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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921254/the-impact-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-neurodegeneration-tnf-%C3%AE-concentration-in-hypothalamus-and-csf-to-plasma-ratio-of-insulin-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#1
Ghazaleh Nameni, Ghazaleh Hajiluian, Parviz Shahabi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mehran Mesgari-Abbasi, Mohammad-Reza Hemmati, Seyed Mahdi Vatandoust
There is growing evidence that obesity can lead to neurodegeneration induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Moreover, obesity is associated with reduced transport of insulin through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Insulin deficiency in the brain especially in the hypothalamus region has neurodegenerative and obesity-promoting effects. Because of the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of vitamin D, in the current experimental study, we aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on neurodegeneration, TNF-α concentration in the hypothalamus, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to serum ratio of insulin in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913104/d-ala2-gip-glu-pal-is-neuroprotective-in-a-chronic-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model-and-increases-bndf-expression-while-reducing-neuroinflammation-and-lipid-peroxidation
#2
Yanwei Li, WeiZhen Liu, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, treatment to improve insulin resistance in T2DM may be useful for PD patients. Glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the incretin hormone family that can promote insulin release and improve insulin resistance. Several GIP analogues have been developed as potential treatments for T2DM. We had shown previously that D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL, a novel long-acting GIP analogue, can play a neuroprotective role in the PD mouse model induced by acute MPTP injection...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910808/magnesium-and-depression
#3
Anna Serefko, Aleksandra Szopa, Ewa Poleszak
Magnesium is one of the most important elements in the human body and is involved in a number of biochemical processes crucial for the proper functioning of the cardiovascular, alimentary, endocrine, and osteoarticular systems. It also plays a vital modulatory role in brain biochemistry, influencing several neurotransmission pathways associated with the development of depression. Personality changes, including apathy, depression, agitation, confusion, anxiety, and delirium are observed when there is a deficiency of this element...
March 1, 2016: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906714/central-nervous-system-regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism
#4
Jennifer Taher, Sarah Farr, Khosrow Adeli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic lipid and lipoprotein metabolism is an important determinant of fasting dyslipidemia and the development of fatty liver disease. Although endocrine factors like insulin have known effects on hepatic lipid homeostasis, emerging evidence also supports a regulatory role for the central nervous system (CNS) and neuronal networks. This review summarizes evidence implicating a bidirectional liver-brain axis in maintaining metabolic lipid homeostasis, and discusses clinical implications in insulin-resistant states...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905353/-twenty-five-years-of-the-amyloid-hypothesis-of-alzheimer-disease-advances-failures-and-new-perspectives
#5
O S Levin, E E Vasenina
Amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been long the primary one. During the 25-year history the concept has been dramatically changed. Accumulation of β-amyloid is associated not only with the disruption of its synthesis (as it seemed after the discovery of genetic mechanisms of some familial cases of AD) but rather with the disruption of its clearance and elimination from the brain tissue via the microcirculatory system. It has been recognized that soluble oligomers of β-amyloid, but not senile plaques that consisted of insoluble conjugates described by A...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898425/modulation-of-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-by-berberine-resulting-in-improved-metabolic-status-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#6
Honglin Sun, Ningjian Wang, Zhen Cang, Chaoxia Zhu, Li Zhao, Xiaomin Nie, Jing Cheng, Fangzhen Xia, Hualing Zhai, Yingli Lu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether or not berberine could improve metabolic status of high-fat-fed rats through modulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis. METHODS: Berberine was administered on high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain-gut hormones were detected, and changes of gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Berberine could reduce weight gain and lipolysis in the high-fat diet-fed group. Moreover, trends of ameliorated insulin resistance and decreased endogenous glucose production were observed...
