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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146480/neuroprotection-by-chotosan-a-kampo-formula-against-glutamate-excitotoxicity-involves-the-inhibition-of-glun2b-but-not-glun2a-containing-nmda-receptor-mediated-responses-in-primary-cultured-cortical-neurons
#1
Sachie Sasaki-Hamada, Azusa Suzuki, Emi Sanai, Kinzo Matsumoto, Jun-Ichiro Oka
Chotosan (CTS), a traditional herbal formula called Kampo medicine, was shown to be effective in the treatment of vascular dementia in a clinical study, and exerted protective effects against transient cerebral ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in mice. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of CTS using primary cultured rat cortical neurons. CTS (250-1000 μg/mL) inhibited neuronal death induced by 100 μM glutamate. This glutamate-induced neuronal death was blocked by a GluN2B-, but not GluN2A-containing NMDA receptor antagonist...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143463/advances-in-chronic-cerebral-circulation-insufficiency
#2
REVIEW
Da Zhou, Ran Meng, Si-Jie Li, Jing-Yuan Ya, Jia-Yue Ding, Shu-Ling Shang, Yu-Chuan Ding, Xun-Ming Ji
Chronic cerebral circulation insufficiency (CCCI) may not be an independent disease; rather, it is a pervasive state of long-term cerebral blood flow insufficiency caused by a variety of etiologies, and considered to be associated with either occurrence or recurrence of ischemic stroke, vascular cognitive impairment, and development of vascular dementia, resulting in disability and mortality worldwide. This review summarizes the features and recent progress of CCCI, mainly focusing on epidemiology, experimental research, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, imaging presentation, diagnosis, and potential therapeutic regimens...
November 15, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135021/diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-chinese-version-of-the-trail-making-test-for-screening-cognitive-impairment
#3
Mingqing Wei, Jing Shi, Ting Li, Jingnian Ni, Xuekai Zhang, Yumeng Li, Shenghua Kang, Fuyun Ma, Hengge Xie, Bin Qin, Dongsheng Fan, Liping Zhang, Yongyan Wang, Jinzhou Tian
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Trail-Making Test (TMT), which is commonly used to measure executive function, consists of two components (TMT-A and TMTB). There is a lack of normative TMT data for Chinese elderly adults. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the TMT in screening for cognitive impairment. DESIGN: 2,294 Chinese-speaking adults aged 50 to 85: 1,026 with normal cognition (NC), 462 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 108 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 113 with vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI), 121 with vascular dementia (VaD), 282 with uncertain types of dementia, and 15 with mixed dementia...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127756/-diabetes-mellitus-and-cognitive-disorders-from-the-diabetologists-perspective
#4
Alena Šmahelová
Diabetes mellitus is associated with cognitive impairment which may convert to vascular or neurodegenerative dementia. Impairment of cognitive functions affects patients with type 1 and especially type 2 diabetes, with a number of vascular, metabolic and psychosocial factors involved in its development. As hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia also play an important role, important is the correct strategy of diabetes therapy which utilizes a combination of metformin with modern safe antidiabetics (incretin drugs, gliflozins, insulin analogues)...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125073/erythrocyte-associated-amyloid-%C3%AE-as-potential-biomarker-to-diagnose-dementia
#5
Michele Lauriola, Giulia Paroni, Filomena Ciccone, Grazia D Onofrio, Leandro Cascavilla, Francesco Paris, Carolina Gravina, Maria Urbano, Davide Seripa, Antonio Greco
BACKGROUND: Although it is well known that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the progressive accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the human brain, its pathogenic role has yet to be completely clarified. Aβ moves from the blood-brain barrier to the plasma and an increased Aβ production in brain could be associated with higher Aβ concentrations in blood. A recent study has evaluated Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 levels in human red blood cells (RBCs) with evidence of age-dependent higher Aβ concentration in RBCs...
November 10, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121965/chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-induces-post-stroke-dementia-following-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#6
Dong Bin Back, Kyoung Ja Kwon, Dong-Hee Choi, Chan Young Shin, Jongmin Lee, Seol-Heui Han, Hahn Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke dementia (PSD) is one of the major consequences after stroke. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) can induce vascular cognitive impairment and potentiate amyloid pathology. We investigated how CCH contributes to the development of PSD after stroke in the context of neuroinflammation and amyloid pathology. METHODS: We designed a unique animal model for PSD. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery in rats mimicking acute territorial infarct, which was followed by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo) surgery mimicking CCH...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119540/discrimination-of-stroke-related-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-vascular-dementia-using-eeg-signal-analysis
#7
Noor Kamal Al-Qazzaz, Sawal Hamid Bin Mohd Ali, Siti Anom Ahmad, Mohd Shabiul Islam, Javier Escudero
Stroke survivors are more prone to developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Dementia detection is a challenge for supporting personalized healthcare. This study analyzes the electroencephalogram (EEG) background activity of 5 vascular dementia (VaD) patients, 15 stroke-related patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 15 control healthy subjects during a working memory (WM) task. The objective of this study is twofold. First, it aims to enhance the discrimination of VaD, stroke-related MCI patients, and control subjects using fuzzy neighborhood preserving analysis with QR-decomposition (FNPAQR); second, it aims to extract and investigate the spectral features that characterize the post-stroke dementia patients compared to the control subjects...
