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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434199/repeated-evolution-of-digital-adhesion-in-geckos-a-reply-to-harrington-and-reeder
#1
Tony Gamble, Eli Greenbaum, Todd R Jackman, Anthony P Russell, Aaron M Bauer
We published a phylogenetic comparative analysis that found geckos had gained and lost adhesive toepads multiple times over their long evolutionary history (Gamble et al. 2012). This was consistent with decades of morphological studies showing geckos had evolved adhesive toepads on multiple occasions and that the morphology of geckos with ancestrally padless digits can be distinguished from secondarily padless forms. Recently, Harrington and Reeder (2017) reanalyzed data from Gamble et al. (2012) and found little support for the multiple origins hypothesis...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434197/multi-modal-signalling-in-estrildid-finches-song-dance-and-colour-are-associated-with-different-ecological-and-life-history-traits
#2
Ana Cristina R Gomes, Caterina Funghi, Masayo Soma, Michael D Sorenson, Gonçalo C Cardoso
Sexual traits (e.g., visual ornaments, acoustic signals, courtship behaviour) are often displayed together as multi-modal signals. Some hypotheses predict joint evolution of different sexual signals (e.g., to increase the efficiency of communication), or that different signals trade-off with each other (e.g., due to limited resources). Alternatively, multiple signals may evolve independently for different functions, or to communicate different information (multiple message hypothesis). We evaluated these hypotheses with a comparative study in the family Estrildidae, one of the largest songbird radiations, and one that includes many model species for research in sexual selection and communication...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434173/the-effect-of-resilience-on-task-persistence-and-performance-during-repeated-exposure-to-heat-pain
#3
P Maxwell Slepian, Christopher R France
The Pain Resilience Scale was recently developed to assess dimensions of resilience critical to pain-related adaptation and was found to predict experimental pain sensitivity in a pain-free population. Pain resilience has also been theoretically linked to behavioral persistence despite pain. To date, however, this hypothesis has not been experimentally tested. To address this gap in the literature, in the current study 105 healthy young adults underwent a baseline administration of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), a stressful mental arithmetic task, delivered with somatosensory distraction (i...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434121/intracellular-position-of-mitochondria-in-mesophyll-cells-differs-between-c3-and-c4-grasses
#4
Yuto Hatakeyama, Osamu Ueno
In C3 plants, part of the CO2 fixed during photosynthesis in chloroplasts is released from mitochondria during photorespiration by decarboxylation of glycine via glycine decarboxylase (GDC), thereby reducing photosynthetic efficiency. The apparent positioning of most mitochondria in the interior (vacuole side of chloroplasts) of mesophyll cells in C3 grasses would increase the efficiency of refixation of CO2 released from mitochondria by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/​oxygenase (Rubisco) in chloroplasts...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434101/predicting-dream-recall-eeg-activation-during-nrem-sleep-or-shared-mechanisms-with-wakefulness
#5
Serena Scarpelli, Aurora D'Atri, Anastasia Mangiaruga, Cristina Marzano, Maurizio Gorgoni, Cinzia Schiappa, Michele Ferrara, Luigi De Gennaro
The common knowledge of a uniqueness of REM sleep as a privileged scenario of dreaming still persists, although consolidated empirical evidence shows that the assumption that dreaming is just an epiphenomenon of REM sleep is no longer tenable. However, the brain mechanisms underlying dream generation and its encoding in memory during NREM sleep are still mostly unknown. In fact, only few studies have investigated on the mechanisms of dream phenomenology related to NREM sleep. For this reason, our study is specifically aimed to elucidate the electrophysiological (EEG) correlates of dream recall (DR) upon NREM sleep awakenings...
April 22, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434091/continued-bullying-victimization-in-adolescents-maladaptive-schemas-as-a-mediational-mechanism
#6
Esther Calvete, Liria Fernández-González, Joaquín M González-Cabrera, Manuel Gámez-Guadix
Bullying victimization in adolescence is a significant social problem that can become persistent over time for some victims. However, there is an overall paucity of research examining the factors that contribute to continued bullying victimization. Schema therapy proposes a model that can help us understand why bullying victimization can be persistent for some victims. This study examines the role of maladaptive schemas, the key concept in schema therapy, as a mechanism of continued bullying victimization. The hypothesis was that maladaptive schemas of rejection mediate the predictive association between victimization in both the family and at school and future bullying victimization...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434056/beyond-the-primary-endpoint-paradigm-a-test-of-intervention-effect-in-hiv-behavioral-intervention-trials-with-numerous-correlated-outcomes
#7
Jessica M Harwood, Robert E Weiss, W Scott Comulada
Behavioral interventions are increasingly based on holistic approaches to health with an understanding that health-related behaviors are linked. A motivating example is provided by the Philani study, an intervention trial conducted to improve the health of South African mothers and their children. Inter-related health problems around maternal alcohol use, malnutrition, and HIV were addressed; multiple endpoints were targeted. The traditional hypothesis testing paradigm that tests significance on one primary outcome did not suffice...