November 30, 2016: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884163/chronic-adiponectin-deficiency-leads-to-alzheimer-s-disease-like-cognitive-impairments-and-pathologies-through-ampk-inactivation-and-cerebral-insulin-resistance-in-aged-mice
#7
Roy Chun-Laam Ng, On-Yin Cheng, Min Jian, Jason Shing-Cheong Kwan, Philip Wing-Lok Ho, Kenneth King-Yip Cheng, Patrick Ka Kit Yeung, Lena Lei Zhou, Ruby Lai-Chong Hoo, Sookja Kim Chung, Aimin Xu, Karen Siu-Ling Lam, Koon Ho Chan
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is the major pathogenesis underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and these patients have doubled risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in AD pathogenesis, possibly due to abnormal GSK3β activation, causing intra- and extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects. Reduced circulatory APN level is associated with insulin resistance and T2DM...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881773/novel-roles-for-the-insulin-regulated-glucose-transporter-4-in-hippocampally-dependent-memory
#8
Jiah Pearson-Leary, Ewan C McNay
: The insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) is critical for insulin- and contractile-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. GluT4 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons, but its functional role in the brain is unclear. Several established molecular modulators of memory processing regulate hippocampal GluT4 trafficking and hippocampal memory formation is limited by both glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal GluT4 might be involved in memory processes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881670/the-effect-of-alternate-day-caloric-restriction-on-the-metabolic-consequences-of-eight-days-bed-rest-in-healthy-lean-men-a-randomized-trial
#9
Nina Majlund Harder-Lauridsen, Signe Tellerup Nielsen, Sebastian Porsdam Mann, Mark Preben Lyngbæk, Fabiana Braga Benatti, Annika Reynberg Langkilde, Ian Law, Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard, Carsten Thomsen, Kirsten Moller, Kristian Karstoft, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Rikke Krogh-Madsen
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and alternate-day fasting/caloric restriction may both ameliorate aspects of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, visceral fat mass accumulation, and cognitive impairment, by overlapping mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alternate-day caloric restriction (ADCR) with overall energy balance would reduce insulin resistance and accumulation of visceral fat, in addition to improving cognitive functions, after eight consecutive days in bed...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870699/resistance-training-alters-the-proportion-of-skeletal-muscle-fibers-but-not-brain-neurotrophic-factors-in-young-adult-rats
#10
José Antonio-Santos, Diórginis José S Ferreira, Gizelle L Gomes Costa, Rhowena Jane B Matos, Ana E Toscano, Raul Manhães-de-Castro, Carol G Leandro
Antonio-Santos, J, Ferreira, DJS, Gomes Costa, GL, Matos, RJB, Toscano, AE, Manhães-de-Castro, R, and Leandro, CG. Resistance training alters the proportion of skeletal muscle fibers but not brain neurotrophic factors in young adult rats. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3531-3538, 2016-Resistance training (RT) is related to improved muscular strength and power output. Different programs of RT for rats have been developed, but peripheral and central response has not been evaluated directly in the same animal. To test the hypothesis that RT induces central and peripheral adaptations, this study evaluated the effects of a RT on the performance of a weekly maximum overload test, fiber-type typology, and brain neurotrophic factors in young adult rats...
December 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863851/long-term-exposition-to-a-high-fat-diet-favors-the-appearance-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-depositions-in-the-brain-of-c57bl-6j-mice-a-potential-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Oriol Busquets, Miren Ettcheto, Mercè Pallàs, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Ester Verdaguer, Carme Auladell, Jaume Folch, Antoni Camins
AIMS: The sporadic and late-onset form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitutes the most common form of dementia. This non-familiar form could be a consequence of metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity and the development of a brain-specific insulin resistance known as type III diabetes. This work demonstrates the development of a significant AD-like neuropathology due to these metabolic alterations. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice strain were divided into two groups, one fed with a diet rich in palmitic acid (high-fat diet, HFD) since their weaning until 16 months of age, and another group used as a control with a regular diet...
November 15, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852778/the-effects-of-peripheral-and-central-high-insulin-on-brain-insulin-signaling-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-young-and-old-app-ps1-mice
#12
Molly Stanley, Shannon L Macauley, Emily E Caesar, Lauren J Koscal, Will Moritz, Grace O Robinson, Joseph Roh, Jennifer Keyser, Hong Jiang, David M Holtzman
: Hyperinsulinemia is a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vitro experiments describe potential connections between insulin, insulin signaling, and amyloid-β (Aβ), but in vivo experiments are needed to validate these relationships under physiological conditions. First, we performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with concurrent hippocampal microdialysis in young, awake, behaving APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Both a postprandial and supraphysiological insulin clamp significantly increased interstitial fluid (ISF) and plasma Aβ compared with controls...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852331/energy-restriction-combined-with-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-exerts-neuroprotection-in-obese-male-rats
#13
Hiranya Pintana, Pongpan Tanajak, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Piangkwan Sa-Nguanmoo, Titikorn Chunchai, Pattarapong Satjaritanun, Linlada Leelarphat, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitors and energy restriction (ER) are widely used to treat insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the effects of ER or the combination with vildagliptin on brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in obese insulin-resistant rats have never been investigated. We hypothesised that ER with DDP-4 inhibitor exerts better efficacy than ER alone in improving cognition in obese insulin-resistant male rats by restoring brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function and hippocampal synaptic plasticity...
November 17, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847345/differential-associations-between-systemic-markers-of-disease-and-cortical-thickness-in-healthy-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#14
Artur Martins Coutinho, Jean-Philippe Coutu, Emily Rose Lindemer, H Diana Rosas, Bruce R Rosen, David H Salat
Aside from cortical damage associated with age, cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it's an outstanding question if factors of global health, including normal variation in blood markers of metabolic and systemic function, may also be associated with individual variation in brain structure. This cross-sectional study included 138 individuals between 40 to 86 years old who were physically healthy and cognitively intact. Eleven markers (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, insulin, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, total protein) and five derived indicators (estimated glomerular filtration rate, creatinine clearance rate, insulin-resistance, average glucose, and cholesterol/HDL ratio) were obtained from blood sampling of all participants...
