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vascular cognitive impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635875/-disturbances-of-gait-and-postural-stability-in-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#1
N N Vakhnina, V V Zakharov
Disturbances of gait and postural stability are characteristic of the chronic progressive vascular lesion of the brain observed in moderate to severe stages of cerebrovascular disease. Disconnections between the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum due to the damage of the white matter (vascular leukoencephalopathy) underlie disturbances of gait and postural stability (shorter stride length, wider gait). There are difficulties in starting with possible stoppings during the walking, waiting in front of small barriers as well as difficulties in concentration (e...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634464/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-co-ultrapealut-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-dementia
#2
Rosalba Siracusa, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Stefania Petrosino, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Vascular dementia (VaD), the second most common cause of cognitive impairment in the population, is a disease that results from reduction in regional cerebral blood flow and involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Co-ultramicronized PEALut (co-ultra PEALut) is a new compound with beneficial effects, which include anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, co-ultraPEALut has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633628/olfactory-testing-in-consecutive-patients-referred-with-suspected-dementia
#3
Ib Thrane Christensen, Elna-Marie Larsson, Ida E Holm, Ole B F Nielsen, Stig Andersen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and early and accurate diagnosis is important. Olfactory dysfunction is an early sign of AD. The contribution by test of olfactory function has been surveyed in AD vs a line of conditions but remains to be settled in the workup of unselected patients referred with suspected dementia. METHODS: We performed a two-step investigation: first, a comparative study of healthy controls and probable AD patients to test the applicability of the chosen scents (cuisine study); second, a study of consecutive patients referred to our geriatric outpatient clinic for suspected dementia with the investigating personnel blinded to the results of the Olfactory Test (blinded study)...
June 20, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630030/alzheimer-s-brains-show-inter-related-changes-in-rna-and-lipid-metabolism
#4
Shahar Barbash, Benjamin P Garfinkel, Rotem Maoz, Alon Simchovitz, Bettina Nadorp, Alessandro Guffanti, Estelle R Bennett, Courtney Nadeau, Andreas Türk, Lukas Paul, Torsten Reda, Yan Li, Aron S Buchman, David S Greenberg, Alexander Seitz, David A Bennett, Patrick Giavalisco, Hermona Soreq
Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves changes in both lipid and RNA metabolism, but it remained unknown if these differences associate with AD's cognition and/or post-mortem neuropathology indices. Here, we report RNA-sequencing evidence of inter-related associations between lipid processing, cognition level, and AD neuropathology. In two unrelated cohorts, we identified pathway-enriched facilitation of lipid processing and alternative splicing genes, including the neuronal-enriched NOVA1 and hnRNPA1. Specifically, this association emerged in temporal lobe tissue samples from donors where postmortem evidence demonstrated AD neuropathology, but who presented normal cognition proximate to death...
June 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625252/-cerebral-injury-induced-by-heat-stroke-and-the-therapeutic-effect-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#5
Xiaoxiao Ni, Zhifeng Liu, Qiuyou Xie, Huasheng Tong, Lei Su, Ronghao Yu
With the global warming, the incidence of heat stroke was significantly higher than before. Severe heat stroke has a high mortality, high morbidity and consolidated central nervous system injury characteristics. The main features of severe heat stroke cerebral injury include cognitive impairment, delirium, convulsions and coma. Its mechanism is related with heat shock induced cerebral tissue ischemia and hypoxia, vascular dysfunction, secondary cascade inflammation and so on. Currently, the main treatment of heat stroke cerebral injury is the hypothermia therapy, dehydration for the reduction of intracranial pressure, naloxone and other cerebral protection and nutrition treatments...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625130/remote-ischemic-conditioning-improves-cognitive-function-during-cerebral-vascular-injury-through-the-induction-of-autophagy
#6
Hongjuan Wang, Yang Xu, Hetao Bian, Cuiping Si, Zhongrui Yan, Meijia Zhu
BACKGROUND: The most valid model for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is the mouse bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS), whose behavioral outcomes is supposedly affected by the remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) through the induction of autophgy. We hope to determine whether RIC contributes to the neuroprotection through the induction of autophagy.. METHODS: Wastar male mice were randomized into three groups including the Sham, the BCAS and the RIC+BCAS groups...
