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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814391/filling-the-void-a-role-for-exercise-induced-bdnf-and-brain-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing
#1
Rebecca Ek MacPherson
Inactivity, obesity, and insulin resistance are significant risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies have demonstrated that diet induced obesity, inactivity, and insulin resistance exacerbates neuropathological hallmarks of AD. The aggregation of beta-amyloid peptides is one of these hallmarks. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, leading to beta-amyloid peptide formation...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813108/consequences-of-gestational-diabetes-to-the-brain-and-behavior-of-the-offspring
#2
Ricardo A L DE Sousa, Yasmin S Torres, Claudia P Figueiredo, Giselle F Passos, Julia R Clarke
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GD) is a form of insulin resistance triggered during the second/third trimesters of pregnancy in previously normoglycemic women. It is currently estimated that 10% of all pregnancies in the United States show this condition. For many years, the transient nature of GD has led researchers and physicians to assume that long-term consequences were absent. However, GD diagnosis leads to a six-fold increase in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women and incidence of obesity and T2D is also higher among their infants...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812049/importance-of-adiponectin-activity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Masaaki Waragai, Gilbert Ho, Yoshiki Takamatsu, Kazunari Sekiyama, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Eliezer Masliah, Makoto Hashimoto
A recent study suggested that insulin resistance may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this regard, it is of note that upregulation of plasma adiponectin (APN), a benign adipokine that sensitizes the insulin receptor signaling pathway and suppresses inflammation, has recently been associated with the severities of amyloid deposits and cognitive deficits in the elderly, suggesting that APN may enhance the risk of AD. These results are unanticipated because AD has been linked to type II diabetes and other metabolic disorders in which hypoadiponectinemia has been firmly established, and because APN ameliorated neuropathological features in a mouse model of neurodegeneration...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808140/amyloid-%C3%AE-and-islet-amyloid-pathologies-link-alzheimer-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-in-a-transgenic-model
#4
Nadeeja Wijesekara, Rosemary Ahrens, Miheer Sabale, Ling Wu, Kathy Ha, Giuseppe Verdile, Paul E Fraser
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) present a significant risk to each other. AD and T2D are characterized by deposition of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) and pancreatic human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), respectively. We investigated the role of amyloidogenic proteins in the interplay between these diseases. A novel double transgenic mouse model combining T2D and AD was generated and characterized. AD-related amyloid transgenic mice coexpressing hIAPP displayed peripheral insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance...
August 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807765/sglt2-inhibitor-and-dpp-4-inhibitor-improve-brain-function-via-attenuating-mitochondrial-dysfunction-insulin-resistance-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-hfd-induced-obese-rats
#5
Piangkwan Sa-Nguanmoo, Pongpan Tanajak, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and neuroprotection in obese-insulin resistance. Recent studies demonstrated the neuroprotection of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin) in diabetes. However, the comparative effects of both drugs and a combination of two drugs on metabolic dysfunction and brain dysfunction impaired by the obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and received either a normal-diet (ND, n=8) or a high-fat diet (HFD, n=32) for 16weeks...
