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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156877/comparison-of-microscopy-elisa-and-real-time-pcr-for-detection-of-giardia-intestinalis-in-human-stool-specimens
#1
Yunus Emre Beyhan, Zeynep Taş Cengiz
Background/aim: This study included patients who had digestive system complaints between August 2015 and October 2015. The research was designed to compare conventional microscopy with an antigen detection ELISA kit and the TaqMan-based real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique for detection of Giardia intestinalis in human stool specimens. Materials and methods: Samples were concentrated by formalin-ether sedimentation technique and microscopic examinations were carried out on wet mount slides. A commercially available ELISA kit (Giardia CELISA, Cellabs, Brookvale, Australia) was used for immunoassay...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156563/wnt-inhibitory-activity-of-malus-pumila-miller-cv-annurca-and-malus-domestica-cv-limoncella-apple-extracts-on-human-colon-rectal-cells-carrying-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-mutations
#2
Gennaro Riccio, Maria Maisto, Sara Bottone, Nadia Badolati, Giovanni Battista Rossi, Gian Carlo Tenore, Mariano Stornaiuolo, Ettore Novellino
Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i) test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv...
November 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156513/production-and-characterization-of-keratinolytic-proteases-by-a-chicken-feather-degrading-thermophilic-strain-thermoactinomyces-sp-yt06
#3
Lin Wang, Yuting Qian, Yun Cao, Ying Huang, Zhizhou Chang, Hongying Huang
Thermoactinomyces sp. strain YT06 was isolated from poultry compost and observed to degrade integral chicken feathers at 60°C completely, resulting in the formation of 3.24 mg/mL of free amino acid from 50 mL of culture containing 10 g/L chicken feathers. Strain YT06 could grow and secret keratinase using feather as the only carbon and nitrogen sources without other supplement, but complementation of 10 g/L sucrose and 4 g/L NaNO₃ increased the production of the keratinolytic enzyme. The maximum protease activities obtained were 110 U/mL and keratinase were 42 U/mL...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156432/the-effects-of-human-drugs-in-corbicula-fluminea-assessment-of-neurotoxicity-inflammation-gametogenic-activity-and-energy-status
#4
G V Aguirre-Martínez, C André, F Gagné, L M Martín-Díaz
The constant release of pharmaceuticals products to aquatic environment even at low concentrations (ng L(-1) to µg L(-1)) could lead to unknown chronic effects to non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate neurotoxic responses, inflammation, gametogenic activity and energy status on the fresh water clam C. fluminea after exposure to different concentrations of caffeine (CAF), ibuprofen (IBU), carbamazepine (CBZ), novobiocin (NOV) and tamoxifen (TMX) for 21 days under laboratory conditions...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155819/determinants-of-site-of-tuberculosis-disease-an-analysis-of-european-surveillance-data-from-2003-to-2014
#5
Giovanni Sotgiu, Dennis Falzon, Vahur Hollo, Csaba Ködmön, Nicolas Lefebvre, Andrei Dadu, Marieke van der Werf
BACKGROUND: We explored host-related factors associated with the site of tuberculosis (TB) disease using variables routinely collected by the 31 EU/EEA countries for national surveillance. METHODS: Logistic regression models were fitted to case-based surveillance data reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for TB cases notified from 2003 to 2014. Missing data on HIV infection and on susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin for many patients precluded the inclusion of these variables in the analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155322/digestive-tract-colonization-by-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-travellers-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Etienne Ruppé, Antoine Andremont, Laurence Armand-Lefèvre
BACKGROUND: Enterobacteriaceae have become increasingly resistant, especially due to the acquisition and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), which confer resistance to the majority of beta-lactams. Multi-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MRE) were first isolated in hospitals, but now they are disseminating in the community setting, mostly in low and middle income countries. Consequently, the increasing number of international travels leads to the importation of MRE from high-prevalence to low-prevalence countries...
November 16, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155274/polysaccharides-from-the-south-african-medicinal-plant-artemisia-afra-structure-and-activity-studies
#7
Paula Marie Braünlich, Kari Tvete Inngjerdingen, Marit Inngjerdingen, Quinton Johnson, Berit Smestad Paulsen, Wilfred Mabusela
Artemisia afra (Jacq. Ex. Willd), is an indigenous plant in South Africa and other parts of the African continent, where it is used as traditional medicine mostly for respiratory conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the structural features of the polysaccharides from the leaves of this plant, as well as the biological activities of the polysaccharide fractions against the complement assay. Leaves of Artemisia afra were extracted sequentially with organic solvents (dichloromethane and methanol), 50% aqueous ethanol, and water at 50 and 100°C respectively...
