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OSA and endothelial function

Chris D Turnbull, Valentina A Rossi, Peter Santer, Esther I Schwarz, John R Stradling, Nayia Petousi, Malcolm Kohler
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular disease. Intermittent hypoxia, endothelial dysfunction and adipose tissue-mediated inflammation have all been linked to cardiovascular disease in OSA. We therefore explored the effect of OSA on relevant associated blood markers: adrenomedullin (ADM), endocan, endothelin-1 (ET-1), resistin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). METHODS: Patients with OSA, established on and compliant with continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) therapy for >1 year were included from three randomized controlled trials, conducted at two centres...
November 18, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
AnneMarie Kay Kovach, Jen M Gambino, Vina Nguyen, Zach Nelson, Taylor Szasz, Jun Liao, Lakiesha Williams, Sandra Bulla, Raj Prabhu
Target drug deliveries using nanotechnology are a novel consideration in the treatment of cancer. We present herein an in vitro mouse model for the preliminary investigation of the efficacy of an iron oxide nanoparticle complex conjugated to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody and ligand cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80) for the purpose of eventual translational applications in the treatment of human osteosarcoma (OSA). The 35 nm diameter iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are functionalized with an n-hydroxysuccinimide biocompatible coating and are conjugated on the surface to proteins VEGF antibody and ligand CD80...
2016: BioResearch Open Access
Behrouz Jafari, Vahid Mohsenin
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder affecting 15-24% of adults and triples the risk for hypertension independent of other risk factors. The exact mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and variable susceptibility to hypertension in OSA are not entirely clear. No biomarker to date has been found to be associated with hypertension in OSA. Chitinase-3-like protein-1(YKL-40) is a circulating moiety with roles in injury, repair and angiogenesis that is dysregulated in atherosclerosis and correlates with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
September 2016: Sleep Medicine
Jamie Chung Mei Lam, Agnes Yuen Kwan Lai, Terence Chi Chun Tam, Michele Mae Ann Yuen, Karen Siu Ling Lam, Mary Sau Man Ip
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment of OSA may have a positive impact on cardiometabolic profile. This study investigates the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on glycemic control and cardiometabolic parameters in patients with diabetes. METHODS: Diabetic patients, who were newly diagnosed of OSA with an apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15 and HbA1c ≥7%, were randomly assigned to either CPAP treatment or no treatment (control) for 3 months...
November 5, 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Katherine E Zychowski, Bethany Sanchez, Rodrigo P Pedrosa, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Luciano F Drager, Vsevolod Y Polotsky, Matthew J Campen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent airway obstruction and systemic hypoxia during sleep, which can contribute to an increase in reactive oxygen species, vascular remodeling, vasoconstriction and ultimately cardiovascular disease. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a clinical therapy that maintains airway patency and mitigates several symptoms of OSA. However, it is currently unknown whether CPAP therapy also reduces the overall inflammatory potential in the circulation; to address this in an unbiased manner, we applied a novel endothelial biosensor approach, the serum cumulative inflammatory potential (SCIP) assay...
November 2016: Atherosclerosis
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Chunling Zhang, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Glen E Foster, Andrew E Beaudin, Jorge Andrade, Patrick J Hanly, Marc J Poulin, David Gozal
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Exosomes are secreted by most cell types and released in biological fluids, including plasma, and play a role in modifying the functional phenotype of target cells. Using an experimental human model of IH, we investigated potential exosome-derived biomarkers of IH-induced vascular dysfunction. METHODS: Ten male volunteers were exposed to room air (D0), IH (6 h/day) for 4 days (D4) and allowed to recover for 4 days (D8)...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Isaac Almendros, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Mahzad Akbarpour, Wojciech Trzepizur, Babak Mokhlesi, Lei Huang, Jorge Andrade, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
BACKGROUND: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increases cancer aggressiveness in mice. Exosomes exhibit pleiotropic biological functions, including immune regulatory functions, antigen presentation, intracellular communication and inter-cellular transfer of RNA and proteins. We hypothesized that SF-induced alterations in biosynthesis and cargo of plasma exosomes may affect tumor cell properties. RESULTS: SF-derived exosomes increased tumor cell proliferation (~13%), migration (~2...
July 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Faraz A Farooqui, Surendra K Sharma, Atin Kumar, Manish Soneja, Kalaivani Mani, Ragesh Radhakrishnan, Nida Farooqui
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate endothelial function and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) without comorbidities. METHODS: It is an observational case control study in which endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and carotid artery ultrasound was used to measure CIMT in study group subjects that included 20 normotensive, non-diabetic, treatment naïve, and moderate to severe OSA patients, and 20 normotensive, non-diabetic, and non-OSA subjects served as a control group...
June 25, 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Radostina Vlaeva Cherneva, Zheina Vlaeva Cherneva, Ognian Borisov Georgiev, Daniela Stoichkova Petrova, Julia Ivanova Petrova
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are assumed as the main pathological triggers for vascular damage in hypersomnolent obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, whereas their exact role in less symptomatic population is currently unknown. AIM: To determine whether oxidative stress (urinary 8-isoprostane concentration) and inflammation (plasma resistin levels) are associated with vascular damage in non-hypersomnolent (Epworth Sleep Score <11) OSA patients...
