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He Wang, Ying-Chun Xu, Po-Ren Hsueh
In the Asia-Pacific region, Candida albicans is the predominant Candida species causing invasive candidiasis/candidemia in Australia, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand whereas C. tropicalis is the most frequently encountered Candida species in Pakistan and India. Invasive isolates of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis complex and C. tropicalis remain highly susceptible to fluconazole (>90% susceptible). Fluconazole resistance (6.8-15%), isolates with the non-wild-type phenotype for itraconazole susceptibility (3...
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
Zachery R Reichert, Maha Hussain
The development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) signals the terminal disease phase. The preceding hormone-dependent disease setting is effectively managed with androgen deprivation therapy. This foundation of treatment has a high rate of biochemical and clinical response and meaningful clinical benefit but is finite in duration as most cancers will progress to castration resistance. Historically, treatment for mCRPC entailed androgen receptor (AR) inhibitors (nilutamide, flutamide, bicalutamide), nonspecific steroidal biosynthesis inhibitors (ketoconazole, itraconazole), steroids (prednisone, diethylstilbesterol, dexamethasone), or palliative chemotherapy (mitoxantrone, estramustine), but none of these strategies impacted survival...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
Elena M Marín Martínez, Ana Isabel Aller García, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) has increased in recent years due to there being a greater number of risk factors. IFI caused by Candida is the most frequent, and although Candida albicans is the most isolated species, there is currently a decrease of C. albicans and an increase of other species of the genus. AIMS: To analyse the epidemiology, risk factors, and antifungal susceptibility of blood culture isolates of non-C.albicans Candida species in our hospital in the last 12years...
October 13, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Luc Dirix, Helen Swaisland, Henk M W Verheul, Sylvie Rottey, Karin Leunen, Guy Jerusalem, Christian Rolfo, Dorte Nielsen, L Rhoda Molife, Rebecca Kristeleit, Judith de Vos-Geelen, Morten Mau-Sørensen, Patricia Soetekouw, Carla van Herpen, Anitra Fielding, Karen So, Wendy Bannister, Ruth Plummer
PURPOSE: The metabolism of olaparib, a potent inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with demonstrated efficacy in patients with BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer, is mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (predominantly CYP3A4/5). We assessed the potential of a CYP3A4 inhibitor (itraconazole) and inducer (rifampin) to alter the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of olaparib following single oral tablet doses. METHODS: Two Phase I, open-label, non-randomized trials were conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Ritesh Agarwal, Inderpaul S Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Ashutosh N Aggarwal
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a complex pulmonary disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, fleeting pulmonary opacities and bronchiectasis. It is the most prevalent of the Aspergillus disorders with an estimated five million cases worldwide. Despite six decades of research, the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this condition remains controversial. The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology has formed a working group to resolve the controversies around this entity...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Atefeh Abdollahi Gohar, Hamid Badali, Tahereh Shokohi, Mojtaba Nabili, Nasrin Amirrajab, Maryam Moazeni
Clinical management of fungal diseases is compromised by the emergence of antifungal drug resistance in fungi, which leads to elimination of available drug classes as treatment options. An understanding of antifungal resistance at molecular level is, therefore, essential for the development of strategies to combat the resistance. This study presents the assessment of molecular mechanisms associated with fluconazole resistance in clinical Candida glabrata isolates originated from Iran. Taking seven distinct fluconazole-resistant C...
October 15, 2016: Mycopathologia
Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Pascal Drakulovski, Donika Krasteva, Rufin Kuipou Toghueo, Charles Kouanfack, Jacques Reynes, Eric Delaporte, Fabrice Fekam Boyom, Michèle Mallié, Sébastien Bertout
The molecular epidemiology and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida albicans are scarce in Cameroon. Authors studied the genetic diversity and the antifungal susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from Yaoundé HIV-infected patients. Clinical isolates were obtained by mycological diagnosis of oropharyngeal swabs, stools, urine, and vaginal swabs from patients. C. albicans isolates were confirmed by the Light cycler real-time PCR of the ITS1 region of the 5.8s ribosomal DNA. The ABC genotypes and the Hwp1 gene amplification were carried out with specific primers...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
João Paulo Zen Siqueira, Deanna A Sutton, Dania García, Josepa Gené, Pamela Thomson, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro
Aspergillus section Versicolores includes species of clinical relevance and many others that have been poorly studied but are occasionally found in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a multilocus phylogenetic approach, the spectrum of species of the section Versicolores and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. The study was based on a set of 77 clinical isolates from different USA medical centres, which had been previously identified as belonging to this section...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Katsuhiko Yamamoto, Taro Kojima, Masatoshi Karashima, Yukihiro Ikeda
To judge the developability and analyze functional mechanism of co-amorphouses, we investigated the physicochemical properties of co-amorphouses and compare the properties with the co-crystals having the same drug and counters. Co-amorphous compounds are a novel approach to improve the physicochemical properties of drugs. A co-amorphous is in an amorphous solid state allowing non-ionic interactions between drug molecules and counter molecules. The co-amorphous compounds composed of itraconazole (ITZ) with the organic carboxyl acid, fumaric acid (FA) or L-tartaric acid (TA), were prepared by mechanical grinding...
