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dementia imaging

Hye-Jin Park, Kang-Woo Lee, Eun S Park, Stephanie Oh, Run Yan, Jie Zhang, Thomas G Beach, Charles H Adler, Michael Voronkov, Steven P Braithwaite, Jeffry B Stock, M Maral Mouradian
OBJECTIVE: Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric holoenzyme composed of a catalytic C subunit, a structural A subunit, and one of several regulatory B subunits that confer substrate specificity. The assembly and activity of PP2A are regulated by reversible methylation of the C subunit. α-Synuclein, which aggregates in Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), is phosphorylated at Ser129, and PP2A containing a B55α subunit is a major phospho-Ser129 phosphatase...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Hui Chen, Shuai Liu, Miaoyan Zheng, Lu Ji, Tianfeng Wu, Guowei Huang, Yong Ji
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a growing focus on frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, compared with other major dementias, very little is known about the factors associated with FTD. The present study evaluated candidate factors associated with FTD in the Chinese population. METHODS: One hundred eight elderly patients (36 diagnosed with FTD and 72 controls) of the Neurology Central Hospital of Tianjin (China), were diagnosed by neurologists, and recruited for the study between November 2011 and November 2014...
July 2016: Archives of Medical Research
Chuanchuan Zheng, Yong Xia, Yongsheng Pan, Jinhu Chen
In this review paper, we summarized the automated dementia identification algorithms in the literature from a pattern classification perspective. Since most of those algorithms consist of both feature extraction and classification, we provide a survey on three categories of feature extraction methods, including the voxel-, vertex- and ROI-based ones, and four categories of classifiers, including the linear discriminant analysis, Bayes classifiers, support vector machines, and artificial neural networks. We also compare the reported performance of many recently published dementia identification algorithms...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Antti J Luikku, Anette Hall, Ossi Nerg, Anne M Koivisto, Mikko Hiltunen, Seppo Helisalmi, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Anna Sutela, Maria Kojoukhova, Jussi Mattila, Jyrki Lötjönen, Jaana Rummukainen, Irina Alafuzoff, Juha E Jääskeläinen, Anne M Remes, Hilkka Soininen, Ville Leinonen
OBJECTIVES: Optimal selection of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients for shunt surgery is challenging. Disease State Index (DSI) is a statistical method that merges multimodal data to assist clinical decision-making. It has previously been shown to be useful in predicting progression in mild cognitive impairment and differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia. In this study, we use the DSI method to predict shunt surgery response for patients with iNPH...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Kousaku Saotome, Akira Matsushita, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshiaki Kato, Kei Nakai, Koichi Murata, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Akira Matsumura
PURPOSE: A fast spin-echo sequence based on the Periodically Rotated Overlapping Parallel Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data acquisition and reconstruction method for correcting motion during scans. Previous studies attempted to verify the in vivo capabilities of motion-corrected PROPELLER in real clinical situations. However, such experiments are limited by repeated, stray head motion by research participants during the prescribed and precise head motion protocol of a PROPELLER acquisition...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Robert S Miletich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are now available for routine clinical applications in neurology. This article discusses their diagnostic use in dementia, brain tumors, epilepsy, parkinsonism, cerebrovascular disease, and traumatic brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuromolecular imaging, also known as nuclear neurology, involves clinical imaging of both basal regional physiology (perfusion, metabolism, and transport mechanisms) and specific neurochemical physiology (currently, only the dopamine transporter)...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Alexander Frizell Santillo, Karl Lundblad, Markus Nilsson, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Danielle van Westen, Jimmy Lätt, Erik Blennow Nordström, Susanna Vestberg, Olof Lindberg, Christer Nilsson
Disinhibition is an important symptom in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the clinico-anatomical underpinnings remain controversial. We explored the anatomical correlates of disinhibition in neurodegenerative disease using the perspective of grey and white matter imaging. Disinhibition was assessed with a neuropsychological test and a caregiver information-based clinical rating scale in 21 patients with prefrontal syndromes due to behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 12) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 25)...
