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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802262/small-noncoding-rna-expression-during-extreme-anoxia-tolerance-of-annual-killifish-austrofundulus-limnaeus-embryos
#1
Claire Louise Riggs, Jason E Podrabsky
Small noncoding RNAs (sncRNA) have recently emerged as specific and rapid regulators of gene expression, involved in a myriad of cellular and organismal processes. MicroRNAs, a class of sncRNAs, are differentially expressed in diverse taxa in response to environmental stress, including anoxia. In most vertebrates, a brief period of oxygen deprivation results in severe tissue damage or death. Studies on sncRNA and anoxia have focused on these anoxia-sensitive species. Studying sncRNAs in anoxia-tolerant organisms may provide insight into adaptive mechanisms supporting anoxia tolerance...
August 11, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772060/methanotroph-derived-bacteriohopanepolyol-bhp-signatures-as-a-function-of-temperature-related-growth-survival-cell-death-and-preservation-in-the-geological-record
#2
Kate A Osborne, Neil D Gray, Angela Sherry, Peter Leary, Obioma Mejeha, Juliane Bischoff, Darci Rush, Frances R Sidgwick, Daniel Birgel, Marina G Kalyuzhnaya, Helen M Talbot
Interpretation of bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP) biomarkers tracing microbiological processes in modern and ancient sediments relies on understanding environmental controls of production and preservation. BHPs from methanotrophs (35-aminoBHPs) were studied in methane-amended aerobic river-sediment incubations at different temperatures. It was found that: 1. With increasing temperature (4-40°C) a tenfold increase in aminopentol (associated with Crenothrix and Methylobacter spp. growth) occurred with only marginal increases in aminotriol and aminotetrol; 2...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747176/comparative-rna-seq-based-transcriptome-profiling-of-waterlogging-response-in-cucumber-hypocotyls-reveals-novel-insights-into-the-de-novo-adventitious-root-primordia-initiation
#3
Xuewen Xu, Minyang Chen, Jing Ji, Qiang Xu, Xiaohua Qi, Xuehao Chen
BACKGROUND: Waterlogging is a serious abiotic stress to plant growth because it results in the decline in the supplement of oxygen to submerged tissues. Although cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is sensitive to waterlogging, its ability to generate adventitious roots (ARs) facilitates gas diffusion and increases plant survival when the oxygen concentration is decreased. To gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that enable de novo AR primordia emergence upon waterlogging, the RNA sequencing-based transcriptomic responses of two contrasting cucumber genotypes, Zaoer-N (waterlogging tolerant) and Pepino (waterlogging sensitive), which differed in their abilities to form AR were compared...
July 26, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743614/sustainable-pollutant-removal-by-periphytic-biofilm-via-microbial-composition-shifts-induced-by-uneven-distribution-of-ceo2-nanoparticles
#4
Jun Tang, Ningyuan Zhu, Yan Zhu, Seyed Morteza Zamir, Yonghong Wu
The responses of periphytic biofilm to CeO2 nanoparticle (CNP) exposure were explored by investigating community shifts and pollutant removal. Results showed that CNPs entered the sensitive microbial cells in the periphytic biofilm, leading to cytomembrane damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The periphytic biofilm communities were, however, able to adapt to the prolonged exposure and maintain their pollutant removal (i.e., phosphorus, nitrogen and copper, organic matter) performance...
July 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737080/sbr-treatment-of-tank-truck-cleaning-wastewater-sludge-characteristics-chemical-and-ecotoxicological-effluent-quality
#5
Michel Caluwé, Thomas Dobbeleers, Dominique Daens, Luc Geuens, Ronny Blust, Jan Dries
A lab scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat tank truck cleaning (TTC) wastewater with different operational strategies (identified as different stages). The first stage was an adaptation period for the seed sludge that originated from a continuous fed industrial plant treating TTC wastewater. The first stage was followed by a dynamic reactor operation based on the oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Thirdly, dynamic SBR control based on OUR treated a daily changing influent. Lastly, the reactor was operated with a gradually shortened fixed cycle...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736310/non-bold-contrast-for-laminar-fmri-in-humans-cbf-cbv-and-cmro2
#6
REVIEW
Laurentius Huber, Kâmil Uludağ, Harald E Möller
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast indirectly probes neuronal activity changes via evoked cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. The gradient-echo BOLD signal is mostly sensitive to ascending veins in the tissue and to pial veins. Thereby, the achievable spatial specificity to neuronal activation is limited. Furthermore, the non-linear interaction of CBF, CBV and CMRO2 can hamper quantitative interpretations of the BOLD signal across cortical depths with different baseline physiology...
July 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722699/added-value-of-parotid-r2-values-for-evaluation-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome-a-preliminary-study
#7
Chen Chu, Nan Zhou, Huayong Zhang, Xin Dou, Ming Li, Song Liu, Jie Wang, Weibo Chen, Queenie Chan, Lingyun Sun, Jian He, Zhengyang Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To explore the application of parotid R2* values for evaluating Sjögren syndrome (SS). METHODS: Twenty-four consecutive SS patients and 24 sex-matched and age-matched healthy volunteers underwent bilateral parotid 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including blood oxygenation level dependent sequence. Parotid R2* values of SS patients and volunteers were compared. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of parotid R2* value alone and in combination with MR nodular grade...
