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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778070/high-intensity-binge-drinking-is-associated-with-alterations-in-spontaneous-neural-oscillations-in-young-adults
#1
Rifqi O Affan, Siyuan Huang, Stephen M Cruz, Lee A Holcomb, Edward Nguyen, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic alcohol consumption (also termed binge drinking) contributes to a wide range of health and cognitive deficits, but the associated brain-based indices are poorly understood. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine spontaneous neural oscillations in young adults as a function of quantity, frequency, and the pattern of their alcohol consumption. Sixty-one young adults (23.4 ± 3.4 years of age) were assigned to binge drinking (BD) and light drinking (LD) groups that were equated on gender, race/ethnic identity, age, educational background, and family history of alcoholism...
January 8, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778064/is-the-limit-cycle-attractor-an-almost-invariable-characteristic-in-human-walking
#2
Kim-Charline Broscheid, Christian Dettmers, Manfred Vieten
BACKGROUND: Common methods of gait analyses measure step length/width, gait velocity and gait variability to name just a few. Those parameters tend to be changing with fitness and skill of the subjects. But, do stable subject characteristic parameters in walking exist? Does the Limit-Cycle-Attractor qualify as such a parameter?. RESEARCH QUESTION: The attractor method is a new approach focusing on the dynamics of human motion. It classifies the fundamental walking pattern by calculating the Limit-Cycle-Attractor and its variability from acceleration data of the feet...
May 16, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777993/toenail-selenium-genetic-variation-in-selenoenzymes-and-risk-and-outcome-in-glioma
#3
Noah C Peeri, Jordan H Creed, Gabriella M Anic, Reid C Thompson, Jeffrey J Olson, Renato V LaRocca, Sajeel A Chowdhary, John D Brockman, Travis A Gerke, L Burton Nabors, Kathleen M Egan
BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element obtained through diet that plays a critical role in DNA synthesis and protection from oxidative damage. Selenium intake and polymorphisms in selenoproteins have been linked to the risk of certain cancers though data for glioma are sparse. METHODS: In a case-control study of glioma, we examined the associations of selenium in toenails and genetic variants in the selenoenzyme pathway with the risk of glioma and patient survival...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777952/the-opportunity-to-avoid-pain-may-paradoxically-increase-fear
#4
Christine M van Vliet, Ann Meulders, Linda M G Vancleef, Johan W S Vlaeyen
Fear-avoidance models propose that pain-related fear may spur avoidance behaviour leading to chronic pain disability. Pain-related fear elicits avoidance behaviour, which is typically aimed at reducing fear. We hypothesized that engaging in avoidance may (paradoxically) increase rather than decrease pain-related fear (i.e. bidirectionality hypothesis). In a between-subject design, participants (N=64) were randomly assigned to the avoidance group or the control group. Avoidance group participants were led to believe they could avoid full exposure to a painful heat stimulus by pressing the stop-button, while control group participants believed they were exposed to the full painful heat stimulus at all times...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777939/variation-of-genes-encoding-kat1-aadat-and-ido1-as-a-potential-risk-of-depression-development
#5
Paulina Wigner, Piotr Czarny, Ewelina Synowiec, Michał Bijak, Monika Talarowska, Piotr Galecki, Janusz Szemraj, Tomasz Sliwinski
Numerous data suggests that the disorders of tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) pathway, including a decreased level of tryptophan or evaluated concentration of harmful TRYCATs -kynurenine, quinolinic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, 3-hydroxytryptophan - may cause the occurrence of DD symptoms. In this work, we assessed the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of KAT1, KAT2 and IDO1 gene encoding, and the risk of depression development. Our study was performed on the DNA isolated from peripheral blood of 281 depressed patients and 236 controls...
May 16, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777741/effect-of-exposure-to-similar-flavours-in-sensory-specific-satiety-implications-for-eating-behaviour
#6
Ana González, Sergio Andrés Recio, Jesús Sánchez, Marta Gil, Isabel de Brugada
Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) refers to a decline in pleasantness of eaten foods in comparison to other non-ingested meals. Although SSS is specific to the eaten food, it can also generalize to other meals that share similar properties to the satiated food. It is possible that this phenomenon could become more specific after extensive experience, as repeated exposure to an assortment of similar food could cause perceptual learning (i.e. an increase in the distinctiveness of each specific item). This in turn would reduce generalization from the consumed food to other similar products, so they will be more readily consumed...