April 22, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434029/health-of-midlife-and-older-adults-in-china-the-role-of-regional-economic-development-inequality-and-institutional-setting
#8
Xuejie Ding, Francesco C Billari, Stuart Gietel-Basten
OBJECTIVES: To document the association between economic development, income inequality, and health-related public infrastructure, and health outcomes among Chinese adults in midlife and older age. METHODS: We use a series of multi-level regression models with individual-level baseline data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS). Provincial-level data are obtained both from official statistics and from CHARLS itself. Multi-level models are estimated with different subjective and objective health outcomes...
April 22, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433812/the-perlecan-interacting-growth-factor-progranulin-regulates-ubiquitination-sorting-and-lysosomal-degradation-of-sortilin
#9
Ryuta Tanimoto, Chiara Palladino, Shi-Qiong Xu, Simone Buraschi, Thomas Neill, Leonard G Gomella, Stephen C Peiper, Antonino Belfiore, Renato V Iozzo, Andrea Morrione
Despite extensive clinical and experimental studies over the past decades, the pathogenesis and progression to the castration-resistant stage of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Progranulin, a secreted growth factor, strongly binds the heparin-sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, and counteracts its biological activity. We established that progranulin acts as an autocrine growth factor and promotes prostate cancer cell motility, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin was overexpressed in prostate cancer tissues vis-à-vis non-neoplastic tissues supporting the hypothesis that progranulin may play a key role in prostate cancer progression...
April 20, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433754/mir-146a-suppresses-stat3-vegf-pathways-and-reduces-apoptosis-through-il-6-signaling-in-primary-human-retinal-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-high-glucose-conditions
#10
Eun-Ah Ye, Jena J Steinle
microRNA (miRNA) play critical roles in the pathological processes of diabetic retinopathy, including inflammatory responses, insulin signaling, and angiogenesis. In addition to their regulatory functions on gene expression, miRNA is considered as a potential therapeutic target, as well as a diagnostic marker for many diseases. Our understanding on the pathological mechanisms underlying diabetic retinopathy is still incomplete and additional investigations are required to develop novel therapeutic strategies...
April 19, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433712/common-phox2b-poly-alanine-contractions-impair-ret-gene-transcription-predisposing-to-hirschsprung-disease
#11
Eleonora Di Zanni, Annalisa Adamo, Elga Belligni, Margherita Lerone, Giuseppe Martucciello, Girolamo Mattioli, Alessio Pini Prato, Roberto Ravazzolo, Margherita Silengo, Tiziana Bachetti, Isabella Ceccherini
HSCR is a congenital disorder of the enteric nervous system, characterized by the absence of neurons along a variable length of the gut resulting from loss-of-function RET mutations. Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS) is a rare neurocristopathy characterized by impaired response to hypercapnia and hypoxemia caused by heterozygous mutations of the PHOX2B gene, mostly polyalanine (polyA) expansions but also missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations, while polyA contractions are common in the population and believed neutral...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433650/long-noncoding-rna-malat1-is-a-potent-autophagy-inducer-protecting-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-induced-injure-by-sponing-mir-26b-and-upregulating-ulk2-expression
#12
Zhijun Li, Jing Li, Na Tang
Brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is the initial stage of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which results in a poor prognosis in ischemic stroke patients. Autophagy has been shown to have protective effects on BMECs against cerebral ischemic insults. However, molecular mechanism of BMEC autophagy during I/R is unclear. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new factors involved in cell autophagy. LncRNA Malat1 is one of the most highly upregulated I/R or OGD/R-responsive endothelial lncRNA and plays a protective role in BMECs against cerebral ischemic insults...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433628/ca-2-dependent-hyperpolarization-hypothesis-for-mammalian-sleep
#13
REVIEW
Fumiya Tatsuki, Koji L Ode, Hiroki R Ueda
The detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of sleep/wake cycles in mammals are elusive. In this regulation, at least two mechanisms with fast and slow time scales are involved. In the faster time scale, a state of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep can be microscopically characterized by the millisecond-to-second-order electrical behavior of neurons, namely slow-wave oscillations described by electrophysiology. In the slower time scale, the total duration of NREM sleep is homeostatically regulated by sleep pressure (the need for sleep), which is usually sustained for hours or even days and can be macroscopically described by electroencephalogram (EEG)...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433591/-artificial-intelligence-applied-to-radiation-oncology
#14
J-E Bibault, A Burgun, P Giraud
