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vascular cognitive impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936074/association-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-cognitive-impairment-after-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-chinese-population
#1
Pan Li, Wei Quan, Da Lu, Yan Wang, Hui-Hong Zhang, Shuai Liu, Rong-Cai Jiang, Yu-Ying Zhou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for many vascular conditions, is associated with vascular cognitive disorders. The objective of the present study was to explore the associations of MetS and its individual components with the risks of cognitive impairment and neurological dysfunction in patients after acute stroke. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 840 patients ranging in age from 53 to 89 years from the Tianjin area of North China...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935154/disruption-of-rich-club-organisation-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#2
Anil M Tuladhar, Andrew Lawrence, David G Norris, Thomas R Barrick, Hugh S Markus, Frank-Erik de Leeuw
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is an important cause of vascular cognitive impairment. Recent studies have demonstrated that structural connectivity of brain networks in SVD is disrupted. However, little is known about the extent and location of the reduced connectivity in SVD. Here they investigate the rich club organisation-a set of highly connected and interconnected regions-and investigate whether there is preferential rich club disruption in SVD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognitive assessment were performed in a discovery sample of SVD patients (n = 115) and healthy control subjects (n = 50)...
December 9, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933676/white-matter-hyperintensities-are-associated-with-disproportionate-progressive-hippocampal-atrophy
#3
Cassidy M Fiford, Emily N Manning, Jonathan W Bartlett, David M Cash, Ian B Malone, Gerard R Ridgway, Manja Lehmann, Kelvin K Leung, Carole Sudre, Sebastien Ourselin, Geert Jan Biessels, Owen T Carmichael, Nick C Fox, M Jorge Cardoso, Josephine Barnes
This study investigates relationships between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology markers, and brain and hippocampal volume loss. Subjects included 198 controls, 345 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and 154 AD subjects with serial volumetric 1.5T MRI. CSF Aβ42 and total tau were measured (n=353). Brain and hippocampal loss were quantified from serial MRI using the Boundary Shift Integral (BSI). Multiple linear regression models assessed the relationships between WMHs and hippocampal and brain atrophy rates...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920431/cerebral-blood-flow-blood-supply-and-cognition-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Jacobus F A Jansen, Frank C G van Bussel, Harm J van de Haar, Matthias J P van Osch, Paul A M Hofman, Martin P J van Boxtel, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Miranda T Schram, Coen D A Stehouwer, Joachim E Wildberger, Walter H Backes
We investigated whether type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and the presence of cognitive impairment are associated with altered cerebral blood flow (CBF). Forty-one participants with and thirty-nine without T2DM underwent 3-Tesla MRI, including a quantitative technique measuring (macrovascular) blood flow in the internal carotid artery and an arterial spin labeling technique measuring (microvascular) perfusion in the grey matter (GM). Three analysis methods were used to quantify the CBF: a region of interest analysis, a voxel-based statistical parametric mapping technique, and a 'distributed deviating voxels' method...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919332/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-mammalian-brain
#5
Daniela Hladik, Soile Tapio
Epidemiological studies on the atomic-bomb survivors, cancer survivors and occupational cohorts provide strong evidence for multifaceted damage to brain after ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced late effects may manifest as brain tumors or cognitive impairment. Decreased neurogenesis and differentiation, alteration in neural structure and synaptic plasticity as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation are suggested to contribute to adverse effects in the brain. In addition to neural stems cells, several brain-specific mature cell types including endothelial and glial cells are negatively affected by ionizing radiation...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917464/relation-of-dysglycemia-to-structural-brain-changes-in-a-multiethnic-elderly-cohort
#6
Christiane Reitz, Vanessa A Guzman, Atul Narkhede, Charles DeCarli, Adam M Brickman, José A Luchsinger
