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vascular cognitive impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906205/preventing-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-from-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-the-laci-1-trial-protocol-and-statistical-analysis-plan-of-a-phase-iia-dose-escalation-trial-testing-tolerability-safety-and-effect-on-intermediary-endpoints-of-isosorbide-mononitrate
#1
Gordon W Blair, Jason P Appleton, Zhe Kang Law, Fergus Doubal, Katie Flaherty, Richard Dooley, Kirsten Shuler, Carla Richardson, Iona Hamilton, Yulu Shi, Michael Stringer, Julia Boyd, Michael J Thrippleton, Nikola Sprigg, Philip M Bath, Joanna M Wardlaw
Rationale The pathophysiology of most lacunar stroke, a form of small vessel disease, is thought to differ from large artery atherothrombo- or cardio-embolic stroke. Licensed drugs, isosorbide mononitrate and cilostazol, have promising mechanisms of action to support their testing to prevent stroke recurrence, cognitive impairment, or radiological progression after lacunar stroke. Aim LACI-1 will assess the tolerability, safety, and efficacy, by dose, of isosorbide mononitrate and cilostazol, alone and in combination, in patients with ischemic lacunar stroke...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902409/binswanger-s-disease-biomarkers-in-the-inflammatory-form-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#2
REVIEW
Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is a major public health concern because of the increased incidence of vascular disease in the aging population and the impact of vascular disease on Alzheimer's disease. VCID is a heterogeneous group of diseases for which there are no proven treatments. Biomarkers can be used to select more homogeneous populations. Small vessel disease is the most prevalent form of VCID and is the optimal form for treatment trials because there is a progressive course with characteristic pathological changes...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895997/-elevated-incidence-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-carotid-stenosis
#3
E Hernandez-Rodriguez, E Sirumal, P J Perez-Lorensu, J L Perez-Burkhardt, J Barroso, I Galtier
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is one of the main causes of mortality and functional disability in developed countries. Carotid stenosis (CS) is considered the reason for 20-30% of strokes. However, the studies that have gone into depth on the cognitive status of these patients are limited. AIM: To investigate the cognitive performance of CS patients and its relationship with clinical variables (carotid obstruction, lifestyle). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 33 CS patients were evaluated using a broad neuropsychological protocol, and were divided into two groups: symptomatic CS and asymptomatic CS...
September 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887194/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-is-involved-in-isoflurane-induced-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-aged-rats-model-of-pocd
#4
Yiyun Cao, Zhengqian Li, Hongping Li, Cheng Ni, Lunxu Li, Ning Yang, Chengmei Shi, Yanfeng Zhong, Dehua Cui, Xiangyang Guo
Prolonged exposure to inhaled anesthetics may lead to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were shown to be activated by inhaled anesthetics. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of HIF-1α in isoflurane-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and resultant cognitive impairment. After a 4-h exposure to 1.5% isoflurane in 20-month-old rats, increases in vascular permeability, and disrupted BBB ultrastructure were accompanied by the degradation of tight junction proteins occludin and collagen type IV in brain blood vessels...
September 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881062/the-brief-memory-and-executive-test-bmet-a-cognitive-screening-tool-to-detect-and-differentiate-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Matthew J Hollocks, Rebecca L Brookes, Robin G Morris, Hugh S Markus
OBJECTIVE: While there are several cognitive screening tests available for the detection of cortical dementias such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), these are rarely designed to be sensitive to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). The Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET) is a screening measure designed to be sensitive to the cognitive profile of both VCI and AD. This study investigated the ability of the BMET to detect AD, and to differentiate between VCI and AD. METHODS: This study included 150 patients, with either SVD, both with (n = 48) and without VCI (n = 51), or AD (N = 51) and 51 healthy controls...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872189/vascular-inflammatory-and-metabolic-factors-associated-with-cognition-in-aging-persons-with-chronic-epilepsy
#6
Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, Rebecca L Koscik, Kate Young, Keith Nakamura
We examined cognition in aging persons with chronic epilepsy; characterized targeted vascular, inflammatory, and metabolic risk factors associated with abnormal cognitive aging in the general population; and examined associations between cognition and vascular, inflammatory, and metabolic health. Participants included 40 persons with chronic localization-related epilepsy and 152 controls, aged 54.6 and 55.3, respectively. Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment, clinical examination, and fasting blood evaluation for quantification of vascular status (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, obesity/body mass index [BMI], total and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol level, and homocysteine), inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], and interleukin-6 [IL-6]), and metabolic status (insulin resistance [Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)], glucose)...
