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brain insulin resistance

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Honkala SM, Johansson J, Motiani KK, et al. Short-term interval training alters brain glucose metabolism in subjects with insulin resistance. J Cereb Blood Flow. Epub ahead of print 29 September 2017. DOI: 10.1177/0271678X17734998. The figures in this article appear in the wrong position. Figure 1 should appear where Figure 2 currently appears, and vice versa. The figure captions are correctly placed.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Isadora C Furigo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Thais T Zampieri, Frederick Wasinski, Daniella C Buonfiglio, Jose Donato
Several metabolic adaptations emerge during pregnancy and continue through lactation, including increases in food intake and body weight, as well as insulin and leptin resistance. These maternal adaptations are thought to play a role in offspring viability and success. Using a model of attenuated maternal metabolic adaptations induced by ablation of the Socs3 gene in leptin receptor expressing cells (SOCS3 KO mice), our study aimed to investigate whether maternal metabolic changes are required for normal offspring development, and if their absence causes metabolic imbalances in adulthood...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Anna Kurek, Katarzyna Głombik, Jan Detka, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim, Marta Kubera, Władysław Lasoń, Bogusława Budziszewska
Obesity is a disease that often co-occurs with depression, and some evidence indicates that chronic stress in the perinatal period, in association with overactive glucocorticoids, can cause permanent changes that increase the risk of the development of both depression and obesity later in life. However, the mechanism responsible for the overly potent action of glucocorticoids in both depression and obesity is not known. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and the factors that affect GR function (FKBP51, Bag-1 and HSP70) in a prenatal stress animal model of depression, a model of obesity and a model of both depression and obesity...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Sirimon Reutrakul, Eve Van Cauter
A large body of epidemiologic evidence has linked insufficient sleep duration and quality to the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. To address putative causal mechanisms, this review focuses on laboratory interventions involving several nights of experimental sleep restriction, fragmentation or extension and examining metabolically relevant outcomes. Sleep restriction has been consistently shown to increase hunger, appetite and food intake, with the increase in caloric intake in excess of the energy requirements of extended wakefulness...
March 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Ana Knezovic, Jelena Osmanovic Barilar, Ana Babic, Robert Bagaric, Vladimir Farkas, Peter Riederer, Melita Salkovic-Petrisic
Insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction in the brain are considered to be the pathophysiological core of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). In line with that fact, nutrients that could have therapeutic effects at this level have been investigated as possible targets in AD therapy. Galactose, an epimer of glucose, may serve as an alternative source of energy, and given orally may stimulate secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Our preliminary research indicated that oral galactose might prevent development of memory impairment in a rat model of sAD generated by intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin (STZ-icv)...
February 28, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Inam-U-Llah, Fengyuan Piao, Rana Muhammad Aadil, Raheel Suleman, Kaixin Li, Mengren Zhang, Pingan Wu, Muhammad Shahbaz, Zulfiqar Ahmed
Diets in rats and humans have shown promising results. Taurine improved glucagon activity, promoted glycemic stability, modified glucose levels, successfully addressed hyperglycemia via advanced glycation end-product control, improved insulin secretion and had a beneficial effect on insulin resistance. Taurine treatment performed well against oxidative stress in brain, increased the secretion of required hormones and protected against neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy in diabetes compared with the control...
February 28, 2018: Amino Acids
Fu-Sun Lo, Reha S Erzurumlu
Background: Met receptor tyrosine kinase regulates neurogenesis, differentiation, migration, connectivity, and synaptic plasticity. The human Met gene has been identified as a prominent risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Met gene-altered mice serve as useful models for mechanistic studies of ASD. Inactivation of Met in excitatory cortical neurons in mice ( Emx1 cre /Met flox mice) yields a phenotype in which significantly decreased GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition shifts the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance toward excitation in the somatosensory cortex...
2018: Molecular Autism
Laura L Ekblad, Jarkko Johansson, Semi Helin, Matti Viitanen, Hanna Laine, Pauli Puukka, Antti Jula, Juha O Rinne
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether midlife insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for brain amyloid accumulation in vivo after 15 years, and whether this risk is modulated by APOE ε4 genotype. METHODS: This observational study examined 60 elderly volunteers without dementia (mean age at baseline 55.4 and at follow-up 70.9 years, 55.5% women) from the Finnish population-based, nationwide Health2000 study with [11 C]Pittsburgh compound B-PET imaging in 2014-2016...
February 23, 2018: Neurology
Ying Pan, Ling-Dong Kong
Fructose is a natural monosaccharide broadly used in modern society. Over the past few decades, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high fructose intake is an etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This review highlights research advances on fructose-induced MetS, especially the underlying pathophysiological mechanism as well as pharmacotherapy by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), using the PubMed, Web of science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal and Wanfang Data...