November 15, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155202/bioactive-polysaccharides-and-oligosaccharides-as-possible-feed-additives-to-manipulate-rumen-fermentation-in-rusitec-fermenters
#8
Zongjun Li, Hanxun Bai, Lixin Zheng, Huai Jiang, Huiying Cui, Yangchun Cao, Junhu Yao
Bioactive polysaccharides and oligosaccharides (POSs) have been used as safe non-antibiotic alternatives in animal diets; however, only limited data are available on their effects in rumen manipulation. This study was undertaken to systematically evaluate and compare the efficacies of six different bioactive POSs (10g/kg diet) with respect to ruminal fermentation, feed digestibility, biohydrogenation and bacterial population using a rumen simulation technique. The experiment consisted of 4 independent 12-d incubation periods (each including 8 d for acclimation, followed with 4 d for sample collection)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154539/electrokinetic-removal-of-dodecyl-sulfate-micelles-from-digested-protein-samples-prior-to-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#9
Ria Marni Tubaon, Paul Raymond Haddad, Joselito P Quirino
In proteomics, dodecyl sulfate (DS-) as sodium salt is commonly used in protein solubilization prior to tryptic digestion, but the presence of the DS- hampers the electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) analysis. The development of DS- depletion techniques is therefore important especially when dealing with small samples where there could be poor sensitivity due to sample loss or dilution during sample preparation. Here, we present a simple and fast electrokinetic removal method of DS- from small volumes of peptide and digested protein samples prior to ESI-MS...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154244/nutrition-accesses-among-patients-receiving-enteral-treatment-in-the-home-environment
#10
Janusz Sznajder, Marta Ślefarska-Wasilewska, Piotr Wójcik
Enteral feeding in the home environment is connected with creating access to digestive tract, and thanks to that, this kind of treatment is possible. The gold standard in enteral nutrition is PEG, other types of access are: nasogastric tube, gastronomy and jejunostomy. In the article 851 patients who were treated nutritionally in the home environment, in the nutrition clinic, Nutrimed Górny Śląsk, were analyzed. It was described how, in practice, the schedule of nutrition access looks like in the nutrition clinic at a time of qualifying patients to the treatment (PEG 47,35%, gastronomy 18,91%, nasogastric tube 17,39%,jejunostomy 16,33%) and how it changes among patients treated in the nutrition clinic during specific period of time - to the treatment there were qualified patients with at least three-month period of therapy ( second evaluation: PEG 37,01%, gastrostomy 31,13%, nasogastric tube 16,98%, jejunostomy 15,86%)...
October 31, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154199/ultraviolet-b-radiation-down-regulates-ulk1-and-atg7-expression-and-impairs-the-autophagy-response-in-human-keratinocytes
#11
Xu Chen, Li Li, Song Xu, Wenbo Bu, Kun Chen, Min Li, Heng Gu
Autophagy is a self-digestive pathway that helps to maintain cellular homeostasis, and many autophagy-related gene (ATG)s involved the regulation of the autophagy process. Ultraviolet light is a common stressor of skin, but it is unclear how autophagy is regulated after ultraviolet exposure in epidermal keratinocytes. Here, we found that the mRNAs of some key ATG genes such as ULK1, ATG5 and ATG7 exhibited significantly lower levels in the skin tissues of the face and chest with solar ultraviolet exposure, compared with perineal skin...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153653/ferroferric-oxide-triggered-possible-direct-interspecies-electron-transfer-between-syntrophomonas-and-methanosaeta-to-enhance-waste-activated-sludge-anaerobic-digestion
#12
Zisheng Zhao, Yang Li, Qilin Yu, Yaobin Zhang
ZVI was reported to enrich H2-utilizing methanogens that enhanced interspecies H2 transfer, while Fe(III) oxide served as a conductive material to promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET). However, the interaction of these two modes in anaerobic digestion has not been clarified yet. In this study, when adding Fe3O4 and ZVI simultaneously into an anaerobic digester, the abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens decreased drastically compared to ZVI-added digester and Fe-free digester. However, the methane production of ZVI + Fe3O4 added digester were 68...
November 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153644/propionic-acid-production-from-soy-molasses-by-propionibacterium-acidipropionici-fermentation-kinetics-and-economic-analysis
#13
Hopen Yang, Zhongqiang Wang, Meng Lin, Shang-Tian Yang
Propionic acid (PA) is a specialty chemical; its calcium salt is widely used as food preservative. Soy molasses (SM), a low-value byproduct from soybean refinery, contains sucrose and raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFO), which are difficult to digest for most animals and industrial microorganisms. The feasibility of using SM for PA production by P. acidipropionici, which has genes encoding enzymes necessary for RFO hydrolysis, was studied. With corn steep liquor as the nitrogen source, stable long-term PA production from SM was demonstrated in sequential batch fermentations, achieving PA productivity of >0...