October 12, 2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Alexandros Kourentas, Maria Vertzoni, Mira Symillides, Bart Hens, Joachim Brouwers, Patrick Augustijns, Christos Reppas
Biorelevant Gastrointestinal Transfer system (BioGIT) has been shown to be useful in reproducing concentrations of drugs in the fasted upper small intestine after their administration in the stomach. In the present investigation, we evaluated the impact of gastrointestinal transfer on luminal performance of commercially available products of two highly lipophilic weak bases, posaconazole (Noxafil(®) suspension) and itraconazole (Sporanox(®) hard gelatin capsules and Sporanox(®) oral solution) by comparing % solid fraction, concentrations and supersaturation in the duodenal compartment of BioGIT with recently reported data in the upper small intestine of healthy adults...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Hunny Sharma, G Y Yunus, Rohit Agrawal, Monika Kalra, Swati Verma, Supriya Bhattar
INTRODUCTION: From ancient times, plants with medicinal values are being tested and used in the treatment of various infectious diseases. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The present in vitro study was designed to assess the antifungal activity of three commonly available medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major on inhibiting oral Candida albicans in comparison to standard antifungal agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bark of G...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Winai Chaidaroon, Sumet Supalaset, Napaporn Tananuvat, Nongnuch Vanittanakom
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of keratitis infected by Bipolaris hawaiiensis. METHODS: A patient who was diagnosed as fungal keratitis caused by B. hawaiiensis was retrospectively reviewed for history, clinical characteristics, risk factors, laboratory findings, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: A 63-year-old man with a history of trauma and saw dust in the left eye presented with a corneal ulcer. Eye examination revealed whitish infiltration with a feathery edge and small brownish deposits in the anterior stroma of the left cornea...
May 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Justine Thiry, Pierre Lebrun, Chloe Vinassa, Marine Adam, Lauranne Netchacovitch, Eric Ziemons, Philippe Hubert, Fabrice Krier, Brigitte Evrard
The purpose of this work was to increase the solubility and the dissolution rate of itraconazole, which was chosen as the model drug, by obtaining an amorphous solid dispersion by hot melt extrusion. Therefore, an initial preformulation study was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and Hansen's solubility parameters in order to find polymers which would have the ability to form amorphous solid dispersions with itraconazole. Afterwards, the four polymers namely Kollidon(®) VA64, Kollidon(®) 12PF, Affinisol(®) HPMC and Soluplus(®), that met the set criteria were used in hot melt extrusion along with 25wt...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Thiago Henrique Roza
The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a deregulated inflammatory response to invading microorganisms. It is manifested when there is an abrupt change in host immunity from an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive state to a pro-inflammatory state as a result of rapid depletion or removal of factors that promote immune suppression or inhibition of inflammation. The aim of this paper is to discuss and re-interpret the possibility of association of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) with IRIS in the central nervous system (CNS) in a case from Brazil published by Silva-Vergara ML...
October 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
Juwen C DuBois, A George Smulian
The Histoplasma capsulatum sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), Srb1 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), leucine zipper DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that possess a unique tyrosine (Y) residue instead of an arginine (R) residue in the bHLH region. We have determined that Srb1 message levels increase in a time dependent manner during growth under oxygen deprivation (hypoxia). To further understand the role of Srb1 during infection and hypoxia, we silenced the gene encoding Srb1 using RNA interference (RNAi); characterized the resulting phenotype, determined its response to hypoxia, and its ability to cause disease within an infected host...
2016: PloS One
Daisuke Hagiwara, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei, Gustavo H Goldman
Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening mycosis caused by the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus. The predominant causal species is Aspergillus fumigatus, and azole drugs are the treatment of choice. Azole drugs approved for clinical use include itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the recently added isavuconazole. However, epidemiological research has indicated that the prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates has increased significantly over the last decade. What is worse is that azole-resistant strains are likely to have emerged not only in response to long-term drug treatment but also because of exposure to azole fungicides in the environment...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pierre-Régis Burgel, André Paugam, Dominique Hubert, Clémence Martin
Aspergillus fumigatus is the main fungus cultured in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis occurs in ~10% of CF patients and is clearly associated with airway damage and lung function decline. The effects of A. fumigatus colonization in the absence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis are less well established. Retrospective clinical studies found associations of A. fumigatus-positive cultures with computed tomography scan abnormalities, greater risk of CF exacerbations and hospitalizations, and/or lung function decline...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
Mohammed Hashim Al-Yasiri, Anne-Cécile Normand, Renaud Piarroux, Stéphane Ranque, Jean-François Mauffrey
Yellow-legged gulls have been reported to carry antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae; however, the gut mycobiota of these birds has not yet been described. In this study, we analyzed the gut yeast communities in five yellow-legged gull breeding colonies along the Mediterranean littoral in southern France. Gull fecal samples were inoculated onto four types of culture media, including one supplemented with itraconazole. Yeast species richness, abundance, and diversity were estimated, and factorial analysis was used to highlight correspondences between breeding colonies...
October 4, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Thaís Felli Kubiça, Laura Bedin Denardi, Maria Isabel Azevedo, Vanessa Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Severo, Janio Morais Santurio, Sydney Hartz Alves
The antifungal activity of tacrolimus in combination with antifungal agents against different fungal species has been previously reported. Here we report the in vitro interactions between tacrolimus and amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin against 30 clinical isolates of both fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Trichosporon asahii. For these analyses, we used the broth microdilution method based on the M27-A3 technique and checkerboard microdilution method. Tacrolimus showed no activity against T...
September 30, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Meera Mohan, Bradley Fogel, Thomas Eluvathingal, Carolina Schinke, Atul Kothari
A 59-year-old patient with multiple myeloma on maintenance chemotherapy presented with fever, weight loss and night sweats. An F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) computed tomography (CT) showed intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy with a mesenteric mass that led to further work up and diagnosis of histoplamosis. The patient was treated with amphotericin B and subsequently switched to itraconazole. This exemplifies the usefulness of FDG PET CT in diagnosis of infectious complications...
October 1, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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