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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433510/biomaterial-stiffness-determines-stem-cell-fate
#1
REVIEW
Hong Wei Lv, Heping Wang, Zhijun Zhang, Wang Yang, Wenbin Liu, Yulin Li, Lisha Li
Stem cells have potential to develop into numerous cell types, thus they are good cell source for tissue engineering. As an external physical signal, material stiffness is capable of regulating stem cell fate. Biomaterial stiffness is an important parameter in tissue engineering. We summarize main measurements of material stiffness under different condition, then list and compare three main methods of controlling stiffness (material amount, crosslinking density and photopolymeriztion time) which interplay with one another and correlate with stiffness positively, and current advances in effects of biomaterial stiffness on stem cell fate...
April 19, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433241/mechanics-of-additively-manufactured-biomaterials
#2
EDITORIAL
Amir A Zadpoor
Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has found many applications in healthcare including fabrication of biomaterials as well as bioprinting of tissues and organs. Additively manufactured (AM) biomaterials may possess arbitrarily complex micro-architectures that give rise to novel mechanical, physical, and biological properties. The mechanical behavior of such porous biomaterials including their quasi-static mechanical properties and fatigue resistance is not yet well understood. It is particularly important to understand the relationship between the designed micro-architecture (topology) and the resulting mechanical properties...
June 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432431/initial-cell-adhesion-of-three-cell-types-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-serum-proteins
#3
Martina Verdanova, Pavla Sauerova, Ute Hempel, Marie Hubalek Kalbacova
With the development of a wide range of new biomaterials for the sensing of different cell behaviour, it is important to consider whether the cells tested in vitro are in direct contact with the material or whether cell-biomaterial contact is mediated by an interfacial layer of proteins originating from the culture medium or from the cells themselves. Thus, this study describes the differences between the cell adhesion mediated by proteins originating from foetal bovine serum and without the presence of such proteins 2 h following cell seeding exemplarily with different cell types (an osteoblastic cell line, primary fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells)...
April 21, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430345/healing-response-of-rat-pulp-treated-with-an-injectable-keratin-hydrogel
#4
Lavanya Ajay Sharma, Robert M Love, Mohammad A Ali, Ajay Sharma, Soraia Macari, Avadhoot Avadhani, George J Dias
BACKGROUND: Keratin has shown promising outcomes as a biomaterial due to its inherent bioactivity, biocompatibility and regenerative effects. The effect of keratin on repair and regeneration of dental tissues has never been studied before. Current therapies to treat pulp tissues involve its replacement with inert, synthetic materials that do not have a proper biological function, leading to failure and tooth loss. This study aimed to develop a biocompatible keratin hydrogel (KH) suitable for pulp therapies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430190/tuning-underwater-adhesion-with-cation-%C3%AF-interactions
#5
Matthew A Gebbie, Wei Wei, Alex M Schrader, Thomas R Cristiani, Howard A Dobbs, Matthew Idso, Bradley F Chmelka, J Herbert Waite, Jacob N Israelachvili
Cation-π interactions drive the self-assembly and cohesion of many biological molecules, including the adhesion proteins of several marine organisms. Although the origin of cation-π bonds in isolated pairs has been extensively studied, the energetics of cation-π-driven self-assembly in molecular films remains uncharted. Here we use nanoscale force measurements in combination with solid-state NMR spectroscopy to show that the cohesive properties of simple aromatic- and lysine-rich peptides rival those of the strong reversible intermolecular cohesion exhibited by adhesion proteins of marine mussel...
May 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429283/use-of-hormones-tissue-factors-and-bioengineering-in-the-management-of-hypospadias
#6
Aparajita Mitra, Yogesh Kumar Sarin
Hypospadiology is a rapidly evolving field. Progress in the understanding of how hormonal therapy affects the growth of the phallus has allowed surgeons to optimize the tissues for surgery. But conflicting data from a number of studies and a lack of consensus on drugs, their dosing, mode of delivery and timing of use means that the creation of protocols is unlikely to happen in the near future. Nonetheless, there is a hope and the standardization of scientific reporting will make it easier to compare data at the global level...
April 21, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429001/structure-property-relationships-of-cell-clusters-in-biotissues-2d-analysis
#7
Xiaohua Zhou, Erhu Zhang, Minggang Xia, Lei Zhang, Zhiqi Tian, Jianlin Liu, Shengli Zhang
Gaining insight into the relationships between the self-organized cell structures and the properties of biotissues is helpful for revealing the function of biomaterials and its designing principle. However, the traditionally used random foam model neglects several important details of the frameworks of cell clusters resulting in incomplete conclusions. Herein, we use a more complete model, the cell adhesion model, to investigate the mechanical and morphological properties of the two-dimensional (2D) dry cell foams...