November 8, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117955/alzheimer-s-disease-related-dementias-summit-2016-national-research-priorities
#8
REVIEW
Roderick A Corriveau, Walter J Koroshetz, Jordan T Gladman, Sophia Jeon, Debra Babcock, David A Bennett, S Thomas Carmichael, Susan L-J Dickinson, Dennis W Dickson, Marian Emr, Howard Fillit, Steven M Greenberg, Michael L Hutton, David S Knopman, Jennifer J Manly, Karen S Marder, Claudia S Moy, Creighton H Phelps, Paul A Scott, William W Seeley, Beth-Anne Sieber, Nina B Silverberg, Margaret L Sutherland, Angela Taylor, Christine L Torborg, Salina P Waddy, Amelie K Gubitz, David M Holtzman
Goal 1 of the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease is to prevent and effectively treat Alzheimer disease and Alzheimer disease-related dementias by 2025. To help inform the research agenda toward achieving this goal, the NIH hosts periodic summits that set and refine relevant research priorities for the subsequent 5 to 10 years. This proceedings article summarizes the 2016 Alzheimer's Disease-Related Dementias Summit, including discussion of scientific progress, challenges, and opportunities in major areas of dementia research, including mixed-etiology dementias, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal degeneration, vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia, dementia disparities, and dementia nomenclature...
November 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114096/fingolimod-protects-against-ischemic-white-matter-damage-by-modulating-microglia-toward-m2-polarization-via-stat3-pathway
#9
Chuan Qin, Wen-Hui Fan, Qian Liu, Ke Shang, Madhuvika Murugan, Long-Jun Wu, Wei Wang, Dai-Shi Tian
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter (WM) ischemic injury, a major neuropathological feature of cerebral small vessel diseases, is an important cause of vascular cognitive impairment in later life. The pathogenesis of demyelination after WM ischemic damage are often accompanied by microglial activation. Fingolimod (FTY720) was approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis for its immunosuppression property. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective potential of FTY720 in a WM ischemia model...
November 7, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113468/hippocampal-cholinergic-neurostimulating-peptide-as-a-possible-modulating-factor-against-glutamatergic-neuronal-disability-by-amyloid-oligomers
#10
Toyohiro Sato, Yoshiaki Ohi, Daisuke Kato, Masayuki Mizuno, Hiroshi Takase, Tetsuko Kanamori, Cesar V Borlongan, Akira Haji, Noriyuki Matsukawa
Despite having pathological changes in the brain associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), some patients have preserved cognitive function. A recent epidemiological study has shown that diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring interventions may reduce cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people in the general population. However, the details of molecular mechanisms underlying this cognitive function preservation are still unknown. Previous reports have demonstrated that enriched environments prevent the impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) through β2-adrenergic signals, when LTP is incompletely suppressed by synthetic amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers...
September 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111025/orthostatic-hypotension-associated-with-executive-dysfunction-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Christian Bocti, François Pépin, Maxime Tétreault, Philippe Cossette, Francis Langlois, Hélène Imbeault, Nadia Duval, Guy Lacombe, Tamas Fulop
INTRODUCTION: Midlife hypertension is associated with dementia in longitudinal studies while chronic hypotension in the elderly is associated with dementia onset. Orthostatic hypotension could influence cognitive performance in the elderly. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between orthostatic hypotension and cognitive functions. METHODS: Consecutive participants with complete neuropsychological evaluation from a Memory Clinic were included...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111023/can-fibrinolytic-system-components-explain-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
María Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Montserrat González-Platas, Alejandro Jiménez-Sosa, Julio Plata-Bello, Francisco Javier Carrillo-Padilla, Andrés Franco-Maside, Pablo Eguia-Del Río
BACKGROUND: The fibrinolytic system is capable of modulating inflammatory and degenerative events within the central nervous system. Specifically, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been associated with different pathological conditions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its role in cognitive functioning is also known. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To study the association between plasma levels and the polymorphic variants of the PAI-1 gene and cognitive performance in MS...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110407/acupuncture-inhibits-txnip-associated-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-to-attenuate-cognitive-impairment-in-vascular-dementia-rats
#13
Si-Qi Du, Xue-Rui Wang, Wen Zhu, Yang Ye, Jing-Wen Yang, Si-Ming Ma, Cai-Shuo Ji, Cun-Zhi Liu
AIMS: Oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD). Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) plays a vital role in oxidative stress and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. There is evidence that acupuncture has an antioxidative and neuroprotective effect in VD. In this study, we investigated whether acupuncture can attenuate cognitive impairment via inhibiting TXNIP-associated oxidative stress and inflammation in VD rats...
