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dementia imaging

David Jakabek, Brian D Power, Matthew D Macfarlane, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Danielle van Westen, Jimmy Lätt, Markus Nilsson, Jeffrey C L Looi, Alexander F Santillo
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) has been predominantly considered as a frontotemporal cortical disease, with limited direct investigation of frontal-subcortical connections. We aim to characterize the grey and white matter components of frontal-thalamic and frontal-striatal circuits in bvFTD. Twenty-four patients with bvFTD and 24 healthy controls underwent morphological and diffusion imaging. Subcortical structures were manually segmented according to published protocols. Probabilistic pathways were reconstructed separately from the dorsolateral, orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex to the striatum and thalamus...
June 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Fulvia Palesi, Andrea De Rinaldis, Paolo Vitali, Gloria Castellazzi, Letizia Casiraghi, Giancarlo Germani, Sara Bernini, Nicoletta Anzalone, Matteo Cotta Ramusino, Federica M Denaro, Elena Sinforiani, Alfredo Costa, Giovanni Magenes, Egidio D'Angelo, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Giuseppe Micieli
Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) together represent the majority of dementia cases. Since their neuropsychological profiles often overlap and white matter lesions are observed in elderly subjects including AD, differentiating between VaD and AD can be difficult. Characterization of these different forms of dementia would benefit by identification of quantitative imaging biomarkers specifically sensitive to AD or VaD. Parameters of microstructural abnormalities derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been reported to be helpful in differentiating between dementias, but only few studies have used them to compare AD and VaD with a voxelwise approach...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Thenmoly Damodaran, Byorn Wei Liang Tan, Ping Liao, Surash Ramanathan, Lim Gin Keat, Zurina Hassan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clitoria ternatea L. (CT), commonly known as Butterfly pea, is used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine to promote brain function and treat mental disorders. Root of CT has been proven to enhance memory, but its role in an animal model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), which has been considered as a major cause of brain disorders, has yet to be explored. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the motor and cognitive effects of acute oral administration of CT root methanolic extract and hippocampal long-term plasticity in the CA1 region of the CCH rat model...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
M Tscheuschler, M Gebest, F Jessen, A Drzezga
Due to the expanding older population and increasing prevalence of dementia and currently lacking curative therapy but potentially conceivable availability of molecular-specific treatment to delay the progression of cognitive decline, the early diagnosis of cognitive deficits and their etiological differential diagnosis becomes increasingly more important. The advances in nuclear medicine diagnostics in the field of neurodegenerative diseases within the last few years have been substantial. In this article the relevance of these technologies in the diagnostic process of dementia is described...
June 18, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Alice Y Hua, Isabel J Sible, David C Perry, Katherine P Rankin, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen, Virginia E Sturm
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by profound changes in emotions and empathy. Although most patients with bvFTD become less sensitive to negative emotional cues, some patients become more sensitive to positive emotional stimuli. We investigated whether dysregulated positive emotions in bvFTD undermine empathy by making it difficult for patients to share (emotional empathy), recognize (cognitive empathy), and respond (real-world empathy) to emotions in others...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Hanna Lu, Ni Xi, Ada W T Fung, Linda C W Lam
BACKGROUND: Memory and learning, as the core brain function, shows controversial results across studies focusing on aging and dementia. One of the reasons is because of the multi-faceted nature of memory and learning. However, there is still a dearth of comparable proxies with psychometric and morphometric portrait in clinical and non-clinical populations. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the proxies of memory and learning function with direct and derived measures and examine their associations with morphometric features in senior adults with different cognitive status...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
L Raposo Rodríguez, D J Tovar Salazar, N Fernández García, L Pastor Hernández, Ó Fernández Guinea
OBJECTIVE: To describe and illustrate the key findings on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the most common dementias of neurodegenerative origin: Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, variants of frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, variants of multiple system atrophy, Parkinson dementia, and corticobasal degeneration. CONCLUSION: Today the role of MRI is no longer limited to ruling out underlying causes of cognitive deterioration...