OBJECTIVES: Abnormally high glucose levels (dysglycemia) increase with age. Epidemiological studies suggest that dysglycemia is a risk factor for cognitive impairment but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the relation of dysglycemia clinical categories (normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, known diabetes) with brain structure in older adults. We also assessed the relation between dysglycemia and cognitive performance...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911314/updating-the-evidence-on-the-association-between-serum-cholesterol-and-risk-of%C3%A2-late-life-dementia-review-and%C3%A2-meta-analysis
#7
Kaarin J Anstey, Kimberly Ashby-Mitchell, Ruth Peters
BACKGROUND: Cohort studies have reported that midlife high total serum cholesterol (TC) is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in late-life but findings have been based on few studies and previous reviews have been limited by a lack of compatible data. OBJECTIVE: We synthesized all high quality data from cohort studies reporting on the association between total serum cholesterol measured and late-life cognitive outcomes including Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), any dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitive decline...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911004/a-comparison-of-the-neuropsychological-profiles-of-people-living-in-squalor-without-hoarding-to-those-living-in-squalor-associated-with-hoarding
#8
Sook Meng Lee, Matthew Lewis, Deborah Leighton, Ben Harris, Brian Long, Stephen Macfarlane
OBJECTIVE: Squalor affects 1 in 1000 older people and is regarded as a secondary condition to other primary disorders such as dementia, intellectual impairment and alcohol abuse. Squalor frequently is associated with hoarding behaviour. We compared the neuropsychological profile of people living in squalor associated with hoarding to those presenting with squalor only. METHODS: This study is a retrospective case series of hospital inpatient and community healthcare services of 69 people living in squalor (49 from aged care, 16 from aged psychiatry, 3 from acute medical and 1 from a memory clinic)...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908711/cerebral-blood-flow-measured-by-arterial-spin-labeling-mri-at-resting-state-in-normal-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Nan Zhang, Marc L Gordon, Terry E Goldberg
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging uses arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this review, based on ASL studies in the resting state, we discuss state-of-the-art technical and data processing improvements in ASL, and ASL CBF changes in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other types of dementia. We propose that vascular and AD risk factors should be considered when evaluating CBF changes in aging, and that other validated biomarkers should be used as inclusion criteria or covariates when evaluating CBF changes in MCI and AD...
November 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905355/-cerebral-microbleeds-in-cerebrovascular-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-cognitive-impairment
#10
T A Polyakova, O S Levin
AIM: To study a role of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in the diagnosis of main cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CMB were studied in 120 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and vascular dementia using 1.5T MRI in T2 * gradient echo. An impact of CMB on cognitive functions and the relationship with signs of vascular and neurodegenerative lesions of the brain were studied as well...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895004/predictors-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-poststroke-in-a-middle-eastern-bahrain-cohort-a-proposed-case-control-comparison
#11
Claire Donnellan, Mona Al Banna, Noor Redha, Adel Al Jishi, Isa Al Sharoqi, Safa Taha, Moiz Bakhiet, Fatema Abdulla, Patrick Walsh
BACKGROUND: Poststroke dementia and cognitive impairment are associated with poor long-term outcomes after stroke. The contribution of genetic factors such as the presence of apolipoprotein (ApoE) ɛ4 allele and its association with cognitive impairment poststroke remains inconclusive, particularly in Middle Eastern regions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine all correlates and potential predictors of cognitive impairment including self-awareness and regulation deficits in stroke patients and compare these functions with healthy older adults from a Middle Eastern population...
November 28, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894893/the-blood-brain-barrier-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
A Chakraborty, N M de Wit, W M van der Flier, H E de Vries
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting millions of people worldwide. One of the prominent causative factors of AD pathogenesis is cerebral vascular dysfunction, which results in diminished cerebral perfusion. Moreover, due to the loss of the protective function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), impaired clearance of excess neurotoxic amyloid beta (Aβ) occurs, causing vascular perturbation and diminished cognitive functioning. The relationship between the prevalence of AD and vascular risk factors is complex and not fully understood...