September 4, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870545/arterial-stiffness-and-cognitive-impairment
#7
REVIEW
Xiaoxuan Li, Peiyuan Lyu, Yanyan Ren, Jin An, Yanhong Dong
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is one of the earliest indicators of changes in vascular wall structure and function and may be assessed using various indicators, such as pulse-wave velocity (PWV), the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), the ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), the augmentation index (AI), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness index-β. Arterial stiffness is generally considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869475/effect-of-attention-training-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-with-subcortical-vascular-changes-the-rehatt-study
#8
Leonardo Pantoni, Anna Poggesi, Stefano Diciotti, Raffaella Valenti, Stefano Orsolini, Eleonora Della Rocca, Domenico Inzitari, Mario Mascalchi, Emilia Salvadori
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with small vessel disease (SVD) are at high dementia risk. We tested the effects of cognitive rehabilitation in these patients using the Attention Process Training-II (APT-II) program in a single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Patients were randomized to APT-II or standard care and evaluated at baseline, 6, and 12 months with functional, quality of life, cognitive tests, and resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869468/association-of-gait-speed-psychomotor-speed-and-dementia
#9
Callixte Kuate-Tegueu, José-Alberto Avila-Funes, Nadine Simo, Mélanie Le Goff, Hélène Amiéva, Jean-François Dartigues, Maturin Tabue-Teguo
BACKGROUND: Gait speed (GS) and psychomotor speed (PS) could be considered as two different dimensions of age-related slowness and both measures are associated with higher risk of adverse health-related outcomes among elderly people. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between GS, PS, and incident dementia among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Twelve-year longitudinal study of 1,265 participants in the Bordeaux Three-City Study, a French prospective to determine the risk of dementia and cognitive impairment attributable to cardiovascular risk factors...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868651/the-effects-of-preterm-birth-on-visual-development
#10
REVIEW
Myra Ps Leung, Benjamin Thompson, Joanna Black, Shuan Dai, Jane M Alsweiler
Children born very preterm are at a greater risk of abnormal visual and neurological development when compared to children born at full term. Preterm birth is associated with retinopathy of prematurity (a proliferative retinal vascular disease) and can also affect the development of brain structures associated with post-retinal processing of visual information. Visual deficits common in children born preterm, such as reduced visual acuity, strabismus, abnormal stereopsis and refractive error, are likely to be detected through childhood vision screening programs, ophthalmological follow-up or optometric care...
September 3, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866454/gait-abnormalities-of-copd-are-not-directly-related-to-respiratory-function
#11
Paola Morlino, Bruno Balbi, Simone Guglielmetti, Marica Giardini, Margherita Grasso, Chiara Giordano, Marco Schieppati, Antonio Nardone
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess whether gait abnormalities in COPD depend on mere impairment of respiratory function. METHODS: In 40 patients with COPD at different GOLD stages and 28 controls, we evaluated: forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1); partial pressure of oxygen; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); dynamic balance through the Mini-BESTest (MBT); Timed Up and Go (TUG) test without and with dual task counting aloud back by three; 6-min walk test (6MWT); body sway during quiet stance (stabilometry); spatial-temporal variables of gait by a 4-m long sensorized walkway (baropodometry)...
August 18, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864837/near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-and-vagus-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-vsep-in-the-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-rationale-design-methods-and-first-baseline-data-of-the-vogel-study
#12
Thomas Polak, Martin J Herrmann, Laura D Müller, Julia B M Zeller, Andrea Katzorke, Matthias Fischer, Fabian Spielmann, Erik Weinmann, Leif Hommers, Martin Lauer, Andreas J Fallgatter, Jürgen Deckert
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and vagus somatosensory evoked potentials (VSEP) show deviant patterns in subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to healthy controls. We now aimed at testing the predictive value of these methods in the early diagnosis of AD. The Vogel study is a prospective, observational, long-term follow-up study with three time points of investigation within 6 years. Residents of the city of Würzburg born between 1936 and 1941 were recruited. Every participant underwent physical, psychiatric, and laboratory examinations, and performed an intense neuropsychological testing as well as VSEP and NIRS according to the published procedures...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861335/diffusion-tensor-image-segmentation-of-the-cerebrum-provides-a-single-measure-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-severity-related-to-cognitive-change
#13
Owen A Williams, Eva A Zeestraten, Philip Benjamin, Christian Lambert, Andrew J Lawrence, Andrew D Mackinnon, Robin G Morris, Hugh S Markus, Rebecca A Charlton, Thomas R Barrick
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the primary cause of vascular cognitive impairment and is associated with decline in executive function (EF) and information processing speed (IPS). Imaging biomarkers are needed that can monitor and identify individuals at risk of severe cognitive decline. Recently there has been interest in combining several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of SVD into a unitary score to describe disease severity. Here we apply a diffusion tensor image (DTI) segmentation technique (DSEG) to describe SVD related changes in a single unitary score across the whole cerebrum, to investigate its relationship with cognitive change over a three-year period...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860067/a-novel-role-for-osteopontin-in-macrophage-mediated-amyloid-%C3%AE-clearance-in-alzheimer-s-models
#14
Altan Rentsendorj, Julia Sheyn, Dieu-Trang Fuchs, David Daley, Brenda C Salumbides, Hannah E Schubloom, Nadav J Hart, Songlin Li, Eric Y Hayden, David B Teplow, Keith L Black, Yosef Koronyo, Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui
Osteopontin (OPN), a matricellular immunomodulatory cytokine highly expressed by bone marrow (BM)-derived myelomonocytes, regulates immune cell migration, communication, and response to brain injury. Enhanced cerebral recruitment of monocytes and macrophages by immunomodulation using glatiramer acetate (GA) or by peripheral blood enrichment with BM-derived CD115(+) monocytes (Mo(BM)) substantially curbs amyloid β-protein (Aβ) neuropathology and preserves cognitive function in murine models of Alzheimer's disease (ADtg mice)...
