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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053874/tau-pathology-and-neurodegeneration-contribute-to-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Alexandre Bejanin, Daniel R Schonhaut, Renaud La Joie, Joel H Kramer, Suzanne L Baker, Natasha Sosa, Nagehan Ayakta, Averill Cantwell, Mustafa Janabi, Mariella Lauriola, James P O'Neil, Maria L Gorno-Tempini, Zachary A Miller, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, William J Jagust, Gil D Rabinovici
Neuropathological and in vivo studies have revealed a tight relationship between tau pathology and cognitive impairment across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum. However, tau pathology is also intimately associated with neurodegeneration and amyloid pathology. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether grey matter atrophy and amyloid pathology contribute to the relationship between tau pathology, as measured with 18F-AV-1451-PET imaging, and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. We included 40 amyloid-positive patients meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (n = 5) or probable Alzheimer's disease dementia (n = 35)...
October 7, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053131/-perspectives-of-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-optic-coherent-tomography
#2
A N Bogolepova, A N Zhuravleva, E V Makhnovich
There is a constant search for new possibilities of the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia. The problem is important because of the growing prevalence of dementia, 60-80% of which are caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Over the last years, changes in the retina are thought to be a marker neurodegeneration. Assessment of these changes is performed using a method of optical coherent tomography (OCT) that allows taking cross-sectional imaging of a tissue. OCT is considered a potential biomarker of the early stage of AD...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049480/interpreting-biomarker-results-in-individual-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-the-alzheimer-s-biomarkers-in-daily-practice-abide-project
#3
Ingrid S van Maurik, Marissa D Zwan, Betty M Tijms, Femke H Bouwman, Charlotte E Teunissen, Philip Scheltens, Mike P Wattjes, Frederik Barkhof, Johannes Berkhof, Wiesje M van der Flier
Importance: Biomarkers do not determine conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) perfectly, and criteria do not specify how to take patient characteristics into account. Consequently, biomarker use may be challenging for clinicians, especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Objective: To construct biomarker-based prognostic models that enable determination of future AD dementia in patients with MCI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study is part of the Alzheimer's Biomarkers in Daily Practice (ABIDE) project...
October 16, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047416/lessons-learned-about-f-18-av-1451-off-target-binding-from-an-autopsy-confirmed-parkinson-s-case
#4
Marta Marquié, Eline E Verwer, Avery C Meltzer, Sally Ji Who Kim, Cinthya Agüero, Jose Gonzalez, Sara J Makaretz, Michael Siao Tick Chong, Prianca Ramanan, Ana C Amaral, Marc D Normandin, Charles R Vanderburg, Stephen N Gomperts, Keith A Johnson, Matthew P Frosch, Teresa Gómez-Isla
[F-18]-AV-1451 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer with high affinity to neurofibrillary tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). PET studies have shown increased tracer retention in patients clinically diagnosed with dementia of AD type and mild cognitive impairment in regions that are known to contain tau lesions. In vivo uptake has also consistently been observed in midbrain, basal ganglia and choroid plexus in elderly individuals regardless of their clinical diagnosis, including clinically normal whose brains are not expected to harbor tau pathology in those areas...
October 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046472/-surgical-treatment-of-a-giant-olfactory-groove-schwannoma-a-case-report
#5
Takashi Fujii, Naoki Otani, Kazuma Doi, Masataka Miyama, Yohei Otsuka, Takashi Matsumoto, Toru Yoshiura, Satoru Takeuchi, Satoshi Tomura, Arata Tomiyama, Terushige Toyooka, Kojiro Wada, Kentaro Mori
Schwannomas originating from the olfactory nerve are extremely rare because the olfactory nerve does not normally contain Schwann cells. We describe a case of a giant schwannoma of the olfactory groove. A 73-year-old woman presented with anosmia persisting for 10 months. Head computed tomography(CT)for head trauma at another hospital demonstrated a tumor lesion located in the left frontal lobe and paranasal sinus. She had never suffered epilepsy, and past medical history and family history identified no indicators...
October 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042572/diagonal-earlobe-crease-is-a-visible-sign-for-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-amyloid-%C3%AE
#6
Jin San Lee, Seongbeom Park, Hee Jin Kim, Yeshin Kim, Hyemin Jang, Ko Woon Kim, Hak Young Rhee, Sung Sang Yoon, Kyoung Jin Hwang, Key-Chung Park, Seung Hwan Moon, Sung Tae Kim, Samuel N Lockhart, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo
We investigated the frequency and clinical significance of diagonal earlobe crease (DELC) in cognitively impaired patients using imaging biomarkers, such as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI and amyloid-β (Aβ) PET. A total of 471 cognitively impaired patients and 243 cognitively normal (CN) individuals were included in this study. Compared with CN individuals, cognitively impaired patients had a greater frequency of DELC (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2, P = 0.007). This relationship was more prominent in patients with dementia (OR 1...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040871/gray-matter-networks-and-clinical-progression-in-subjects-with-predementia-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Betty M Tijms, Mara Ten Kate, Alida A Gouw, Andreas Borta, Sander Verfaillie, Charlotte E Teunissen, Philip Scheltens, Frederik Barkhof, Wiesje M van der Flier
We studied whether gray matter network parameters are associated with rate of clinical progression in nondemented subjects who have abnormal amyloid markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that is, predementia Alzheimer's disease. Nondemented subjects (62 with subjective cognitive decline; 160 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI); age = 68 ± 8 years; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) = 28 ± 2.4) were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort when they had abnormal amyloid in CSF (<640 pg/mL)...