June 18, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620701/chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-induced-synaptic-proteome-changes-in-the-rat-cerebral-cortex
#7
Katalin Völgyi, Péter Gulyássy, Mihail Ivilinov Todorov, Gina Puska, Kata Badics, Dávid Hlatky, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi, Gabriella Nyitrai, András Czurkó, László Drahos, Arpád Dobolyi
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) evokes mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and contributes to the progression of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). How CCH induces these neurodegenerative processes that may spread along the synaptic network and whether they are detectable at the synaptic proteome level of the cerebral cortex remains to be established. In the present study, we report the synaptic protein changes in the cerebral cortex after stepwise bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) induced CCH in the rat...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617071/an-endothelial-link-between-the-benefits-of-physical-exercise-in-dementia
#8
Lianne J Trigiani, Edith Hamel
The current absence of a disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) highlights the necessity for investigating the benefits of non-pharmacological approaches such as physical exercise (PE). Although evidence exists to support an association between regular PE and higher scores on cognitive function tests, and a slower rate of cognitive decline, there is no clear consensus on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the advantages of PE. This review seeks to summarize the positive effects of PE in human and animal studies while highlighting the vascular link between these benefits...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615420/insulin-resistance-among-obese-middle-aged-is-associated-with-decreased-cerebrovascular-reactivity
#9
Olivia H Frosch, Po Lai Yau, Ricardo S Osorio, Henry Rusinek, Pippa Storey, Antonio Convit
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to mild hypercapnia in obese/overweight individuals with and without insulin resistance (IR) compared to comparable lean controls. METHODS: A total of 60 cognitively normal participants (20 lean controls and 24 obese/overweight individuals with and 16 without IR) were evaluated using a high spatial resolution arterial spin labeling MRI technique at rest and during mild hypercapnia. We analyzed group differences in CVR in cerebral cortex and ascertained the relationships between CVR, IR, and body mass index (BMI)...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611659/vitamin-d-homocysteine-and-folate-in-subcortical-vascular-dementia-and-alzheimer-dementia
#10
Rita Moretti, Paola Caruso, Matteo Dal Ben, Corrado Conti, Silvia Gazzin, Claudio Tiribelli
Dementia is a worldwide health problem which affects millions of patients; Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia (sVAD) are the two most frequent forms of its presentation. As no definite therapeutic options have been discovered, different risk factors for cognitive impairment have been searched for potential therapies. This report focuses on the possible evidence that vitamin D deficiency and hyper-homocysteinemia can be considered as two important factors for the development or the progression of neurodegenerative or vascular pathologies...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598842/visit-to-visit-blood-pressure-variability-and%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-links-and-risks
#11
Michiaki Nagai, Keigo Dote, Masaya Kato, Shota Sasaki, Noboru Oda, Eisuke Kagawa, Yoshinori Nakano, Aya Yamane, Tasuku Higashihara, Shunsuke Miyauchi, Akane Tsuchiya
While hypertension has been shown to be a risk factor for vascular dementia, several studies have also demonstrated that hypertension also increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the relationship between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (VVV) and cognitive impairment, including AD, have been provided, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. This review paper focuses on the relationship of VVV with AD and summarizes the pathophysiology underlying that relationship, which appears to be mediated by arterial stiffness...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594352/automatic-artifact-removal-in-eeg-of-normal-and-demented-individuals-using-ica-wt-during-working-memory-tasks
#12
Noor Kamal Al-Qazzaz, Sawal Hamid Bin Mohd Ali, Siti Anom Ahmad, Mohd Shabiul Islam, Javier Escudero
Characterizing dementia is a global challenge in supporting personalized health care. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a promising tool to support the diagnosis and evaluation of abnormalities in the human brain. The EEG sensors record the brain activity directly with excellent time resolution. In this study, EEG sensor with 19 electrodes were used to test the background activities of the brains of five vascular dementia (VaD), 15 stroke-related patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 15 healthy subjects during a working memory (WM) task...
June 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593091/a-comprehensive-instrument-for-evaluating-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi-concussion-in-independent-adults-a-pilot-study
#13
Amanda Borges, Scot Raab, Monica Lininger
BACKGROUND: One common component of concussion rehabilitation is a computerized cognitive test free of concomitant physical demands. Healthcare professionals may be able to provide more patient-centered care after a diagnosed concussion if specific areas of impairment are identified and treated, such as the physical aspect of neurocognitive function. Hypothesis/Purpose: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a unique combination of neurocognitive assessment tools currently utilized in concussion assessments into one single, inclusive instrument that measures both neurocognitive function and physical capability...