May 16, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777718/malnutrition-is-associated-with-diminished-baseline-and-mycobacterial-antigen-stimulated-chemokine-responses-in-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#7
Rajamanickam Anuradha, Saravanan Munisankar, Yukthi Bhootra, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Chandrakumar Dolla, Subash Babu
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated a diminution in the baseline and mycobacterial antigen - specific cytokines in low body mass index (LBMI) individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We hypothesized that LBMI might be also associated with alteration in the baseline and antigen - stimulated levels of chemokines in LTBI. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we examined baseline, TB- antigen and mitogen stimulated levels of chemokines in these individuals and compared them with those with LTBI and normal BMI (NBMI)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777691/improving-electrical-properties-of-ipsc-cardiomyocytes-by-enhancing-cx43-expression
#8
Valentin Sottas, Carl-Mattheis Wahl, Mihnea C Trache, Michael Bartolf-Kopp, Sidney Cambridge, Markus Hecker, Nina D Ullrich
The therapeutic potential of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) is limited by immature functional features including low impulse propagation and reduced cell excitability. Key players regulating electrical activity are voltage-gated Na+ channels (Nav 1.5) and gap junctions built from connexin-43 (Cx43). Here we tested the hypothesis that enhanced Cx43 expression increases intercellular coupling and influences excitability by modulating Nav 1.5. Using transgenic approaches, Cx43 and Nav 1...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777493/transgenic-mice-carrying-glud2-as-a-tool-for-studying-the-expressional-and-the-functional-adaptation-of-this-positive-selected-gene-in-human-brain-evolution
#9
Andreas Plaitakis, Dimitra Kotzamani, Zoe Petraki, Maria Delidaki, Vagelis Rinotas, Ioannis Zaganas, Eleni Douni, Kyriaki Sidiropoulou, Cleanthe Spanaki
Human evolution is characterized by brain expansion and up-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism and synaptic transmission, including the glutamate signaling pathway. Glutamate is the excitatory transmitter of neural circuits sub-serving cognitive functions, with glutamate-modulation of synaptic plasticity being central to learning and memory. GLUD2 is a novel positively-selected human gene involved in glutamatergic transmission and energy metabolism that underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation concomitantly with prefrontal cortex enlargement...
May 18, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777437/the-impact-of-anatomical-and-spatial-distance-between-responses-on-response-conflict
#10
Peter Wühr, Herbert Heuer
Different features of objects can be associated with different responses, so that their concurrent presence results in conflict. The Simon effect is a prominent example of this type of response conflict. In two experiments, we ask whether it is modulated by the anatomical or spatial relation between responses. Predictions were derived from an extended variant of the leaky, competing accumulator (LCA) model proposed by Usher and McClelland (Psychological Review, 108, 550-592, 2001). The relation between responses was represented by the lateral-inhibition parameter of the model...
May 17, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777406/can-bovine-leukemia-virus-be-related-to-human-breast-cancer-a-review-of-the-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Lucia Martinez Cuesta, Pamela Anahi Lendez, Maria Victoria Nieto Farias, Guillermina Laura Dolcini, Maria Carolina Ceriani
The incidence of breast cancer is continuously increasing worldwide, as influenced by many factors that act synergistically. In the last decade there was an increasing interest in the possible viral etiology of human breast cancer. Since then, many viruses have been associated with this disease (murine mammary tumor virus, MMTV; Epstein-Barr virus, EBV; and human papillomavirus, HPV). Recently, BLV has been identified in human breast cancers giving rise to the hypothesis that it could be one of the causative agents of this condition...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777325/developing-an-interactive-data-visualization-tool-to-assess-the-impact-of-decision-support-on-clinical-operations
#12
Timothy C Huber, Arun Krishnaraj, Dayna Monaghan, Cree M Gaskin
Due to mandates from recent legislation, clinical decision support (CDS) software is being adopted by radiology practices across the country. This software provides imaging study decision support for referring providers at the point of order entry. CDS systems produce a large volume of data, providing opportunities for research and quality improvement. In order to better visualize and analyze trends in this data, an interactive data visualization dashboard was created using a commercially available data visualization platform...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777258/development-of-a-two-stage-in-vitro-model-system-to-investigate-the-mineralization-mechanisms-involved-in-idiopathic-stone-formation-stage-1-biomimetic-randall-s-plaque-using-decellularized-porcine-kidneys
#13
Archana C Lovett, Saeed R Khan, Laurie B Gower
Idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers form stones that are commonly attached to calcium phosphate (CaP) deposits in the renal tissue, known as Randall's plaques (RP). Plaques are suggested to originate in the renal tubular basement membrane, where they exhibit a morphology of concentrically laminated apatitic spherules, while in the interstitial regions, the collagen fibrils and vesicles become mineralized. We hypothesize that these minerals might form by non-classical crystallization mechanisms, such as via amorphous precursors, some of which might originate from a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process...
