, Walter A Laughlin
BACKGROUND: Weighted-ball throwing programs are commonly used in training baseball pitchers to increase ball velocity. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematics and kinetics among weighted-ball exercises with values from standard pitching (ie, pitching standard 5-oz baseballs from a mound). HYPOTHESIS: Ball and arm velocities would be greater with lighter balls and joint kinetics would be greater with heavier balls. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
November 21, 2016: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799670/correlation-between-hip-function-and-knee-kinematics-evaluated-by-three-dimensional-motion-analysis-during-lateral-and-medial-side-hopping
#2
Hiromitsu Itoh, Kohei Takiguchi, Yohei Shibata, Satoshi Okubo, Shinichi Yoshiya, Ryosuke Kuroda
[Purpose] Kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the limb during side-hopping and hip/knee interaction during this motion have not been clarified. The purposes of this study were to examine the biomechanical parameters of the knee during side hop and analyze its relationship with clinical measurements of hip function. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven male college rugby players were included. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to assess motion characteristics of the knee during side hop. In addition, hip range of motion and muscle strength were evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770784/effects-of-two-neuromuscular-training-programs-on-running-biomechanics-with-load-carriage-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676864/interest-of-a-biomechanical-analysis-of-running-on-a-treadmill-coupled-with-functional-testing-and-isokinetic-evaluation-during-return-to-sport-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#4
Alexandre Rambaud, Bertrand Semay, Jean-Benoit Morin, Rémi Phillipot, Pierre Samozino, Pascal Edouard
OBJECTIVE: A criterion of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) success is the return to sport at the same level as before surgery. Return to sport (RtS) decision seems to be a key element in this success: if too early RtS exposes to risk of injury, too late RtS influences the motivation to return to the same level. Functional tests (Hop Tests) and isokinetic assessments (Isok Tests) are usually performed to guide this decision. However, a precise and objective biomechanical analysis of running pattern would be more similarly to the sport activity...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632846/effects-of-a-four-week-biomechanical-ankle-platform-system-protocol-on-balance-in-high-school-athletes-with-chronic-ankle-instability
#5
Mary Spencer Cain, Stacy Watt Garceau, Shelley W Linens
CONTEXT: Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI) describes the residual symptoms present after repetitive ankle sprains. Current rehabilitation programs in the high school population focus on a multi-station approach or general lower extremity injury prevention program. Specific rehabilitation techniques for CAI have not been established. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a 4-week Biomechanical Ankle Platform System (BAPS) Board protocol on balance of high school athletes with CAI...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614614/characteristics-and-adaptive-strategies-linked-with-falls-in-stroke-survivors-from-analysis-of-laboratory-induced-falls
#6
Claire F Honeycutt, Masood Nevisipour, Mark D Grabiner
Falls are the most common and expensive medical complication in stroke survivors. There is remarkably little information about what factors lead to a fall in stroke survivors. With few exceptions, the falls literature in stroke has focused on relating metrics of static balance and impairment to fall outcomes in the acute care setting or in community. While informative, these studies provide little information about what specific impairments in a stroke-survivor's response to dynamic balance challenges lead to a fall...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347871/comparison-between-single-and-combined-clinical-postural-stability-tests-in-individuals-with-and-without-chronic-ankle-instability
#7
Jupil Ko, Adam B Rosen, Cathleen N Brown
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a single or/and combined clinical tests match group membership based on self-reported ankle function. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Biomechanics Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: From participants, 58 meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria were divided into a chronic ankle instability (CAI) group (n = 25) who reported ≤25 on the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) and a history of moderate-severe ankle sprain(s) and a control group (n = 33) who reported ≥29 on the CAIT and no history of ankle sprain(s)...
June 22, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27327033/walking-and-running-require-greater-effort-from-ankle-than-knee-extensor-muscles
#8
Juha-Pekka Kulmala, Marko T Korhonen, Luca Ruggiero, Sami Kuitunen, Harri Suominen, Ari Heinonen, Aki Mikkola, Janne Avela
INTRODUCTION: The knee and ankle extensors as human primary antigravity muscle groups are of utmost importance in a wide range of locomotor activities. Yet, we know surprisingly little about how these muscle groups work, and specifically, how close to their maximal capacities they function across different modes and intensity of locomotion. Therefore, to advance our understanding of locomotor constraints, we determined and compared relative operating efforts of the knee and ankle extensors during walking, running and sprinting...