July 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716407/overexpression-of-lsi1-in-cold-sensitive-rice-mediates-transcriptional-regulatory-networks-and-enhances-resistance-to-chilling-stress
#8
Changxun Fang, Pengli Zhang, Xin Jian, Weisi Chen, Hongmei Lin, Yingzhe Li, Wenxiong Lin
Frequent cold spells in late spring can damage early rice seedlings. However, overexpression of the silicon-uptake gene Lsi1 (Lsi1-OX) in cold-sensitive rice (Oryza sativa L., accession: Dular) notably enhances its chilling resistance. In this study, we found that continual chilling led to chlorophyll and RNA degradation in wild-type Dular leaves, whereas leaves from a Lsi1-OX line exhibited no obvious changes. A comparison of the global mRNA expression between the two rice lines showed that genes encoding photosynthesis-antenna proteins were downregulated and those encoding the proteasome were upregulated in the wild-type organism...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696584/size-effect-on-the-cytotoxicity-of-layered-black-phosphorus-and-underlying-mechanisms
#9
Xuejiao Zhang, Ziming Zhang, Siyu Zhang, Dengyu Li, Wei Ma, ChuanXin Ma, Fengchang Wu, Qing Zhao, Qingfeng Yan, Baoshan Xing
A systematic cytotoxicity study of layered black phosphorus (BP) is urgently needed before moving forward to its potential biomedical applications. Herein, bulk BP crystals are synthesized and exfoliated into layered BP with different lateral size and thickness. The cytotoxicity of as-exfoliated layered BP is evaluated by a label-free real-time cell analysis technique, displaying a concentration-, size-, and cell type-dependent response. The IC50 values can vary by 40 and 30 times among the BP sizes and cell types, respectively...
July 11, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693449/multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-mucosal-primary-head-and-neck-cancer-a-prospective-imaging-biomarker-study
#10
Christopher N Rumley, Mark T Lee, Lois Holloway, Robba Rai, Myo Min, Dion Forstner, Allan Fowler, Gary Liney
BACKGROUND: Radical radiotherapy, with or without concomitant chemotherapy forms the mainstay of organ preservation approaches in mucosal primary head and neck cancer. Despite technical advances in cancer imaging and radiotherapy administration, a significant proportion of patients fail to achieve a complete response to treatment. For those patients who do achieve a complete response, acute and late toxicities remain a cause of morbidity. A critical need therefore exists for imaging biomarkers which are capable of informing patient selection for both treatment intensification and de-escalation strategies...
July 10, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687608/thioredoxin-reductase-from-toxoplasma-gondii-an-essential-virulence-effector-with-antioxidant-function
#11
Junxin Xue, Wei Jiang, Yongjun Chen, Fengju Gong, Minyan Wang, Peng Zeng, Can Xia, Quan Wang, Kehe Huang
Thioredoxin reductase (TR) can help pathogens resist oxidative-burst injury from host immune cells by maintaining a thioredoxin-reduction state during NADPH consumption. TR is a necessary virulence factor that enables the persistent infection of some parasites. We performed bioinformatics analyses and biochemical assays to characterize the activity, subcellular localization, and genetic ablation of Toxoplasma gondii TR (TgTR), to shed light on its biologic function. We expressed the TgTR protein with an Escherichia coli expression system and analyzed its enzyme activity, reporting a Km for the recombinant TgTR of 11...
July 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686788/influence-of-physiological-noise-on-accelerated-2d-and-3d-resting-state-functional-mri-data-at-7%C3%A2-t
#12
Olivier Reynaud, João Jorge, Rolf Gruetter, José P Marques, Wietske van der Zwaag
PURPOSE: Physiological noise often dominates the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations in high-field functional MRI (fMRI) data. Therefore, to optimize fMRI protocols, it becomes crucial to investigate how physiological signal fluctuations impact various acquisition and reconstruction schemes at different acquisition speeds. In particular, further differences can arise between 2D and 3D fMRI acquisitions due to different encoding strategies, thereby impacting fMRI sensitivity in potentially significant ways...
July 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678737/functional-brain-mri-in-patients-complaining-of-electrohypersensitivity-after-long-term-exposure-to-electromagnetic-fields
#13
Gunnar Heuser, Sylvia A Heuser
INTRODUCTION: Ten adult patients with electromagnetic hypersensitivity underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scans. All scans were abnormal with abnormalities which were consistent and similar. It is proposed that fMRI brain scans be used as a diagnostic aid for determining whether or not a patient has electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Over the years we have seen an increasing number of patients who had developed multi system complaints after long term repeated exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs)...