November 25, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890830/time-course-of-glial-changes-in-the-hyperhomocysteinemia-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-vcid
#13
Tiffany L Sudduth, Erica M Weekman, Brittani R Price, Jennifer L Gooch, Abigail Woolums, Christopher M Norris, Donna M Wilcock
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second leading cause of dementia behind Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is a frequent co-morbidity with AD. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive dysfunction resulting from cerebrovascular disease. Astrocytic end-feet almost completely surround intraparenchymal blood vessels in the brain and express a variety of channels and markers indicative of their specialized functions in the maintenance of ionic and osmotic homeostasis and gliovascular signaling...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889749/contribution-of-p38-mapk-to-the-ameliorating-effect-of-enriched-environment-on-the-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#14
Yu-Wang Li, Qing-Yun Li, Jin-Hua Wang, Xiao-Lin Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: An enriched environment (EE) ameliorates learning and memory impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway exerts both beneficial and deleterious effects on the nervous system during the progression of ischemia. METHODS: The present study investigated whether p38 MAPK participates in the process by which EE exposure ameliorates the cognitive deficits induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887584/ratio-of-apob-ldl-a-potential-clinical-index-for-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#15
Cheng Qian, Fei Tan
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), compared to vascular dementia (VD), has a broader definition and highlights the effect of vascular disease in dementia, and stroke seems play an important role in the development of VCI. However, not all patients with brain infarcts suffer from VCI; unique risk factors appear to cause such progression. This study aimed to find potential risk factors of vascular cognitive impairment among patients with brain infarcts. METHODS: Thirty-seven dementia patients and 74 brain infarction patients were included; all had infarcts in both basilar ganglia...
November 25, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875948/prevalence-incidence-risk-and-protective-factors-of-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-the-elderly-in-shanghai
#16
Tao Wang, Shifu Xiao, Kewei Chen, Cece Yang, Shuhui Dong, Yan Cheng, Xia Li, Jinghua Wang, Minjie Zhu, Fuzhong Yang, Guanjun Li, Ning Su, Yuanyuan Liu, Jing Dai, Mingyuan Zhang
Amnestic MCI (aMCI) has notably increased in Shanghai, China. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence and incidence rates of aMCI and to determine the risk and protective factors for aMCI among persons ≥ 60 years-old in Shanghai communities. This 1-year longitudinal study, which surveyed a random sample of 1,302 individuals ≥ 60 years-old, collected baseline data about lifestyle through self-reports, and vascular and comorbid conditions from medical records and a physical examination. We also analyzed a subgroup of individuals ≥ 70 years-old...
November 21, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874976/etidronate-rescues-cognitive-deficits-through-improving-synaptic-transmission-and-suppressing-apoptosis-in-2-vessel-occlusion-model-rats
#17
Wen Li, Huijuan Yuan, Yao Yu, Yuen-Ki Cheong, Guogang Ren, Zhuo Yang
Vascular dementia (VD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the reduction of cerebral blood flow. It shows a progressive cognitive impairment. In our previous study, we found that etidronate (ET) showed neuroprotective effects against glutamate-injured PC12 cells. Thus in this study, we aimed to observe the effects of ET on learning and memory impairment and the related mechanism in 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) model rats. Rats were administered a permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce VD model...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874975/structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#18
Anja Meissner, Jens Minnerup, Guadalupe Soria Rodriguez, Anna M Planas
Hypertension is a main risk factor for the development of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) - a major contributor to stroke and the most common cause of vascular dementia. Despite the increasing socio-economic importance arising from cSVD, currently only a few specific treatment strategies with proven efficacy are known. Fundamental to the lack of specific treatments is poor understanding of the disease pathogenesis and a lack of appropriate animal models resembling all symptoms of the human disease. However, chronic hypertensive rat models have been shown to bear similarities to most key features of cSVD...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873549/a-systematic-review-of-recommended-modifications-of-cbt-for-people-with-cognitive-impairments-following-brain-injury
#19
Melanie Gallagher, Hamish J McLeod, Thomas M McMillan
Due to diverse cognitive, emotional and interpersonal changes that can follow brain injury, psychological therapies often need to be adapted to suit the complex needs of this population. The aims of the study were to synthesise published recommendations for therapy modifications following brain injury from non-progressive traumatic, vascular, or metabolic causes and to determine how often such modifications have been applied to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for post-injury emotional adjustment problems...
November 22, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869586/hyperfamiliarity-in-amnestic-and-vascular-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
Pei Shi Chia, Shahul Hameed, Kok Pin Yong, Ling Ling Chan, Simon Kang Seng Ting
OBJECTIVE: Hyperfamiliarity is a phenomenon where new stimuli are perceived as familiar. Previous studies have demonstrated familiarity disorder in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but mostly from the perspective of a neuropsychological approach, and the exact correlation of MCI aetiologies with the phenomenon remains uncertain. Based on current evidence suggesting a frontal-subcortical pathway contributing to familiarity processing, we hypothesize that individuals with a vascular aetiology of MCI will likely suffer more familiarity deficits...
November 21, 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
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