June 20, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289415/an-analysis-of-changes-in-in-vivo-cartilage-thickness-of-the-healthy-ankle-following-dynamic-activity
#9
Wei Liang Cher, Gangadhar M Utturkar, Charles E Spritzer, James A Nunley, Louis E DeFrate, Amber T Collins
Abnormal cartilage loading after injury is believed to be an important factor leading to post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis. Due to the viscoelastic behavior of cartilage, it is possible to measure localized cartilage strains from changes in thickness following dynamic activities. However, there are limited data characterizing in vivo cartilage mechanics under physiological loading conditions in the healthy ankle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to directly measure in vivo cartilage strains in the healthy ankle joint in response to a dynamic hopping exercise...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269798/can-a-single-leg-squat-provide-insight-into-movement-control-and-loading-during-dynamic-sporting-actions-in-patients-with-athletic-groin-pain
#10
Brendan M Marshall, Andrew D Franklyn-Miller, Kieran A Moran, Enda A King, Siobhán C Strike, Éanna C Falvey
CONTEXT: Chronic athletic groin pain (AGP) is common in field sports and has been associated with abnormal movement control and loading of the hip and pelvis during play. A single-leg squat (SLS) is commonly used by clinicians to assess movement control, but whether it can provide insight into control during more dynamic sporting movements in AGP patients is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationships between biomechanical measures in an SLS and the same measures in a single-leg drop landing, single-leg hurdle hop, and a cutting maneuver in AGP patients...
May 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188685/knee-kinematics-and-kinetics-are-associated-with-early-patellofemoral-osteoarthritis-following-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#11
A G Culvenor, L Perraton, A Guermazi, A L Bryant, T S Whitehead, H G Morris, K M Crossley
OBJECTIVE: Patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) commonly occurs following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Our study aimed to compare knee kinematics and kinetics during a hop-landing task between individuals with and without early PFOA post-ACLR. DESIGN: Forty-five individuals (mean ± SD 26 ± 5 years) 1-2 years post-ACLR underwent 3T isotropic MRI scans and 3D biomechanical assessment of a standardised forward hop task. Knee kinematics (initial contact, peak, excursion) in all three planes and sagittal plane kinetics (peak) were compared between 15 participants with early PFOA (MRI-defined patellofemoral cartilage lesion) and 30 participants with no PFOA (absence of patellofemoral cartilage lesion on MRI) using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), adjusted for age, BMI, sex and the presence of early tibiofemoral OA...
September 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27155058/dioscin-reduces-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-by-enhancing-osteoblastogenesis-and-inhibiting-osteoclastogenesis
#12
Xufeng Tao, Yan Qi, Lina Xu, Lianhong Yin, Xu Han, Youwei Xu, Changyuan Wang, Huijun Sun, Jinyong Peng
Our previous studies showed that dioscin can promote osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation in vitro, but its anti-osteoporosis effect in vivo and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present work, the results showed that dioscin significantly increased the viability of MC3T3-E1 cells, ALP level and alizarin red S staining area, markedly decreased the numbers of RANKL-induced TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and bone resorption pits formation, enhanced the levels of some osteogenic markers including COL1A2, ALP and OC, which suggested that dioscin clearly promoted osteoblasts proliferation and suppressed osteoclasts formation...
May 4, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26979338/the-in-vivo-effects-of-a-fraction-from-dioscorea-spongiosa-on-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis
#13
Na Han, Jinghua Xu, Feng Xu, Zhihui Liu, Jun Yin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In traditional Chinese medicines, osteoporosis was considered to be induced by the deficiency of kidney's function. The Rhizoma of Dioscorea spongiosa was one of the kidney tonifying and bone strengthening agent in the traditional usage and previous study had shown that its 90% ethanol fraction was effective on anti-osteoporosis using the ovariectomized (OVX) rats. However, for the secondary osteoporosis, like glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO), its effect was still unknown...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941592/speed-dependent-modulation-of-the-locomotor-behavior-in-adult-mice-reveals-attractor-and-transitional-gaits
#14
Maxime Lemieux, Nicolas Josset, Marie Roussel, Sébastien Couraud, Frédéric Bretzner
Locomotion results from an interplay between biomechanical constraints of the muscles attached to the skeleton and the neuronal circuits controlling and coordinating muscle activities. Quadrupeds exhibit a wide range of locomotor gaits. Given our advances in the genetic identification of spinal and supraspinal circuits important to locomotion in the mouse, it is now important to get a better understanding of the full repertoire of gaits in the freely walking mouse. To assess this range, young adult C57BL/6J mice were trained to walk and run on a treadmill at different locomotor speeds...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26803830/landing-on-branches-in-the-frog-trachycephalus-resinifictrix-anura-hylidae
#15
Nienke N Bijma, Stanislav N Gorb, Thomas Kleinteich
Frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura) are famous for their saltatory or hopping locomotion, which is related to numerous anatomical specialisations that are characteristic for the group. However, while the biomechanics of take-off in frogs have been studied in detail, much less is known on how frogs land after a jump. Besides terrestrial and aquatic species, several lineages of frogs adopted an arboreal lifestyle and especially the biomechanics of landing on challenging, small, and unpredictable substrates, such as leaves or branches, are virtually unknown...