April 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428810/recent-achievements-obtained-by-chloroplast-transformation
#8
REVIEW
Muhamed Adem, Dereje Beyene, Tileye Feyissa
Chloroplasts play a great role for sustained wellbeing of life on the planet. They have the power and raw materials that can be used as sophisticated biological factories. They are rich in energy as they have lots of pigment-protein complexes capable of collecting sunlight, in sugar produced by photosynthesis and in minerals imported from the plant cell. Chloroplast genome transformation offers multiple advantages over nuclear genome which among others, include: integration of the transgene via homologus recombination that enables to eliminate gene silencing and position effect, higher level of transgene expression resulting into higher accumulations of foreign proteins, and significant reduction in environmental dispersion of the transgene due to maternal inheritance which helps to minimize the major critic of plant genetic engineering...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428609/socket-preservation
#9
L Fee
Socket preservation maintains bone volume post-extraction in anticipation of an implant placement or fixed partial denture pontic site. This procedure helps compensate for the resorption of the facial bone wall. Socket preservation should be considered when implant placement needs to be delayed for patient or site-related reasons. The ideal healing time before implant placement is six months. Socket preservation can reduce the need for later bone augmentation. By reducing bone resorption and accelerating bone formation it increases implant success and survival...
April 21, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427322/dental-pulp-pluripotent-like-stem-cells-dppsc-a-new-stem-cell-population-with-chromosomal-stability-and-osteogenic-capacity-for-biomaterials-evaluation
#10
Raquel Núñez-Toldrà, Ester Martínez-Sarrà, Carlos Gil-Recio, Miguel Ángel Carrasco, Ashraf Al Madhoun, Sheyla Montori, Maher Atari
BACKGROUND: Biomaterials are widely used to regenerate or substitute bone tissue. In order to evaluate their potential use for clinical applications, these need to be tested and evaluated in vitro with cell culture models. Frequently, immortalized osteoblastic cell lines are used in these studies. However, their uncontrolled proliferation rate, phenotypic changes or aberrations in mitotic processes limits their use in long-term investigations. Recently, we described a new pluripotent-like subpopulation of dental pulp stem cells derived from the third molars (DPPSC) that shows genetic stability and shares some pluripotent characteristics with embryonic stem cells...
April 21, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427172/the-amelioration-of-cartilage-degeneration-by-photo-crosslinked-gelha-hydrogel-and-crizotinib-encapsulated-chitosan-microspheres
#11
Pengfei Chen, Sheng Mei, Chen Xia, Ren Zhu, Yichuan Pang, Jiying Wang, Jianfeng Zhang, Fangchun Shao, Shunwu Fan
The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic therapeutic effect of decreaseing cartilage angiogenesis via exposure to crizotinib encapsulated by chitosan microspheres and photo-crosslinked hydrogel, with the goal of evaluating crizotinib as a treatment for osteoarthritis. First, we developed and evaluated the characteristics of hydrogels and chitosan microspheres. Next, we measured the effect of crizotinib on the cartilage degeneration induced by interleukin-1β in chondrocytes. Crizotinib ameliorated the pathological changes induced by interleukin-1β via its anti-angiogenesis function...
February 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426571/growth-differentiation-factor-5-accelerates-wound-closure-and-improves-skin-quality-during-repair-of-full-thickness-skin-defects
#12
Jennifer L Schiefer, Manuel Held, Paul C Fuchs, Erhan Demir, Frank Plöger, Hans-Eberhard Schaller, Afshin Rahmanian-Schwarz
BACKGROUND: A fast and stable wound closure is important, especially for extended and unstable wounds found after burn injuries. Growth can regulate a variety of cellular processes, including those involved in wound healing. Growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5) can accelerate fibroblast cell migration, cell proliferation, and collagen synthesis, which are essential for wound healing. Nevertheless, no standardized evaluation of the effect of GDF-5 on the healing of full-thickness wounds has been published to date...
May 2017: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426555/creating-artificial-lymphoid-tissues-to-study-immunity-and-hematological-malignancies
#13
Shivem B Shah, Ankur Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The specialized microenvironments of lymphoid tissue affect immune cell function and progression of disease. However, current animal models are low throughput and a large number of human diseases are difficult to model in animals. Animal models are less amenable to manipulation of tissue niche components, signalling pathways, epigenetics, and genome editing than ex vivo models. On the other hand, conventional 2D cultures lack the physiological relevance to study precise microenvironmental interactions...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426437/supersonic-transient-magnetic-resonance-elastography-for-quantitative-assessment-of-tissue-elasticity
#14
Yu Liu, Jingfei Liu, Brett Z Fite, Josquin Foiret, Asaf Ilovitsh, J Kent Leach, Erik Dumont, Charles F Caskey, Katherine W Ferrara
Non-invasive, quantitative methods to assess the properties of biological tissues are needed for many therapeutic and tissue engineering applications. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has historically relied on external vibration to generate periodic shear waves. In order to focally assess a biomaterial or to monitor the response to ablative therapy, the interrogation of a specific region of interest by a focused beam is desirable and transient MRE (t-MRE) techniques have previously been developed to accomplish this goal...