August 11, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790390/involvement-of-insulin-signaling-disturbances-in-bisphenol-a-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-like-neurotoxicity
#6
Tingwei Wang, Cuiwei Xie, Pengfei Yu, Fangfang Fang, Jingying Zhu, Jie Cheng, Aihua Gu, Jun Wang, Hang Xiao
Bisphenol A (BPA), a member of the environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs), has recently received increased attention because of its effects on brain insulin resistance. Available data have indicated that brain insulin resistance may contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. However, the associated mechanisms that underlie BPA-induced brain-related outcomes remain largely unknown. In the present study, we identified significant insulin signaling disturbances in the SH-SY5Y cell line that were mediated by BPA, including the inhibition of physiological p-IR Tyr1355 tyrosine, p-IRS1 tyrosine 896, p-AKT serine 473 and p-GSK3α/β serine 21/9 phosphorylation, as well as the enhancement of IRS1 Ser307 phosphorylation; these effects were clearly attenuated by insulin and rosiglitazone...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766040/the-diabetic-brain-and-cognition
#7
REVIEW
Peter Riederer, Amos D Korczyn, Sameh S Ali, Ovidiu Bajenaru, Mun Seong Choi, Michael Chopp, Vesna Dermanovic-Dobrota, Edna Grünblatt, Kurt A Jellinger, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Warda Kamal, Jerzy Leszek, Tanja Maria Sheldrick-Michel, Gohar Mushtaq, Bernard Meglic, Rachel Natovich, Zvezdan Pirtosek, Martin Rakusa, Melita Salkovic-Petrisic, Reinhold Schmidt, Angelika Schmitt, G Ramachandra Sridhar, László Vécsei, Zyta Beata Wojszel, Hakan Yaman, Zheng G Zhang, Tali Cukierman-Yaffe
The prevalence of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) is increasing with the aging of the population. Studies from the last several years have shown that people with diabetes have an increased risk for dementia and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the authors of this consensus review tried to elaborate on the role of diabetes, especially diabetes type 2 (T2DM) in both AD and VaD. Based on the clinical and experimental work of scientists from 18 countries participating in the International Congress on Vascular Disorders and on literature search using PUBMED, it can be concluded that T2DM is a risk factor for both, AD and VaD, based on a pathology of glucose utilization...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764741/the-role-of-melatonin-in-the-onset-and-progression-of-type-3-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Juhyun Song, Daniel J Whitcomb, Byeong C Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by the excessive accumulation of toxic peptides, such as beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). The risk factors associated with AD include genetic mutations, aging, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. To date, several studies that have demonstrated an association between AD and diabetes have revealed that the common risk factors include insulin resistance, sleep disturbances, blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and altered glucose homeostasis...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748226/peripheral-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-deficiency-as-a-potential-risk-factor-for-metabolic-syndrome-in-schizophrenia-patients
#9
Gregory Oxenkrug, Marieke van der Hart, Julien Roeser, Paul Summergrad
Increased predisposition of schizophrenia patients (SP) to development of obesity and insulin resistance suggested common signaling pathway between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and schizophrenia. Deficiency of kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), enzyme catalyzing formation of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) from kynurenine (Kyn), a tryptophan (Trp) metabolite, might contribute to development of MetS as suggested by non-expression of KMO genes in human fat tissue and elevated serum concentrations of Kyn and its metabolites, kynurenic (KYNA) and anthranilic (ANA) acids, in diabetic patients and Zucker fatty rats (ZFR)...
2017: Integr Clin Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739640/egcg-ameliorates-high-fat-and-high-fructose-induced-cognitive-defects-by-regulating-the-irs-akt-and-erk-creb-bdnf
#10
Yashi Mi, Guoyuan Qi, Rong Fan, Qinglian Qiao, Yali Sun, Yuqi Gao, Xuebo Liu
Obesity, which is caused by an energy imbalance between calorie intake and consumption, has become a major international health burden. Obesity increases the risk of insulin resistance and age-related cognitive decline, accompanied by peripheral inflammation. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective activities; however, few reports have focused on its potential effect on cognitive disorders. In this study, our goal was to investigate the protective effects of EGCG treatment on insulin resistance and memory impairment induced by a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)...
July 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738351/major-depression-as-a-neuroprogressive-prelude-to-dementia-what-is-the-evidence
#11
Brian E Leonard
Epidemiological studies implicate chronic depression as a predisposing factor for dementia in later life. However, the link is incompletely understood and controversial. The aim of this review is to consider some of the biological factors that contribute to neuroprogressive brain dysfunction in late life as a consequence of prolonged, low-grade inflammation in the course of depressive episodes. As chronic inflammation is known to precipitate increased apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes, this could be a contributing factor to brain dysfunction...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736244/the-use-of-stable-isotopes-in-the-study-of-human-pathophysiology
#12
Evelina Charidemou, Tom Ashmore, Julian L Griffin
The growing prevalence of metabolic diseases including fatty liver disease and Type 2 diabetes has increased the emphasis on understanding metabolism at the mechanistic level and how it is perturbed in disease. Metabolomics is a continually expanding field that seeks to measure metabolites in biological systems during a physiological stimulus or a genetic alteration. Typically, metabolomics studies provide total pool sizes of metabolites rather than dynamic flux measurements. More recently there has been a resurgence in approaches that use stable isotopes (e...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#13
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721128/insulin-and-brain-aging
#14
REVIEW
Agnieszka Baranowska-Bik, Wojciech Bik
The world's population is living much longer than in the past. It is crucial to find as many pathological factors that deteriorate the health condition and well-being of elderly people as possible. Loss of activity and functions over time is typical for elderly people. Aging affects brain function, metabolism and structure in different ways, and these effects have multiple etiologies. Cognitive impairment, impaired neurotransmitter activity and reduction of brain volume are observed in the elderly population...