July 5, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674755/modulation-of-the-fmrfamide-gated-na-channel-by-external-ca-2
#14
Akihiko Fujimoto, Yu Kodani, Yasuo Furukawa
FMRFamide-gated Na(+) channel (FaNaC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC family. Amino acid sequence of the second transmembrane region (TM2) of FaNaC is quite similar to that of the acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) of the same family. In the upper part of TM2, there are two aspartate residues (D552 and D556 in Aplysia FaNaC, AkFaNaC) which construct two negative rings in the external vestibule. In the present study, we examined the function of D552/D556 mutants of AkFaNaC in Xenopus oocytes with special interest in Ca(2+) sensitivity of FaNaC...
July 3, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670785/constraining-the-timing-of-the-great-oxidation-event-within-the-rubisco-phylogenetic-tree
#15
B Kacar, V Hanson-Smith, Z R Adam, N Boekelheide
Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO, or Rubisco) catalyzes a key reaction by which inorganic carbon is converted into organic carbon in the metabolism of many aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Across the broader Rubisco protein family, homologs exhibit diverse biochemical characteristics and metabolic functions, but the evolutionary origins of this diversity are unclear. Evidence of the timing of Rubisco family emergence and diversification of its different forms has been obscured by a meager paleontological record of early Earth biota, their subcellular physiology and metabolic components...
July 3, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667359/sensitivity-of-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-in-detecting-developmental-venous-anomalies-and-associated-cavernomas-and-microhemorrhages-in-children
#16
Allen Young, Andrea Poretti, Thangamadhan Bosemani, Reema Goel, Thierry A G M Huisman
PURPOSE: Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) are common neuroimaging abnormalities that are traditionally diagnosed by contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images as the gold standard. We aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of SWI in detecting DVA and associated cavernous malformations (CM) and microhemorrhages in children in order to determine if SWI may replace contrast-enhanced MRI sequences. METHODS: Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were used as diagnostic gold standard for DVA...
August 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667112/molybdenum-based-diazotrophy-in-a-sphagnum-peatland-in-northern-minnesota
#17
Melissa J Warren, Xueju Lin, John C Gaby, Cecilia B Kretz, Max Kolton, Peter L Morton, Jennifer Pett-Ridge, David J Weston, Christopher W Schadt, Joel E Kostka, Jennifer B Glass
Microbial N2 fixation (diazotrophy) represents an important nitrogen source to oligotrophic peatland ecosystems, which are important sinks for atmospheric CO2 and susceptible to changing climate. The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine the active microbial group and type of nitrogenase mediating diazotrophy in a ombrotrophic Sphagnum-dominated peat bog (the S1 peat bog, Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA); and (ii) to determine the effect of environmental parameters (light, O2, CO2, CH4) on potential rates of diazotrophy measured by acetylene (C2H2) reduction and (15)N2 incorporation...
June 30, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664496/efficient-model-calibration-method-based-on-phase-experiments-for-anaerobic-anoxic-nitrifying-a2n-two-sludge-process
#18
Hongliang Dai, Wenliang Chen, Zheqin Dai, Xiang Li, Xiwu Lu
A systematic calibration and validation procedure for the complex mechanistic modeling of anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying (A2N) two-sludge system is needed. An efficient method based on phase experiments, sensitivity analysis, and genetic algorithm is proposed here for model calibration. Phase experiments (anaerobic phosphorus release, aerobic nitrification, and anoxic denitrifying phosphate accumulation) in an A2N sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were performed to reflect the process conditions accurately and improve the model calibration efficiency...
June 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630803/putative-archaeal-viruses-from-the-mesopelagic-ocean
#19
Dean R Vik, Simon Roux, Jennifer R Brum, Ben Bolduc, Joanne B Emerson, Cory C Padilla, Frank J Stewart, Matthew B Sullivan
Oceanic viruses that infect bacteria, or phages, are known to modulate host diversity, metabolisms, and biogeochemical cycling, while the viruses that infect marine Archaea remain understudied despite the critical ecosystem roles played by their hosts. Here we introduce "MArVD", for Metagenomic Archaeal Virus Detector, an annotation tool designed to identify putative archaeal virus contigs in metagenomic datasets. MArVD is made publicly available through the online iVirus analytical platform. Benchmarking analysis of MArVD showed it to be >99% accurate and 100% sensitive in identifying the 127 known archaeal viruses among the 12,499 viruses in the VirSorter curated dataset...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611032/genome-wide-dynamics-of-nascent-noncoding-rna-transcription-in-porcine-heart-after-myocardial-infarction
#20
Minna U Kaikkonen, Paavo Halonen, Oscar Hsin-Fu Liu, Tiia A Turunen, Juho Pajula, Pierre Moreau, Ilakya Selvarajan, Tomi Tuomainen, Einari Aavik, Pasi Tavi, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
BACKGROUND: Microarrays and RNA sequencing are widely used to profile transcriptome remodeling during myocardial ischemia. However, the steady-state RNA analysis lacks in sensitivity to detect all noncoding RNA species and does not provide separation between transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. Here, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of nascent RNA profiles of mRNAs, primary micro-RNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and enhancer RNAs in a large animal model of acute infarction...
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
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