April 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425308/the-effect-of-molecular-weights-of-microencapsulating-polymers-on-viability-of-mouse-cloned-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-biomaterials-osmotic-forces-and-potential-applications-in-diabetes-treatment
#15
Armin Mooranian, Ryu Tackechi, Emma Jamieson, Grant Morahan, Hani Al-Salami
INTRODUCTION: Ideal cell-containing microcapsules should be capable of maintaining cell viability and exhibit significant structural stability to support cellular functionality. To date, such microcapsules remain unavailable, thus, this study used our well-established microencapsulating methods to examine a total of 32 different microencapsulating formulations and correlate polymers' molecular weights (Mwt) and UDCA addition, with cell viability and microcapsules' stability, postmicroencapsulation...
April 20, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424946/preparation-and-corrosion-resistance-of-magnesium-phytic-acid-hydroxyapatite-composite-coatings-on-biodegradable-az31-magnesium-alloy
#16
Min Zhang, Shu Cai, Feiyang Zhang, Guohua Xu, Fengwu Wang, Nian Yu, Xiaodong Wu
In this work, a magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coating was successfully prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy substrate by chemical conversion deposition technology with the aim of improving its corrosion resistance and bioactivity. The influence of hydroxyapatite (HA) content on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of the coatings was investigated. The results showed that with the increase of HA content in phytic acid solution, the cracks on the surface of the coatings gradually reduced, which subsequently improved the corrosion resistance of these coated magnesium alloy...
June 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424781/postembedding-decalcification-of-mineralized-tissue-sections-preserves-the-integrity-of-implanted-biomaterials-and-minimizes-number-of-experimental-animals
#17
Thaqif El Khassawna, Diaa Eldin S Daghma, Sabine Stoetzel, Seemun Ray, Stefanie Kern, Deeksha Malhan, Volker Alt, Ulrich Thormann, Anja Henß, Marcus Rohnke, Annette Stengel, Fathi Hassan, Stefan Maenz, Klaus D Jandt, Michael Diefenbeck, Matthias Schumacher, Michael Gelinsky, Katrin Susanne Lips, Christian Heiss
Bone histology of decalcified or undecalcified samples depends on the investigation. However, in research each method provides different information to answer the scientific question. Decalcification is the first step after sample fixation and governs what analysis is later feasible on the sections. Besides, decalcification is favored for immunostaining and in situ hybridization. Otherwise, sample decalcification can be damaging to bone biomaterials implants that contains calcium or strontium. On the other hand, after decalcification mineralization cannot be assessed using histology or imaging mass spectrometry...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423943/high-value-added-lipids-produced-by-microorganisms-a-potential-use-of-sugarcane-vinasse
#18
Bruna Soares Fernandes, João Paulo Fernandes Vieira, Fabiano Jares Contesini, Paulo Eduardo Mantelatto, Marcelo Zaiat, José Geraldo da Cruz Pradella
This review aims to present an innovative concept of high value added lipids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, using carbon sources, such as sugars, acids and alcohols that could come from sugarcane vinasse, which is the main byproduct from ethanol production that is released in the distillation step. Vinasse is a rich carbon source and low-cost feedstock produced in large amounts from ethanol production. In 2019, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply estimates that growth of ethanol domestic consumption will be 58...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423411/a-convenient-technique-for-live-cell-observation-on-the-surface-of-polytetrafluoroethylene-with-a-phase-contrast-microscope
#19
Naoto Inukai, Kazuaki Tanaka, Tatsuya Takizawa
Phase-contrast microscopy is a convenient technique for live-cell observation on the surface of materials with high optical transmittance. Here, we demonstrate a novel technique to observe living cells on the surface of materials with low optical transmittance, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), which are widely used in biomaterials for blood-contacting devices. The surface of a cover glass was coated with a thin PTFE layer with sufficient transmittance, thereby enabling the observation of living cells on the PTFE surface with a phase-contrast microscope...
April 1, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422902/evaluation-of-the-osteoinductive-effect-of-pdgf-bb-associated-with-different-carriers-in-bone-regeneration-in-bone-surgical-defects-in-rats
#20
Júlio César Silva de Oliveira, Roberta Okamoto, Celso Koogi Sonoda, Wilson Roberto Poi, Idelmo Rangel Garcia Júnior, Eloá Rodrigues Luvizuto
PURPOSE: Extensive bone defects in maxillofacial region can be corrected with autograft. However the disadvantages of this type of therapy lead to the search for new bone substitutes. Thus, we evaluated the biological behavior and osteoinductive platelet-derived growth factor type BB (PDGF-BB) associated with different carriers, by histological analysis and immunohistochemical histometric critical defects performed in rat calvaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Critical defects were created with 5-mm diameter calvaria of rats...
April 18, 2017: Implant Dentistry
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