June 11, 2018: Radiología
Nicholas Fimognari, Ashley Hollings, Virginie Lam, Rebecca J Tidy, Cameron M Kewish, Matthew A Albrecht, Ryu Takechi, John C L Mamo, Mark J Hackett
Western society is facing a health epidemic due to the increasing incidence of dementia in ageing populations, and there are still few effective diagnostic methods, minimal treatment options, and no cure. Ageing is the greatest risk factor for memory loss that occurs during the natural ageing process, as well as being the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, greater understanding of the biochemical pathways that drive a healthy ageing brain towards dementia (pathological ageing or Alzheimer's disease), is required to accelerate the development of improved diagnostics and therapies...
June 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Lorenzo Carnevale, Valentina D'Angelosante, Alessandro Landolfi, Giovanni Grillea, Giulio Selvetella, Marianna Storto, Giuseppe Lembo, Daniela Carnevale
Aims: Hypertension is one of the main risk factor for dementia. The subtle damage provoked by chronic high blood pressure in the brain is usually evidenced by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in terms of white matter (WM) hyperintensities or cerebral atrophy. However, it is clear that by the time brain damage is visible, it may be too late hampering neurodegeneration. Aim of this study was to characterize a signature of early brain damage induced by hypertension, before the neurodegenerative injury manifests...
June 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Koji Kasanuki, Keith A Josephs, Tanis J Ferman, Melissa E Murray, Shunsuke Koga, Takuya Konno, Nobutaka Sakae, Adam Parks, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A Van Gerpen, Neill R Graff-Radford, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and pathologic characteristics of diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) manifesting as corticobasal syndrome (CBS). METHODS: In 523 autopsy-confirmed cases of DLBD, we identified 11 patients diagnosed with CBS. For comparison, we studied 22 DLBD brains with antemortem presentation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Given previous studies suggesting the importance of pathology in peri-Rolandic cortices in CBS, we used digital pathology to count Lewy bodies and to quantify intracytoplasmic and neuritic α-synuclein and phospho-tau burden in the motor cortex...
June 13, 2018: Neurology
Yue Liu, Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Daniel Ky Chan, Perminder Sachdev
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) comprises a variety of disorders affecting small arteries and microvessels of the brain, manifesting as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and deep brain infarcts. In addition to its contribution to vascular dementia (VaD), it has also been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature available on Medline, Embase and Pubmed was undertaken, whereby CSVD was divided into WMHs, CMBs and deep brain infarcts...
June 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Katharina Brueggen, Martin Dyrba, Ingo Kilimann, Judith Henf, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Jochen R Thyrian, Stefan Teipel
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal mean diffusivity (MD) measured by diffusion-tensor imaging is a promising diagnostic marker for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and dementia. Its performance has yet to be evaluated in primary care patients, who vary systematically from patients visiting specialized care settings. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of hippocampus diffusivity for detecting MCI and dementia in a sample recruited from primary care, compared to a sample from specialized care...
June 12, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Carmen Benitez, Javier Pérez-Jara, Luis Garcia-Paino, Teresa Montenegro, Encarnacion Martin, Arturo Vilches-Moraga
Intrapelvic mass formation as a result of particulate wear debris induced osteolysis is a recognised late complication of cementless total hip arthroplasty. Clinical presentation typically involves hip and/or leg pain resulting in functional impairment, and obstructive urinary symptoms developing 3-20 years after surgery. An acute confusional state has never been described in this scenario. We report the case of an 86-year-old gentleman with a diagnosis of dementia brought to our emergency department with an acute confusional state...
June 8, 2018: Age and Ageing
Arno de Wilde, Wiesje M van der Flier, Wiesje Pelkmans, Femke Bouwman, Jurre Verwer, Colin Groot, Marieke M van Buchem, Marissa Zwan, Rik Ossenkoppele, Maqsood Yaqub, Marleen Kunneman, Ellen M A Smets, Frederik Barkhof, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Andrew Stephens, Erik van Lier, Geert Jan Biessels, Bart N van Berckel, Philip Scheltens
Importance: Previous studies have evaluated the diagnostic effect of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) in selected research cohorts. However, these research populations do not reflect daily practice, thus hampering clinical implementation of amyloid imaging. Objective: To evaluate the association of amyloid PET with changes in diagnosis, diagnostic confidence, treatment, and patients' experiences in an unselected memory clinic cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: Amyloid PET using fluoride-18 florbetaben was offered to 866 patients who visited the tertiary memory clinic at the VU University Medical Center between January 2015 and December 2016 as part of their routine diagnostic dementia workup...