August 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857003/sleep-disorders-in-people-with-dementia
#15
(no author information available yet)
Sleep disorders often precede cognitive impairment by many years. This is partly because some degenerative diseases originate in the hypothalamus and brain stem, which means fragmented sleep, daytime napping and sleep-phase disorders are early signs of these diseases. However, recent research indicates that amyloid proteins are removed from the brain during deep sleep so poor sleep can increase the amyloid plaques seen in Alzheimer's disease. It is also known that sleep-disordered breathing can lead to hypoxia, increasing vascular dementia...
August 31, 2017: Nursing Older People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856160/mortality-and-cardiovascular-complications-in-older-complex-chronic-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
J L Clua-Espuny, M A González-Henares, M L L Queralt-Tomas, W Campo-Tamayo, E Muria-Subirats, A Panisello-Tafalla, J Lucas-Noll
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Determining the prevalence of diabetes and its cardiovascular complications and all-cause mortality in older chronic complex patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a multicenter retrospective study and included a randomized sample of 932 CCP people. We assessed the prevalence of diabetes according to World Health Organization criteria. Data included demographics and functional, comorbidity, cognitive, and social assessment. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes was 53% and average age 81...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855621/immune-activated-monocyte-exosomes-alter-micrornas-in-brain-endothelial-cells-and-initiate-an-inflammatory-response-through-the-tlr4-myd88-pathway
#17
Pranjali Dalvi, Bing Sun, Norina Tang, Lynn Pulliam
The host immune response is critical for homeostasis; however, when chronic low level activation of the immune response with or without the driver continues, a cascade of events can trigger immunological dysfunction. Monocytes are key peripheral sensors of the immune response and their activation is instrumental in the development of cognitive impairment. Here, we show that monocytes activated by interferon alpha, lipopolysaccharide or a combination of both generate exosomes carrying significantly altered microRNA profiles compared to non-activated monocytes...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855592/-s-oxiracetam-is-the-active-ingredient-in-oxiracetam-that-alleviates-the-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#18
Wan Li, Huihui Liu, Hanjie Jiang, Chen Wang, Yongfei Guo, Yi Sun, Xin Zhao, Xin Xiong, Xianhua Zhang, Ke Zhang, Zongxiu Nie, Xiaoping Pu
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a pathological state that is associated with the cognitive impairments in vascular dementia. Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug that is commonly used to treat cognitive deficits of cerebrovascular origins. However, oxiracetam is currently used as a racemic mixture whose effective ingredient has not been identified to date. In this study, we first identified that (S)-oxiracetam, but not (R)-oxiracetam, was the effective ingredient that alleviated the impairments of spatial learning and memory by ameliorating neuron damage and white matter lesions, increasing the cerebral blood flow, and inhibiting astrocyte activation in chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853030/hypertension-impairs-neurovascular-coupling-and-promotes-microvascular-injury-role-in-exacerbation-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Anna Csiszar, Stefano Tarantini, Gábor A Fülöp, Tamas Kiss, M Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Veronica Galvan, Zoltan Ungvari, Andriy Yabluchanskiy
Hypertension in the elderly substantially increases both the risk of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. This review discusses the effects of hypertension on structural and functional integrity of cerebral microcirculation, including hypertension-induced alterations in neurovascular coupling responses, cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in microvascular damage (capillary rarefaction, blood-brain barrier disruption), and the genesis of cerebral microhemorrhages and their potential role in exacerbation of cognitive decline associated with AD...
August 29, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842826/environmental-enrichment-reverses-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-mediated-impairment-through-bdnf-trkb-pathway
#20
Harkaitz Bengoetxea, Irantzu Rico-Barrio, Naiara Ortuzar, Ane Murueta-Goyena, José V Lafuente
Exposure to an enriched environment (EE) has neuroprotective benefits and improves recovery from brain injury due to, among other, increased neurotrophic factor expression. Through these neurotrophins, important cortical and hippocampal changes occur. Vandetanib acts as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of cell receptors, among others, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of EE counteracting cognitive and cellular effects after tyrosine kinase receptor blockade...
August 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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