September 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037162/feasibility-of-a-multi-modal-exercise-program-on-cognition-in-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
M L Callisaya, R M Daly, J E Sharman, D Bruce, T M E Davis, T Greenaway, M Nolan, R Beare, M G Schultz, T Phan, L C Blizzard, V K Srikanth
BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased risk of dementia. We aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the efficacy of exercise on cognition and brain structure in people with T2D. METHODS: A 6-month pilot parallel RCT of a progressive aerobic- and resistance-training program versus a gentle movement control group in people with T2D aged 50-75 years (n = 50) at the University of Tasmania, Australia...
October 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036822/cortical-cerebral-microinfarcts-on-3-tesla-mri-in-patients-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#9
Doeschka A Ferro, Susanne J van Veluw, Huiberdina L Koek, Lieza G Exalto, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) are small ischemic lesions that are a common neuropathological finding in patients with stroke or dementia. CMIs in the cortex can now be detected in vivo on 3 Tesla MRI. OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of CMIs and associated clinical features in patients with possible vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). METHOD: 182 memory-clinic patients (mean age 71.4±10.6, 55% male) with vascular injury on brain MRI (i...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035423/dementia-risk-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-the-relevance-of-sleep-related-abnormalities-in-brain-structure-amyloid-and-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
Brian S Mohlenhoff, Aoife O'Donovan, Michael W Weiner, Thomas C Neylan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for dementia, yet mechanisms are poorly understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature suggests several potential mechanisms by which sleep impairments might contribute to the increased risk of dementia observed in PTSD. First, molecular, animal, and imaging studies indicate that sleep problems lead to cellular damage in brain structures crucial to learning and memory. Second, recent studies have shown that lack of sleep might precipitate the accumulation of harmful amyloid proteins...
October 16, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032192/age-dependent-association-of-thyroid-function-with-brain-morphology-and-microstructural-organization-evidence-from-brain-imaging
#11
Layal Chaker, Lotte G M Cremers, Tim I M Korevaar, Marius de Groot, Abbas Dehghan, Oscar H Franco, Wiro J Niessen, M Arfan Ikram, Robin P Peeters, Meike W Vernooij
Thyroid hormone (TH) is crucial during neurodevelopment, but high levels of TH have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. No data on the association of thyroid function with brain imaging in the general population are available. We therefore investigated the association of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine (FT4) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived total intracranial volume, brain tissue volumes, and diffusion tensor imaging measures of white matter microstructure in 4683 dementia- and stroke-free participants (mean age 60...
September 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030451/weighting-and-standardization-of-frequencies-to-determine-prevalence-of-ad-imaging-biomarkers
#12
Rosebud O Roberts, David S Knopman, Jeremy A Syrjanen, Jeremiah A Aakre, Maria Vassilaki, Walter K Kremers, Michelle M Mielke, Mary M Machulda, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Yonas E Geda, Prashanthi Vemuri, Val Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of elevated brain amyloid and reduced cortical thickness (as a marker for neurodegeneration) in a defined population. METHODS: Mayo Clinic Study of Aging participants underwent MRI to assess a composite Alzheimer disease (AD) signature cortical thickness measure and PET to assess brain amyloid accumulation. Participants were characterized as having elevated amyloid (A+/A-), reduced cortical thickness (N+/N-), and A+N+, A+N-, A-N+, or A-N-...
October 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029762/thinner-cortex-in-patients-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-is-associated-with-steeper-decline-of-memory
#13
Sander C J Verfaillie, Rosalinde E Slot, Betty M Tijms, Femke Bouwman, Marije R Benedictus, Jozefien M Overbeek, Teddy Koene, Hugo Vrenken, Philip Scheltens, Frederik Barkhof, Wiesje M van der Flier
We aimed to investigate associations between regional cortical thickness and rate of decline over time in 4 cognitive domains in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We included 233 SCD patients with the total number of 654 neuropsychological assessments (median = 3, range = 2-8) and available baseline magnetic resonance imaging from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (125 males, age: 63 ± 9, Mini-Mental State Examination score: 28 ± 2). We assessed longitudinal cognitive functioning at baseline and follow-up in 4 cognitive domains (composite Z-scores): memory, attention, executive function, and language...