May 18, 2018: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777164/mrna-treatment-produces-sustained-expression-of-enzymatically-active-human-adamts13-in-mice
#14
Susan Liu-Chen, Brendan Connolly, Lei Cheng, Romesh R Subramanian, Zhaozhong Han
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is primarily caused by deficiency of ADAMTS13 within the blood stream due to either genetic defects or presence of inhibitory autoantibodies. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human ADAMTS13 protein (rhADAMTS13) is effective and safe in treatment of TTP. However, frequent dosing would be required due to the relatively short half-life of rhADAMTS13 in circulation as well as the presence of inhibitory autoantibodies that collectively result in the poor pharmacological profile of rhADAMTS13...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777149/stretching-reduces-tumor-growth-in-a-mouse-breast-cancer-model
#15
L Berrueta, J Bergholz, D Munoz, I Muskaj, G J Badger, A Shukla, H J Kim, J J Zhao, H M Langevin
There is growing interest in developing non-pharmacological treatments that could boost natural defenses against cancer and contribute to primary and secondary cancer prevention. Recent studies have shown that gentle daily stretching for 10 minutes can reduce local connective tissue inflammation and fibrosis. Because mechanical factors within the stroma can influence the tumor microenvironment, we hypothesized that stretching would reduce the growth of tumors implanted within locally stretched tissues and tested this hypothesis in a mouse orthotopic breast cancer model...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777148/let-7i-5p-mir-181a-2-3p-and-egf-pi3k-sox2-axis-coordinate-to-maintain-cancer-stem-cell-population-in-cervical-cancer
#16
Ravindresh Chhabra
The characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the genes responsible for their maintenance are highly variable in different cancers. Here, we identify the coordination among miRNAs and EGF pathway genes which is critical for the maintenance of CSCs in cervical cancer. The transcript analysis of CSCs enriched from cervical cancer cell lines (CaSki and HeLa) revealed a significant upregulation of SOX2. Since EGF receptor is frequently over expressed in cervical cancer, we hypothesized that EGF pathway may be responsible for the upregulation of SOX2...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777117/a-logic-based-method-to-build-signaling-networks-and-propose-experimental-plans
#17
Adrien Rougny, Pauline Gloaguen, Nathalie Langonné, Eric Reiter, Pascale Crépieux, Anne Poupon, Christine Froidevaux
With the dramatic increase of the diversity and the sheer quantity of biological data generated, the construction of comprehensive signaling networks that include precise mechanisms cannot be carried out manually anymore. In this context, we propose a logic-based method that allows building large signaling networks automatically. Our method is based on a set of expert rules that make explicit the reasoning made by biologists when interpreting experimental results coming from a wide variety of experiment types...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777116/genetic-risk-score-of-common-genetic-variants-for-impaired-fasting-glucose-and-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-influences-oxidative-stress
#18
Minjoo Kim, Minkyung Kim, Limin Huang, Sun Ha Jee, Jong Ho Lee
We tested the hypothesis that the cumulative effects of common genetic variants related to elevated fasting glucose are collectively associated with oxidative stress. Using 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was constructed by summing nine risk alleles based on nominal significance and a consistent effect direction in 1,395 controls and 718 patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. All the participants were divided into the following three groups: low-wGRS, middle-wGRS, and high-wGRS groups...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777003/impact-of-reference-target-region-selection-on-amyloid-pet-standard-uptake-value-ratios-in-the-phase-1b-prime-study-of-aducanumab
#19
Ping Chiao, Barry J Bedell, Brian Avants, Alex P Zijdenbos, Marilyn Grand'Maison, Paul O'Neill, John O'Gorman, Tianle Chen, Robert Koeppe
Standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) are commonly used to quantify tracer uptake in amyloid beta positron emission tomography (Aβ-PET). Here, we explore the impact of target and reference region of interest (ROI) selection on SUVR effect size using interventional data from the ongoing Phase Ib PRIME study (NCT01677572) of aducanumab (BIIB037) in patients with prodromal or mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Florbetapir PET SUVR was calculated at baseline (screening) and Weeks 26 and 54 for patients randomized to placebo and each of four aducanumab doses (1, 3, 6, and 10 mg/kg), using whole cerebellum, cerebellar grey matter, cerebellar white matter, pons, and subcortical white matter as reference regions...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776995/kinematic-control-of-male-allen-s-hummingbird-wing-trill-over-a-range-of-flight-speeds
#20
Christopher J Clark, Emily A Mistick
Wing trills are pulsed sounds produced by modified wing feathers at one or more specific points in time during a wingbeat. Male Allen's Hummingbird ( Selasphorus sasin ) produce a sexually dimorphic 9 kHz wing trill in flight. Here we investigate the kinematic basis for trill production. The wingtip velocity hypothesis posits that trill production is modulated by the airspeed of the wingtip at some point during the wingbeat, whereas the wing rotation hypothesis posits that trill production is instead modulated by wing rotation kinematics...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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