November 12, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827330/insulin-resistance-is-a-risk-factor-for-silent-lacunar-infarction
#15
Ji Eun Lee, Dong Wook Shin, Jae Moon Yun, Sang Hyuck Kim, You-Seon Nam, BeLong Cho, Jae-Sung Lim, Han-Yeong Jeong, Hyung-Min Kwon, Jin-Ho Park
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the association between insulin resistance (IR) and silent lacunar infarction (SLI) in healthy adults. METHODS: We recruited 2326 healthy Korean adults who took health checkups, including a brain magnetic resonance imaging. SLI was defined as an infarction measuring 0.3 to 1.5 cm in diameter that was localized in the territory of perforating branches of cerebral arteries, as seen in the brain magnetic resonance imaging...
November 8, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822713/dexamethasone-alters-the-appetite-regulation-via-induction-of-hypothalamic-insulin-resistance-in-rat-brain
#16
Ragitha Chruvattil, Shreya Banerjee, Sarmi Nath, Jatin Machhi, Gitika Kharkwal, Mange Ram Yadav, Sarita Gupta
Elevated levels of glucocorticoid, a steroid hormone released in response to stress, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes, which is now known to extend its effect on brain functions. Hence, we aimed to investigate the status of brain insulin signaling in response to dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) treatment in female Charles Foster rat. This model exhibited pronounced hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance with loss in appetite and body weight. Immunoblotting of insulin receptor (INSR)-PI3kinase-AKT demonstrated reduced insulin signaling in hypothalamus but no change in hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum in dexamethasone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats, signifying the diversity of distribution and function of insulin in different brain regions...
November 7, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822025/deep-analyses-of-the-associations-of-a-series-of-biomarkers-with-insulin-resistance-metabolic-syndrome-and-diabetes-risk-in-nondiabetic-middle-aged-and-elderly-individuals-results-from-a-chinese-community-based-study
#17
Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Leiming Luo, Ping Ye
OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to perform deep analyses of the associations of biomarkers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and homocysteine (Hcy), with insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes risk and evaluate the abilities of biomarkers to identify IR, MetS, and diabetes risk in Chinese community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly residents. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A total of 396 participants older than 45 years underwent physical examinations and laboratory analyses following standardized protocol...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812350/possible-integrative-actions-of-leptin-and-insulin-signaling-in-the-hypothalamus-targeting-energy-homeostasis
#18
REVIEW
Mina Thon, Toru Hosoi, Koichiro Ozawa
Obesity has emerged as one of the most burdensome conditions in modern society. In this context, understanding the mechanisms controlling food intake is critical. At present, the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and the pancreatic β-cell-derived hormone insulin are considered the principal anorexigenic hormones. Although leptin and insulin signal transduction pathways are distinct, their regulation of body weight maintenance is concerted. Resistance to the central actions of leptin or insulin is linked to the emergence of obesity and diabetes mellitus...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810934/genetic-deletion-of-neuronal-ppar%C3%AE-enhances-the-emotional-response-to-acute-stress-and-exacerbates-anxiety-an-effect-reversed-by-rescue-of-amygdala-ppar%C3%AE-function
#19
Esi Domi, Stefanie Uhrig, Laura Soverchia, Rainer Spanagel, Anita C Hansson, Estelle Barbier, Markus Heilig, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Massimo Ubaldi
: PPARγ is one of the three isoforms of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs). PPARγ is activated by thiazolidinediones such as pioglitazone, and it is targeted to treat insulin resistance. PPARγ is densely expressed in brain areas involved in regulation of motivational and emotional processes.Here, we investigated the role of PPARγ in the brain and explored its role in anxiety and stress responses in mice. The results show that stimulation of PPARγ by pioglitazone did not affect basal anxiety but fully prevented the anxiogenic effect of acute stress...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810390/agmatine-ameliorates-type-2-diabetes-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-like-alterations-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-via-reactivation-of-blunted-insulin-signalling
#20
Somang Kang, Chul-Hoon Kim, Hosung Jung, Eosu Kim, Ho-Taek Song, Jong Eun Lee
The risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies in high-fat diet-induced AD animal models have shown that brain insulin resistance in these animals leads to the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and the reduction in GSK-3β phosphorylation, which promotes tau phosphorylation to cause AD. No therapeutic treatments that target AD in T2DM patients have yet been discovered. Agmatine, a primary amine derived from l-arginine, has exhibited anti-diabetic effects in diabetic animals...
October 31, 2016: Neuropharmacology
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