September 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028937/abnormal-structural-brain-connectome-in-individuals-with-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Joana B Pereira, Danielle van Westen, Erik Stomrud, Tor Olof Strandberg, Giovanni Volpe, Eric Westman, Oskar Hansson
Alzheimer's disease has a long preclinical phase during which amyloid pathology and neurodegeneration accumulate in the brain without producing overt cognitive deficits. It is currently unclear whether these early disease stages are associated with a progressive disruption in the communication between brain regions that subsequently leads to cognitive decline and dementia. In this study we assessed the organization of structural networks in cognitively normal (CN) individuals harboring amyloid pathology (A+N-), neurodegeneration (A-N+), or both (A+N+) from the prospective and longitudinal Swedish BioFINDER study...
October 3, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027841/diffusion-tensor-tractography-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-correlation-with-cognitive-function
#15
Maria M D'Souza, S P Gorthi, Kunal Vadwala, Richa Trivedi, C Vijayakumar, Prabhjot Kaur, Subash Khushu
Background Patients with cerebral small vessel disease may suffer from varying levels of cognitive deficit and may progress on to vascular dementia. The extent of involvement, as seen on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) measures, correlates poorly with the level of cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a marker for white matter damage in small vessel disease and to assess its correlation with cognitive function. Methods Thirty consecutive patients with cerebral small vessel disease underwent conventional MR imaging, DTI, and neuropsychological assessment...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026896/tau-and-pet-mri-imaging-biomarkers-for-detecting-and-diagnosing-early-dementia
#16
Yongxia Zhou, Bing Bai
Specific objective of this project is to quantify the neuropathological tau depositions in brain regions and to investigate primary age-related tau pathology and associations with amyloid and glucose-metabolism, neurocognitive tests and MRI metrics. Preliminary results demonstrated higher temporal deposition especially in the hippocampus and the inferior temporal regions compared to mean cortical deposition. Quantitative Braak stage-based regional analyses found highest tau deposition in the Braak stage II in the preclinical samples...
July 2017: Jacobs Journal of Medical Diagnosis and Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023452/functional-imaging-of-cognition-in-an-old-old-population-a-case-for-portable-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#17
Theodore J Huppert, Helmet Karim, Chia-Cheng Lin, Bader A Alqahtani, Susan L Greenspan, Patrick J Sparto
In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to record brain activation during cognitive testing in older individuals (88±6yo; N = 19) living in residential care communities. This population, which is often associated with loss of personal independence due to physical or cognitive decline associated with aging, is also often under-represented in neuroscience research because of a limited means to participate in studies which often take place in large urban or university centers. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility and initial results using a portable 8-source by 4-detector fNIRS system to measure brain activity from participants within residential care community centers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018233/altered-neurovascular-coupling-as-measured-by-optical-imaging-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Konstantin Kotliar, Christine Hauser, Marion Ortner, Claudia Muggenthaler, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Susanne Angermann, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Christoph Schmaderer, Timo Grimmer
Neurovascular coupling can be directly assessed by retinal vessel response to flickering light using optical imaging methods. The response is altered in a number of ocular and cardiovascular diseases. Whether it is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is investigated. Retinal vessel reaction to monochromatic flicker stimulation was examined by Dynamic Vessel Analyzer independent of the commercial software in elderly subjects: 15 patients with mild-to-moderate dementia due to AD (ADD); 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI); 15 cognitively healthy controls (HC)...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018162/clinical-utility-of-amyloid-pet-imaging-with-18-f-florbetapir-a-retrospective-study-of-100-patients
#19
Christopher James Carswell, Zarni Win, Kirsty Muckle, Angus Kennedy, Adam Waldman, Gemma Dawe, Tara D Barwick, Sameer Khan, Paresh A Malhotra, Richard J Perry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Amyloid-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging (API) detects amyloid-beta pathology early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with high sensitivity and specificity. (18)F-florbetapir (Amyvid) is an amyloid-binding PET ligand with a half-life suitable for clinical use outside of the research setting. How API affects patient investigation and management in the 'real-world' arena is unknown. To address this, we retrospectively documented the effect of API in patients in the memory clinic...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016379/oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-neuroprogression-in-chronic-ptsd
#20
Mark W Miller, Alex P Lin, Erika J Wolf, Danielle R Miller
Posttraumatic stress disorder is a serious and often disabling syndrome that develops in response to a traumatic event. Many individuals who initially develop the disorder go on to experience a chronic form of the condition that in some cases can last for many years. Among these patients, psychiatric and medical comorbidities are common, including early onset of age-related conditions such as chronic pain, cardiometabolic disease, neurocognitive disorders, and dementia. The hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress-recurrent sensory-memory reexperiencing of the trauma(s)-are associated with concomitant activations of threat- and stress-related neurobiological pathways that occur against a tonic backdrop of sleep disturbance and heightened physiological arousal...
October 9, 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
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