November 6, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108888/the-effect-of-a-2-year-intervention-consisting-of-diet-physical-exercise-cognitive-training-and-monitoring-of-vascular-risk-on-chronic-morbidity-the-finger-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Alessandra Marengoni, Debora Rizzuto, Laura Fratiglioni, Riitta Antikainen, Tiina Laatikainen, Jenni Lehtisalo, Markku Peltonen, Hilkka Soininen, Timo Strandberg, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Miia Kivipelto, Tiia Ngandu
OBJECTIVE: To verify whether a multidomain intervention lowers the risk of developing new chronic diseases in older adults. METHODS: Multicenter, double-blind randomized controlled trial started in October 2009, with 2-year follow-up. A total of 1260 people aged 60 to 77 years were enrolled in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER). Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to a 2-year multidomain intervention (n = 631) (nutritional guidance, exercise, cognitive training, and management of metabolic and vascular risk factors) or a control group (n = 629) (general health advice)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107626/mri-measurements-of-blood-brain-barrier-function-in-dementia-a-review-of-recent-studies
#15
REVIEW
Rajikha Raja, Gary A Rosenberg, Arvind Caprihan
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) separates the systemic circulation and the brain, regulating transport of most molecules to protect the brain microenvironment. Multiple structural and functional components preserve the integrity of the BBB. Several imaging modalities are available to study disruption of the BBB. However, the subtle changes in BBB leakage that occurs in vascular cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease have been less well studied. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is the most widely adopted non-invasive imaging technique for evaluating BBB breakdown...
October 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103459/protective-effect-of-shouwu-yizhi-decoction-against-vascular-dementia-by-promoting-angiogenesis
#16
Xiao-Ni Yang, Chang-Sheng Li, Chao Chen, Xiao-Yong Tang, Guang-Qing Cheng, Xia Li
Shouwu is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with neuroprotective effect. Shouwu Yizhi decoction (SYD) was designed based on TCM theory. However, little is known about the roles of SYD in Vascular dementia (VaD). The present study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of SYD on the vascular cognitive impairment and explore the underlying mechanism by establishing focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model to induce VaD. SYD administration (54 mg·kg(-1)) for 40 days obviously improved the vascular cognitive impairment in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats as evidenced by the declined neurological deficit score and shortened escape latency via neurological deficit assessment and Morris water maze test...
October 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103037/circulating-progenitor-cells-correlate-with-memory-posterior-cortical-thickness-and-hippocampal-perfusion
#17
Daniel A Nation, Alick Tan, Shubir Dutt, Elissa C McIntosh, Belinda Yew, Jean K Ho, Anna E Blanken, Jung Yun Jang, Kathleen E Rodgers, Aimée Gaubert
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells survey the vasculature and home to sites of tissue injury where they can promote repair and regeneration. It has been hypothesized that these cells may play a protective role neurodegenerative and vascular cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate progenitor cell levels in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to relate circulating levels to memory, brain volume, white matter lesion volume, and cerebral perfusion...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101959/pediatric-anesthesia-considerations-for-interventional-radiology
#18
REVIEW
Olivia Nelson, Philip D Bailey
Anesthesiologists are increasingly called on to care for pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic imaging and invasive procedures in interventional radiology. These procedures are typically classified as either nonvascular or vascular, and can range from short diagnostic imaging studies or biopsies to significantly longer and more invasive intravascular procedures. Anesthesia providers must consider each child's ability to cooperate reliably during the procedure, their age, and any cognitive impairment to define the best anesthetic plan...
December 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100854/white-matter-hyperintensity-associated-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-vascular-risk-factors
#19
Nidhi Gupta, Alexis N Simpkins, Emi Hitomi, Christian Dias, Richard Leigh
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMH), the hallmark of vascular cognitive impairment, are associated with vascular risk factors (VRF). WMH can also be associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The purpose of this study was to look for associations between VRF and BBB disruption in stroke patients with WMH. METHODS: Magnetic resonance images of stroke patients were reviewed for the presence of WMH. Blood-brain permeability images were retrospectively generated...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096697/race-modifies-the-relationship-between-cognition-and-alzheimer-s-disease-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers
#20
Jennifer C Howell, Kelly D Watts, Monica W Parker, Junjie Wu, Alexander Kollhoff, Thomas S Wingo, Cornelya D Dorbin, Deqiang Qiu, William T Hu
BACKGROUND: African Americans have been reported to have a higher prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than Caucasians, but etiology-specific AD biomarkers have not been systematically analyzed in older African Americans. Coexisting cerebrovascular disease may also contribute to this increased prevalence. We hypothesized that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of amyloid, neurodegeneration, and endothelial dysfunction would differ between older African Americans and Caucasians with normal cognition and cognitive impairment associated with AD...
November 2, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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