June 11, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Yat-Fung Shea, Warren Barker, Maria T Greig-Gusto, David A Loewenstein, Ranjan Duara, Steven T DeKosky
BACKGROUND: Patients with cognitive impairment or dementias of uncertain etiology are frequently referred to a memory disorders specialty clinic. The impact of and role for amyloid PET imaging (Aβ-PET) may be most appropriate in this clinical setting. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of Aβ-PET on etiological diagnosis and clinical management in the memory clinic setting. METHODS: A search of the literature on the impact of Aβ-PET in the memory clinic setting between 1 January 2004 and 12 February 2018 was conducted...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Maria Vassilaki, Jeremiah A Aakre, Jeremy A Syrjanen, Michelle M Mielke, Yonas E Geda, Walter K Kremers, Mary M Machulda, Rabe E Alhurani, Sara C Staubo, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Rosebud O Roberts
BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence suggesting that diet may play a role in preventing or delaying cognitive decline and dementia, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To examine the cross-sectional associations of the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and its components with 11C-PiB-PET scan measures of amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition. METHODS: The study consisted of 278 Mayo Clinic Study of Aging participants 70+ years old, who were cognitively unimpaired (CU) at the time of completion of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and when they underwent PET imaging...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Nicola M Payton, Grégoria Kalpouzos, Debora Rizzuto, Laura Fratiglioni, Miia Kivipelto, Lars Bäckman, Erika J Laukka
BACKGROUND: Cognitive and biological markers have shown varying degrees of success in identifying persons who will develop dementia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate different combinations of cognitive and biological markers and identify prediction models with the highest accuracy for identifying persons with increased dementia risk. METHODS: Neuropsychological assessment, genetic testing (apolipoprotein E -APOE), and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for 418 older individuals without dementia (60-97 years) from a population-based study (SNAC-K)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Urs Strohmaier, Felix Keller, Ingo Kilimann, Bernhard Michalowsky, Diana Wucherer, Ina Zwingmann, Stefan Teipel, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Jochen René Thyrian
BACKGROUND: The current guidelines imply that basic medical diagnostics for dementia should be provided by general practitioners in cooperation with other specialists such as neurologists and psychiatrists. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this paper were to 1) compare the dementia patients of general practice residents whose care is co-managed by neurology/psychiatry residents with those whose care is not; 2) identify the patient variables associated with the utilization of neurological and psychiatric specialists; and 3) describe the frequency of imaging use a for dementia patients in primary care...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anne-Claire Dupont, Bérenger Largeau, Denis Guilloteau, Maria Joao Santiago Ribeiro, Nicolas Arlicot
In vivo exploration of neurodegenerative diseases by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has matured over the last 20 years, using dedicated radiopharmaceuticals targeting cellular metabolism, neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, or abnormal protein aggregates (beta-amyloid and intracellular microtubule inclusions containing hyperphosphorylated tau). The ability of PET to characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular levels enables early detection and identification of molecular mechanisms associated with disease progression, by providing accurate, reliable, and longitudinally reproducible quantitative biomarkers...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Yuzo Araki, Masahiro Furuichi, Hiroaki Nokura, Tatsuo Iwata
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The present study determined the effects of pre-existing cognitive impairment (PreCI) on the rehabilitation outcomes in patients with cerebral infarction. METHODS: From June 2013 to August 2015, we classified 52 patients with unilateral cerebral hemispheric infarction into the PreCI and non-PreCI group based on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) cerebral blood flow (CBF) decrease images and the past history of dementia...
June 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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