June 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590010/proton-pump-inhibitors-and-risk-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#14
Felicia C Goldstein, Kyle Steenland, Liping Zhao, Whitney Wharton, Allan I Levey, Ihab Hajjar
OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk associated with the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) of conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Observational, longitudinal study. SETTING: Tertiary academic Alzheimer's Disease Centers funded by the National Institute on Aging. PARTICIPANTS: Research volunteers aged 50 and older with two to six annual visits; 884 were taking PPIs at every visit, 1,925 took PPIs intermittently, and 7,677 never reported taking PPIs...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589702/choto-san-versus-placebo-for-patients-with-dementia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Hissei Imai, Nozomi Takeshima, Haruhiko Oda, Peiyao Chen, Etsuko Sawada, Toshiaki A Furukawa
BACKGROUND: Choto-san is a traditional medicine used for hypertension and headaches in Japan and China. Some studies have shown its effectiveness in the treatment of dementia. The present review aimed to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of Choto-san in the treatment of adults with cognitive impairment. METHODS: We included randomized controlled trials comparing Choto-san with placebo for patients with dementia or mild cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Three randomized controlled trials evaluating 219 participants were included...
June 6, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588507/neurovascular-unit-dysfunction-and-blood-brain-barrier-hyperpermeability-contribute-to-schizophrenia-neurobiology-a-theoretical-integration-of-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#16
REVIEW
Souhel Najjar, Silky Pahlajani, Virginia De Sanctis, Joel N H Stern, Amanda Najjar, Derek Chong
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. It is a pathoetiologically heterogeneous disorder involving complex interrelated mechanisms that include oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Neurovascular endothelial dysfunction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability are established mechanisms in neurological disorders with comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582863/framingham-risk-score-and-the-risk-of-progression-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia
#17
Giovanna Viticchi, Lorenzo Falsetti, Laura Buratti, Giulia Sajeva, Simona Luzzi, Marco Bartolini, Leandro Provinciali, Mauro Silvestrini
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often represents the clinical manifestation of cognitive deterioration preceding Alzheimer's disease (AD). Currently, there are no reliable approaches for an objective evaluation of the risk of developing AD in MCI patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify whether the Framingham cardiovascular risk profile (FCRP) could be useful to identify patients at the highest risk of conversion from MCI to AD. METHODS: Patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) were carefully investigated to assess their vascular risk profile...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582857/identification-of-successful-cognitive-aging-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-study
#18
Feng V Lin, Xixi Wang, Rachel Wu, George W Rebok, Benjamin P Chapman
The present prospective observational study aimed to identify the existence of successful cognitive agers among a group of well-defined cognitively healthy older adults (n = 354, mean age = 75 years), and to examine baseline individual-level predictors and associated health outcomes over time. Episodic memory (EM) and executive function (EF) composite scores and multiple health outcomes were obtained annually over 5 years. Potential individual-level predictors that were related to Alzheimer's disease pathology or genetic risk, neurodegeneration, and vascular risks were collected at baseline...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581123/astrocyte-derived-lipocalin-2-mediates-hippocampal-damage-and-cognitive-deficits-in-experimental-models-of-vascular-dementia
#19
Jae-Hong Kim, Pan-Woo Ko, Ho-Won Lee, Ji-Young Jeong, Maan-Gee Lee, Jong-Heon Kim, Won-Ha Lee, Ri Yu, Won-Jong Oh, Kyoungho Suk
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) has diverse functions in multiple pathophysiological conditions; however, its pathogenic role in vascular dementia (VaD) is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of LCN2 in VaD using rodent models of global cerebral ischemia and hypoperfusion with cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. Mice subjected to transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (tBCCAo) for 50 min showed neuronal death and gliosis in the hippocampus at 7 days post-tBCCAo. LCN2 expression was observed predominantly in the hippocampal astrocytes, whereas its receptor was mainly detected in neurons, microglia, and astrocytes...
June 5, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580182/cerebral-microvascular-accumulation-of-tau-oligomers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-tauopathies
#20
Diana L Castillo-Carranza, Ashley N Nilson, Candice E Van Skike, Jordan B Jahrling, Kishan Patel, Prajesh Garach, Julia E Gerson, Urmi Sengupta, Jose Abisambra, Peter Nelson, Juan Troncoso, Zoltan Ungvari, Veronica Galvan, Rakez Kayed
The importance of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative diseases is increasingly recognized, however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. There is growing evidence that in addition to Aβ deposition, accumulation of hyperphosphorylated oligomeric tau contributes significantly to AD etiology. Tau oligomers are toxic and it has been suggested that they propagate in a "prion-like" fashion, inducing endogenous tau misfolding in cells...
May 2017: Aging and Disease
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