April 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26460038/unconstrained-muscle-tendon-workloops-indicate-resonance-tuning-as-a-mechanism-for-elastic-limb-behavior-during-terrestrial-locomotion
#16
Benjamin D Robertson, Gregory S Sawicki
In terrestrial locomotion, there is a missing link between observed spring-like limb mechanics and the physiological systems driving their emergence. Previous modeling and experimental studies of bouncing gait (e.g., walking, running, hopping) identified muscle-tendon interactions that cycle large amounts of energy in series tendon as a source of elastic limb behavior. The neural, biomechanical, and environmental origins of these tuned mechanics, however, have remained elusive. To examine the dynamic interplay between these factors, we developed an experimental platform comprised of a feedback-controlled servo-motor coupled to a biological muscle-tendon...
October 27, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26395613/extreme-kinematics-in-selected-hip-hop-dance-sequences
#17
Shaw Bronner, Sheyi Ojofeitimi, Helen Woo
Hip hop dance has many styles including breakdance (breaking), house, popping and locking, funk, streetdance, krumping, Memphis jookin', and voguing. These movements combine the complexity of dance choreography with the challenges of gymnastics and acrobatic movements. Despite high injury rates in hip hop dance, particularly in breakdance, to date there are no published biomechanical studies in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare representative hip hop steps found in breakdance (toprock and breaking) and house and provide descriptive statistics of the angular displacements that occurred in these sequences...
September 2015: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26308794/effects-of-a-four-week-biomechanical-ankle-platform-system-protocol-on-balance-in-high-school-athletes-with-chronic-ankle-instability
#18
Mary Spencer Cain, Stacy Watt Garceau, Shelley W Linens
CONTEXT: Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI) describes the residual symptoms present after repetitive ankle sprains. Current rehabilitation programs in the high school population focus on a multi-station approach or general lower extremity injury prevention program. Specific rehabilitation techniques for CAI have not been established. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a 4-week Biomechanical Ankle Platform System (BAPS) Board protocol on balance of high school athletes with CAI...
August 26, 2015: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26304640/kinematic-and-kinetic-analysis-of-the-single-leg-triple-hop-test-in-women-with-and-without-patellofemoral-pain
#19
Amir Curcio dos Reis, João Carlos Ferrari Correa, André Serra Bley, Nayra Deise dos Anjos Rabelo, Thiago Yukio Fukuda, Paulo Roberto Garcia Lucareli
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To compare the biomechanical strategies of the trunk and lower extremity during the transition period between the first and second hop of a single-leg triple hop test in women with and without patellofemoral pain (PFP). BACKGROUND: Recent literature has shown that PFP is associated with biomechanical impairments of the lower extremities. A number of studies have analyzed the position of the trunk and lower extremities for functional activities such as walking, squatting, jumping, and the step-down test...
October 2015: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25997949/effect-of-knee-angle-on-quadriceps-strength-and-activation-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Chandramouli Krishnan, Paul Theuerkauf
Quadriceps strength and activation deficits after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury or surgery are typically evaluated at joint positions that are biomechanically advantageous to the quadriceps muscle. However, the effect of knee joint position and the associated changes in muscle length on strength and activation is currently unknown in this population. Here, we examined the effect of knee angle on quadriceps strength, activation, and electrically evoked torque in individuals with ACL reconstruction...
August 1, 2015: Journal of Applied Physiology
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