Performing randomised comparative clinical trials in radiation oncology remains a challenge when new treatment modalities become available. One of the most recent examples is the lack of phase III trials demonstrating the superiority of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in most of its current indications. A new paradigm is developing that consists in the mining of large databases to answer clinical or translational issues. Beyond national databases (such as SEER or NCDB), that often lack the necessary level of details on the population studied or the treatments performed, electronic health records can be used to create detailed phenotypic profiles of any patients...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433568/the-role-of-copulatory-plugs-in-the-mosquito-parasitic-nematode-strelkovimermis-spiculatus
#15
Yu-Han Lan, Yi Wang, Randy Gaugler
The mosquito-parasitic nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Mermithidae: Nematoda) emerges from hosts and aggregates to form mating clusters characterized by intense male-male competition for females. Successful males deposit an adhesive copulatory plug over the female vulva after insemination. In choice experiments, males strongly preferred virgin females, whereas plugged females were ignored. Males made no attempt to displace copulatory plugs deposited by previous males. Plugged females repelled males without the need for physical contact...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433558/spatial-relationship-of-organized-rotational-and-focal-sources-in-human-atrial-fibrillation-to-autonomic-ganglionated-plexi
#16
Tina Baykaner, Theodoros A Zografos, Junaid A B Zaman, Ioannis Pantos, Mahmood Alhusseini, Rachita Navara, David E Krummen, Sanjiv M Narayan, Demosthenes G Katritsis
BACKGROUND: One approach to improve ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is to focus on physiological targets including focal or rotational sources or ganglionic plexi (GP). However, the spatial relationship between these potential mechanisms has never been studied. We tested the hypothesis that rotors and focal sources for AF may co-localize with ganglionated plexi (GP). METHODS: We prospectively identified locations of AF rotors and focal sources, and correlated these to GP sites in 97 consecutive patients (age 59...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433506/heifers-express-g-protein-coupled-receptor-61-in-anterior-pituitary-gonadotrophs-in-stage-dependent-manner
#17
Kiran Pandey, Onalenna Kereilwe, Vitaliano Borromeo, Hiroya Kadokawa
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRHRs) colocalize with insulin and glucocorticoid receptors in lipid rafts of the gonadotroph plasma membrane, where they facilitate downstream signaling. We recently found that orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)61 is expressed in the anterior pituitary (AP) of heifers, leading us to speculate that GPR61 colocalizes with GnRHR in the plasma membrane of gonadotroph and is expressed at specific times of the reproductive cycle. To test this hypothesis, we examined the coexpression of GnRHR, GPR61, and either luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit in AP tissue and cultured AP cells by immunofluorescence microscopy...
April 4, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433470/daily-supplementation-of-dietary-protein-improves-the-metabolic-effects-of-glp-1-based-pharmacotherapy-in-lean-and-obese-rats
#18
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Kieran Koch-Laskowski, Lauren E McGrath, Joanna Krawczyk, Tram Pham, Rinzin Lhamo, David J Reiner, Matthew R Hayes
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and reduce feeding. Specific macronutrients, when ingested, may trigger GLP-1 secretion and enhance the effects of systemic sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (an enzyme that rapidly degrades GLP-1). In particular, macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1, and acute preclinical trials show that ingestion of dairy protein may represent a promising adjunct behavioral therapy in combination with sitagliptin...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433388/magnetic-resonance-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-analyses-indicate-heterogeneous-strains-along-human-medial-gastrocnemius-fascicles-caused-by-submaximal-plantar-flexion-activity
#19
Agah Karakuzu, Uluç Pamuk, Cengizhan Ozturk, Burak Acar, Can A Yucesoy
Sarcomere length changes are central to force production and excursion of skeletal muscle. Previous modeling indicates non-uniformity of that if mechanical interaction of muscle with its surrounding muscular and connective tissues is taken into account. Hence, quantifying length changes along the fascicles of activated human muscle in vivo is crucial, but this is lacking due to technical complexities. Combining magnetic resonance imaging deformation analyses and diffusion tensor imaging tractography, the aim was to test the hypothesis that submaximal plantar flexion activity at 15% MVC causes heterogeneous length changes along the fascicles of human medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscle...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433346/biomechanical-flow-amplification-arising-from-the-variable-deformation-of-the-subglottic-mucosa
#20
Eric Goodyer, Frank Müller, Markus Hess, Karthikeyan Kandan, Farukh Farukh
OBJECTIVE: This study mapped the variation in tissue elasticity of the subglottic mucosa, applied these data to provide initial models of the likely deformation of the mucosa during the myoelastic cycle, and hypothesized as to the impact on the process of phonation. STUDY DESIGN: Six donor human larynges were dissected along the sagittal plane to expose the vocal folds and subglottic mucosa. A linear skin rheometer was used to apply a controlled shear force, and the resultant displacement was measured...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
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