2016: PloS One
Elissa C McIntosh, Aaron Jacobson, Nobuko Kemmotsu, Ekarin Pongpipat, Erin Green, Lori Haase, Claire Murphy
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities that together may increase the risk of developing cognitive decline and dementia; however, the neural substrate is incompletely understood. We investigated cortical thickness in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), hippocampal volume, as well as relationships among metabolic risk factor burden, structure and memory performance. Path-analytic models were tested to explore the relations between MetS risk factor, structure and memory performance...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Ying Cui, Xia Liang, Hong Gu, Yuzheng Hu, Zhen Zhao, Xiang-Yu Yang, Cheng Qian, Yihong Yang, Gao-Jun Teng
To explore the effect of T2DM on cerebral perfusion, and the relationship between cerebral perfusion changes and cognitive impairment as well as diabetic variables, by using a whole-brain arterial spin-labeling (ASL) MRI technique. This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was performed between November 2012 and October 2013. All subjects provided informed consent. Forty T2DM patients and 41 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls were included. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) map was obtained by pulsed ASL perfusion imaging at 3 T MRI...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Ruiz, Anette Hall, Jussi Mattila, Juha Koikkalainen, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Minna Husso, Tuomo Hänninen, Ritva Vanninen, Yawu Liu, Merja Hallikainen, Jyrki Lötjönen, Anne M Remes, Irina Alafuzoff, Hilkka Soininen, Päivi Hartikainen
BACKGROUND: Disease State Index (DSI) and its visualization, Disease State Fingerprint (DSF), form a computer-assisted clinical decision making tool that combines patient data and compares them with cases with known outcomes. AIMS: To investigate the ability of the DSI to diagnose frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 38 patients with FTD, 57 with AD and 22 controls. Autopsy verification of FTD with TDP-43 positive pathology was available for 14 and AD pathology for 12 cases...
May 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Karen Ritchie, Michael Ropacki, B Albala, John Harrison, Jeffrey Kaye, Joel Kramer, Christopher Randolph, C W Ritchie
The Horizon 2020/IMI European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) project will undertake large-scale proof-of-concept trials in predementia AD. Within EPAD, the monitoring of cognitive trajectories in the preclinical period will constitute a central outcome measure; however, there are currently no clear guidelines as to how this should be achieved as most measures have been developed for the period around dementia diagnosis. The EPAD Scientific Advisory Group for Clinical and Cognitive Outcomes identified appropriate cognitive measures based on a literature search covering both cognitive correlates of preclinical brain changes from imaging studies and cognitive changes observed over time in nondementia population cohorts developing incident dementia...
October 1, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
A Hadar, E Milanesi, A Squassina, P Niola, C Chillotti, M Pasmanik-Chor, O Yaron, P Martásek, M Rehavi, D Weissglas-Volkov, N Shomron, I Gozes, D Gurwitz
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia. Misfolded protein pathological hallmarks of AD are brain deposits of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and phosphorylated tau neurofibrillary tangles. However, doubts about the role of Aβ in AD pathology have been raised as Aβ is a common component of extracellular brain deposits found, also by in vivo imaging, in non-demented aged individuals. It has been suggested that some individuals are more prone to Aβ neurotoxicity and hence more likely to develop AD when aging brains start accumulating Aβ plaques...
October 4, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Timothy Rittman, Mikail Rubinov, Petra E Vértes, Ameera X Patel, Cedric E Ginestet, Boyd C P Ghosh, Roger A Barker, Maria Grazia Spillantini, Edward T Bullmore, James B Rowe
Abnormalities of tau protein are central to the pathogenesis of progressive supranuclear palsy, whereas haplotype variation of the tau gene MAPT influences the risk of Parkinson disease and Parkinson's disease dementia. We assessed whether regional MAPT expression might be associated with selective vulnerability of global brain networks to neurodegenerative pathology. Using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson disease, and healthy subjects (n = 128), we examined functional brain networks and measured the connection strength between 471 gray matter regions...
September 9, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
J van Duijnhoven, M P J Aarts, M B C Aries, M N Böhmer, A L P Rosemann
BACKGROUND: The non-image-forming effects of luminous radiation on people with intellectual disabilities or dementia received attention from researchers. Such studies, however, have generally been conducted using disparate methodologies which precludes generalization and reproducibility. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the practical applicability of measurement devices for studies investigating non-image-forming effects of luminous radiation, specifically for people with intellectual disabilities or dementia...
September 20, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Kenichi Nakajima, Masahito Yamada
(123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has become widely applied in Japan since its introduction to clinical cardiology and neurology practice in the 1990s. Neurological studies found decreased cardiac uptake of (123)I-MIBG in Lewy-body diseases including Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Thus, cardiac MIBG uptake is now considered a biomarker of Lewy body diseases. Although scintigraphic images of (123)I-MIBG can be visually interpreted, an average count ratio of heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) has commonly served as a semi-quantitative marker of sympathetic activity...