February 19, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Monica Chintapenta, Justin Spence, Hyanggi Irene Kwon, Amie Taggart Blaszczyk
Type 3 diabetes mellitus has been coined to describe an alternative pathologic pathway of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The insulin resistance and impaired insulin signaling seen on positron-emission tomography scans in the brain of those affected by AD support this disease hypothesis. Two products-the medical food caprylidene (Axona) and coconut oil-seek to target the underlying pathology of type 3 diabetes mellitus by providing an alternative fuel source in the brain. Rather than improving glucose utilization, these two products seek to supply ketone bodies in sufficient quantities to pass through the blood-brain barrier and provide an alternative energy source to glucose...
December 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
R G Esin, I Kh Khairullin, O R Esin
The review presents current concepts about the problem of cerebral insulin resistance (IR). It has now been established that cerebral IR plays a key role in the pathogenesis of degenerative and metabolic diseases of the brain. Based on literature data and own clinical experience, the authors recommend to use the standardized extract of ginkgo biloba EGb761 as a cellular protector, which increases insulin sensitivity of cells and reduces atherogenesis, in order to improve cognitive functions and quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
B N Nandeesh, Sharmistha Naskar, Arun H Shashtri, A Arivazhagan, Vani Santosh
Background: Despite advances in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM), the prognosis of patients continues to remain dismal. This unfavorable prognosis is mainly attributed to the tumor's propensity for progression and recurrence, which in turn is due to the highly aggressive nature of the persisting GBM cells that actively egress from the main tumor mass into the surrounding normal brain tissue. Such a recurrent tumor described to have a more malignant potential is highly invasive and resistant to current therapies, probably due to increased stemness and preferential selection of therapy-resistant clones of tumor cells...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Ning Xu, Hao Meng, Tian-Yi Liu, Ying-Li Feng, Yuan Qi, Dong-Huan Zhang, Hong-Lei Wang
Insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) is related to metabolic diseases, and sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of cholesteryl ester. In the present study, wild-type (WT) mice and SOAT1-knockout (KO) mice with a C57BL6 background fed a HFD were used to explore the role of SOAT1 in the hypothalamus. The results show that the WT mice exhibited a significant increase in body weight as well as hepatic histologic changes; they also had a lower glucose and insulin tolerance than the WT mice fed a normal diet...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Maud Gratuze, Aurélie Joly-Amado, Didier Vieau, Luc Buée, David Blum
<br>Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes such as Tau lesions and amyloid plaques, but also associated with non-cognitive symptomatology. Metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as alterations in body weight, brain insulin impairments and lower brain glucose metabolism, that often precede clinical diagnosis, have been extensively reported in AD patients. However, the origin of these symptoms and their relation to pathology and cognitive impairments remain misunderstood...
February 13, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Jeremy J Pruzin, Peter T Nelson, Erin L Abner, Zoe Arvanitakis
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are both highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and each is associated with high-morbidity and high-mortality. Numerous clinical studies have consistently shown that T2D confers a two-fold increased risk for a dementia, including dementia attributable to AD. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this relationship, especially non-vascular mechanisms, remain debated. Cerebral vascular disease (CVD) is likely to be playing a role. But increased AD neuropathologic changes (ADNC), specifically neuritic amyloid plaques (AP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), are also posited mechanisms...
February 8, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Gabriel Keine Kuga, Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Susana Castelo Branco Ramos Nakandakari, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, José Diego Botezelli, José Alexandre Curiacos de Almeida Leme, Ricardo José Gomes, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Dennys Esper Cintra, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli
The insulin and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus promotes synaptic plasticity and memory formation. On the other hand, aging is related to the cognitive decline and is the main risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is related to several deleterious processes in neurons and emerges as a promising target for new therapies. In this context, our study aims to investigate the age-related changes in PTP1B content, insulin signaling, β-amyloid content, and Tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats...
February 5, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
O M Abdelwahed, O M Tork, M M Gamal El Din, L Rashed, M Zickri
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most essential neurotrophic factors in the brain. BDNF is involved in learning, memory and locomotion suggesting it as a target in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated cognitive changes. Visfatin; an adipokine discovered to be expressed in the brain; was found to have multiple effects including its participation in keeping energy supply to the cell and is consequentially involved in cell survival. Its role in cognitive functions in T2DM was not studied before...
February 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Victor A Gault, Christian Hölscher
Enzyme-resistant receptor agonists of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have shown positive therapeutic effects in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM has detrimental effects on brain function and impairment of cognition and memory formation has been described. One of the underlying mechanisms is most likely insulin de-sensitization in the brain, as insulin improves cognitive impairments and enhances learning. Treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonists improves memory formation and impairment of synaptic plasticity observed in animal models of diabetes-obesity...
February 2018: Peptides
Luc Tappy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing concern that dietary fructose may contribute to the development of noncommunicable diseases. This review identifies major new findings related to fructose's physiological or adverse effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Fructose is mainly processed in splanchnic organs (gut, liver, kidneys) to glucose, lactate, and fatty acids, which can then be oxidized in extrasplanchnic organs and tissues. There is growing evidence that splanchnic lactate production, linked to extrasplanchnic lactate metabolism, represents a major fructose disposal pathway during and after exercise...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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