November 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153529/evaluation-of-carinata-meal-as-a-feedstuff-for-growing-dairy-heifers-effects-on-growth-performance-rumen-fermentation-and-total-tract-digestibility-of-nutrients
#14
K Rodriguez-Hernandez, J L Anderson
Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding carinata meal (CRM) compared with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and nutrient utilization in peripubertal dairy heifers. A 16-wk randomized block design experiment with 24 Holstein heifers [6.6 ± 0.7 mo and 218 ± 27 kg of body weight (BW)] was conducted. Treatments diets were (1) 10% cold-pressed CRM and (2) 10% DDGS on a dry matter (DM) basis. The remainder of the diets consisted of grass hay, ground corn, soybean meal, and mineral mix...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153167/a-100-year-review-reproductive-technologies-in-dairy-science
#15
S G Moore, J F Hasler
Reproductive technology revolutionized dairy production during the past century. Artificial insemination was first successfully applied to cattle in the early 1900s. The next major developments involved semen extenders, invention of the electroejaculator, progeny testing, addition of antibiotics to semen during the 1930s and 1940s, and the major discovery of sperm cryopreservation with glycerol in 1949. The 1950s and 1960s were particularly productive with the development of protocols for the superovulation of cattle with both pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin/equine chorionic gonadotrophin and FSH, the first successful bovine embryo transfer, the discovery of sperm capacitation, the birth of rabbits after in vitro fertilization, and the development of insulated liquid nitrogen tanks...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153160/a-100-year-review-calf-nutrition-and-management
#16
A F Kertz, T M Hill, J D Quigley, A J Heinrichs, J G Linn, J K Drackley
The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153159/a-100-year-review-total-mixed-ration-feeding-of-dairy-cows
#17
David J Schingoethe
Total mixed rations (TMR) as we know them today did not exist in 1917. In fact, TMR are an invention of primarily the last half of the past 100 yr. Prior to that time many dairy herds were fed only forages, but dairy producers started moving toward TMR feeding as milk production per cow increased, herds became larger, freestall and large-group handling of cows became more common, and milking parlors became more prevalent. The earliest known reports in the Journal of Dairy Science of feeding "complete rations" or TMR may have appeared in the 1950s, but those studies were often reported only as abstracts at annual meetings of the American Dairy Science Association or in extension-type publications...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153158/a-100-year-review-metabolic-modifiers-in-dairy-cattle-nutrition
#18
R K McGuffey
The first issue of the Journal of Dairy Science in 1917 opened with the text of the speech by Raymond A. Pearson, president of the Iowa State College of Agriculture, at the dedication of the new dairy building at the University of Nebraska (J. Dairy Sci. 1:4-18, 1917). Fittingly, this was the birth of a new research facility and more importantly, the beginning of a new journal devoted to the sciences of milk production and manufacture of products from milk. Metabolic modifiers of dairy cow metabolism enhance, change, or interfere with normal metabolic processes in the ruminant digestive tract or alter postabsorption partitioning of nutrients among body tissues...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153157/a-100-year-review-protein-and-amino-acid-nutrition-in-dairy-cows
#19
Charles G Schwab, Glen A Broderick
Considerable progress has been made in understanding the protein and amino acid (AA) nutrition of dairy cows. The chemistry of feed crude protein (CP) appears to be well understood, as is the mechanism of ruminal protein degradation by rumen bacteria and protozoa. It has been shown that ammonia released from AA degradation in the rumen is used for bacterial protein formation and that urea can be a useful N supplement when lower protein diets are fed. It is now well documented that adequate rumen ammonia levels must be maintained for maximal synthesis of microbial protein and that a deficiency of rumen-degradable protein can decrease microbial protein synthesis, fiber digestibility, and feed intake...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153156/a-100-year-review-carbohydrates-characterization-digestion-and-utilization
#20
Mary Beth Hall, David R Mertens
Our knowledge of the role of carbohydrates in dairy cattle nutrition has advanced substantially in the 100 years of the publication of the Journal of Dairy Science. In this review, we trace the history of scientific investigation and discovery from crude fiber, nitrogen-free extract, and "unidentified factors" to our present analytical schemes and understanding of ruminal and whole-animal utilization and effects of dietary carbohydrates. Historically, advances in research and new feeding standards occurred in parallel with and fostered by new methods of analysis...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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