September 2016: Chonnam Medical Journal
Karin Persson, Geir Selbæk, Anne Brækhus, Mona Beyer, Maria Barca, Knut Engedal
BACKGROUND: The dementia syndrome has been regarded a clinical diagnosis but the focus on supplemental biomarkers is increasing. An automatic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry method, NeuroQuant® (NQ), has been developed for use in clinical settings. PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of NQ in distinguishing Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) from non-dementia and non-AD dementia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: NQ was performed in 275 patients diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10 for AD, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD); the Winblad criteria for mild cognitive impairment; the Lund-Manchester criteria for frontotemporal dementia; and the revised consensus criteria for Lewy body dementia (LBD)...
September 28, 2016: Acta Radiologica
I Barnaure, M-L Montandon, C Rodriguez, F Herrmann, K O Lövblad, P Giannakopoulos, S Haller
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The presence of cerebral microbleeds has been associated with dementia and cognitive decline, although studies report conflicting results. Our aim was to determine the potential role of the presence and location of cerebral microbleeds in early stages of cognitive decline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline 3T MR imaging examinations including SWI sequences of 328 cognitively intact community-dwelling controls and 72 subjects with mild cognitive impairment were analyzed with respect to the presence and distribution of cerebral microbleeds...
September 29, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Michihito Masuda, Joe Senda, Hirohisa Watanabe, Bagarinao Epifanio, Yasuhiro Tanaka, Kazunori Imai, Yuchi Riku, Yuanzhe Li, Ryoichi Nakamura, Mizuki Ito, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Naoki Atsuta, Haruki Koike, Masahisa Katsuno, Nobutaka Hattori, Shinji Naganawa, Gen Sobue
We investigated common structural and network changes across the sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-frontotemporal dementia (FTD) continuum. Based on cluster analysis using the frontotemporal assessment battery, 51 patients with sporadic ALS were subdivided into three groups: 25 patients with ALS with cognitive deficiency (ALS-CD); seven patients who satisfied FTD criteria (ALS-FTD), and 19 patients with ALS with normal cognitive function (ALS-NC). Compared with the controls, gray matter images from patients with ALS-FTD showed atrophic changes in the following order of severity: caudate head, medial frontal gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, putamen, and cingulate gyrus (peak level, uncorrected p < 0...
August 10, 2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Margherita Melloni, Pablo Billeke, Sandra Baez, Eugenia Hesse, Laura de la Fuente, Gonzalo Forno, Agustina Birba, Indira García-Cordero, Cecilia Serrano, Angelo Plastino, Andrea Slachevsky, David Huepe, Mariano Sigman, Facundo Manes, Adolfo M García, Lucas Sedeño, Agustín Ibáñez
Recursive social decision-making requires the use of flexible, context-sensitive long-term strategies for negotiation. To succeed in social bargaining, participants' own perspectives must be dynamically integrated with those of interactors to maximize self-benefits and adapt to the other's preferences, respectively. This is a prerequisite to develop a successful long-term self-other integration strategy. While such form of strategic interaction is critical to social decision-making, little is known about its neurocognitive correlates...
September 27, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Wolfgang Wrasidlo, Igor F Tsigelny, Diana L Price, Garima Dutta, Edward Rockenstein, Thomas C Schwarz, Karin Ledolter, Douglas Bonhaus, Amy Paulino, Simona Eleuteri, Åge A Skjevik, Valentina L Kouznetsova, Brian Spencer, Paula Desplats, Tania Gonzalez-Ruelas, Margarita Trejo-Morales, Cassia R Overk, Stefan Winter, Chunni Zhu, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Dieter Meier, Herbert Moessler, Robert Konrat, Eliezer Masliah
Abnormal accumulation and propagation of the neuronal protein α-synuclein has been hypothesized to underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy. Here we report a de novo-developed compound (NPT100-18A) that reduces α-synuclein toxicity through a novel mechanism that involves displacing α-synuclein from the membrane. This compound interacts with a domain in the C-terminus of α-synuclein. The E83R mutation reduces the compound interaction with the 80-90 amino acid region of α-synuclein and prevents the effects of NPT100-18A...
September 27, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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