June 3, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Mona F Philby, María Luz Alonso-Álvarez, Meelad Mohammadi, Rakesh Bhattacharjee, Joaquin Terán-Santos, Lei Huang, Jorge Andrade, David Gozal
BACKGROUND: Obese children are at increased risk for developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and both of these conditions are associated with an increased risk for endothelial dysfunction in children (ED), an early risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although weight loss and treatment of OSA by adenotonsillectomy improve endothelial function, not every obese child or child with OSA will develop ED. Exosomes are circulating extracellular vesicles containing functional mRNA and miRNA that can be delivered to other cells, such as endothelial cells...
May 10, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Nancy A Kerner, Steven P Roose
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent but very frequently undiagnosed. OSA is an independent risk factor for depression and cognitive impairment/dementia. Herein the authors review studies in the literature pertinent to the effects of OSA on the cerebral microvascular and neurovascular systems and present a model to describe the key pathophysiologic mechanisms that may underlie the associations, including hypoperfusion, endothelial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation. Intermittent hypoxia plays a critical role in initiating and amplifying these pathologic processes...
June 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Asiye Kanbay, Erkan Ceylan, Handan İnönü Köseoğlu, Mustafa Çalışkan, Mumtaz Takir, Selcan Tulu, Ozge Telci Çaklılı, Osman Köstek, Aybala Erek, Baris Afsar
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is an independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and cardiometabolic diseases. Plasma endocan levels are elevated in a large number of diseases, and is a novel surrogate endothelial cell dysfunction marker. We aimed to assess the role of serum endocan level as a potential mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in OSA patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cohort study in which patients who had undergone a sleep study for diagnosis of OSA were recruited...
April 26, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Esther I Schwarz, Christian Schlatzer, Julia Stehli, Philipp A Kaufmann, Konrad E Bloch, John R Stradling, Malcolm Kohler
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is highly prevalent and associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. Endothelial dysfunction is the proposed causative mechanism. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is presumed to improve cardiovascular outcome in OSA. CPAP withdrawal was recently shown to lead to peripheral endothelial dysfunction. However, it is not known whether short-term CPAP withdrawal reduces myocardial perfusion in OSA. METHODS: In this double-blind randomized controlled study, 45 patients with moderate to severe OSA previously adherent to CPAP were assigned to either subtherapeutic or continuing therapeutic CPAP for 2 weeks...
August 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Claudia E Korcarz, Ruth Benca, Jodi H Barnet, James H Stein
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular effects of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients are not clear because of confounding by comorbid conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective interventional study of PAP therapy and withdrawal. Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI; events/hour of sleep) was determined from polysomnography. Central aortic blood pressures (BPs), Aortic Augmentation Index (AAIx), and central (PWVc-f) and peripheral pulse wave (PWVc-r) velocities were determined by applanation tonometry...
April 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Kang Wu, Xiaofen Su, Guihua Li, Nuofu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effects of carbocysteine in OSAS patients. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with 1500 mg carbocysteine daily, and the other was treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at night. Before treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment, all patients underwent polysomnography and completed questionnaires...
2016: PloS One
Macy Mei Sze Lui, Judith Choi Wo Mak, Agnes Yuen Kwan Lai, Christopher Kim Ming Hui, Jamie Chung Mei Lam, David Chi Leung Lam, Mary Sau Man Ip
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction has been recognized to occur in the context of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or tobacco smoking. However, the deleterious effect on vascular function with concurrence of both conditions is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the concurrence of OSA and smoking poses an additive detriment to endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Chinese men without a history of chronic medical illness were invited to complete a questionnaire including smoking pack-year exposure, polysomnography and peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) for endothelial function...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Eugenia Hopps, Gregorio Caimi
PURPOSE: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is increasing, especially in the middle-aged population. OSAS is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Arterial hypertension is often the first consequence of OSAS, but the most severe complications are coronary artery disease, stroke and arrhythmias. The aim of this review was to analyze the several mechanisms involved in the development of the cardiovascular events, such as endothelial dysfunction accompanied by a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant status, hemorheological alterations, hypercoagulability and imbalance between matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors...
2015: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
Michael Blechner, Ariel A Williamson
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has various negative health and behavioral consequences in the pediatric population. As shown in adults, there are metabolic derangements such as obesity, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, as well as cardiovascular derangements like hypertension, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, ventricular size/function abnormalities, and even elevated pulmonary arterial pressures, that can be seen in children with OSAS. The first two sections will discuss the metabolic and cardiovascular consequences on OSAS in children...
January 2016: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
Jiayang Wang, Wenyuan Yu, Mingxin Gao, Fan Zhang, Chengxiong Gu, Yang Yu, Yongxiang Wei
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been indicated to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that OSAS may be associated with cardiovascular disease by elevating serum levels of inflammatory markers and causing arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Related scientific reports published from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2015, were searched in the following electronic literature databases: PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, ISI Web of Science, Directory of Open Access Journals, and the Cochrane Library...
November 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
Julia Freitas Rodrigues Fernandes, Luciene da Silva Araújo, Sergio Emanuel Kaiser, Antonio Felipe Sanjuliani, Márcia Regina Simas Torres Klein
Nutritional intervention for weight loss is one of the treatment options for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in patients with overweight or obesity. However, the effects of moderate energy restriction on OSA severity are not yet known. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of moderate energy restriction on OSA severity and CVD risk factors in obese patients with OSA. In this 16-week randomised clinical trial, twenty-one obese subjects aged 20-55 years and presenting an apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI)≥5 events/h were randomised into two groups: the energy restriction group (ERG) and the control group (CG)...
December 28, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
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