June 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715453/effects-of-glucose-insulin-and-insulin-resistance-on-cerebral-18f-fdg-distribution-in-cognitively-normal-older-subjects
#15
Kenji Ishibashi, Airin Onishi, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Kiichi Ishiwata, Kenji Ishii
BACKGROUND: Increasing plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance can alter the distribution pattern of fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the brain and relatively reduce 18F-FDG uptake in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related hypometabolic regions, leading to the appearance of an AD-like pattern. However, its relationship with plasma insulin levels is unclear. We aimed to compare the effects of plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710347/effects-of-lipoic-acid-on-high-fat-diet-induced-alteration-of-synaptic-plasticity-and-brain-glucose-metabolism-a-pet-ct-and-13-c-nmr-study
#16
Zhigang Liu, Ishan Patil, Harsh Sancheti, Fei Yin, Enrique Cadenas
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is accompanied by insulin resistance and compromised brain synaptic plasticity through the impairment of insulin-sensitive pathways regulating neuronal survival, learning, and memory. Lipoic acid is known to modulate the redox status of the cell and has insulin mimetic effects. This study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary administration of lipoic acid on a HFD-induced obesity model in terms of (a) insulin signaling, (b) brain glucose uptake and neuronal- and astrocytic metabolism, and (c) synaptic plasticity...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710138/disruption-of-lipid-uptake-in-astroglia-exacerbates-diet-induced-obesity
#17
Yuanqing Gao, Clarita Layritz, Beata Legutko, Thomas O Eichmann, Elise Laperrousaz, Valentine S Moullé, Celine Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Christophe Magnan, Serge Luquet, Stephen C Woods, Robert H Eckel, Chun-Xia Yi, Cristina Garcia-Caceres, Matthias H Tschöp
Neuronal circuits in the brain help to control feeding behavior and systemic metabolism in response to afferent nutrient and hormonal signals. Although astrocytes have historically been assumed to be less relevant for such neuroendocrine control, we asked whether lipid uptake via lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in astrocytes is required for the central regulation of energy homeostasis. Ex vivo studies with hypothalamic-derived astrocytes showed that LPL expression is up-regulated by oleic acid; whereas it is decreased in response to palmitic acid or triglyceride...
July 14, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706476/long-term-sex-dependent-vulnerability-to-metabolic-challenges-in-prenatally-stressed-rats
#18
Pamela Panetta, Alessandra Berry, Veronica Bellisario, Sara Capoccia, Carla Raggi, Alessia Luoni, Linda Longo, Marco A Riva, Francesca Cirulli
Prenatal stress (PNS) might affect the developmental programming of adult chronic diseases such as metabolic and mood disorders. The molecular mechanisms underlying such regulations may rely upon long-term changes in stress-responsive effectors such as Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) that can affect neuronal plasticity underlying mood disorders and may also play a role in metabolic regulation. Based upon previous data, we hypothesized that PNS might lead to greater vulnerability to an obesogenic challenge experienced at adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699407/hydrogen-sulfide-and-glucose-homeostasis-a-tale-of-sweet-the-stink
#19
Ashley Untereiner, Lingyun Wu
SIGNIFICANCE: Among many endogenous mediators, the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Here we discuss different functional roles of H2S in several metabolic organs/tissues required in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Recent Advances: New evidence has emerged revealing the insulin sensitizing role of H2S in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biology. Additionally, H2S was demonstrated to be a potent stimulator of gluconeogenesis via the induction and stimulation of various glucose-producing pathways in the liver...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699112/brain-under-stress-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Boris Mravec, Lubica Horvathova, Alexandra Padova
Modern society is characterized by the ubiquity of stressors that affect every individual to different extents. Furthermore, experimental, clinical, and epidemiological data have shown that chronic activation of the stress response may participate in the development of various somatic as well as neuropsychiatric diseases. Surprisingly, the role that stress plays in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not yet been studied in detail and is therefore not well understood. However, accumulated data have shown that neuroendocrine and behavioral changes accompanying the stress response affect neuronal homeostasis and compromise several key neuronal processes...
July 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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