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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135970/metabolic-shift-at-the-class-level-sheds-light-on-adaptation-of-methanogens-to-oxidative-environments
#1
Zhe Lyu, Yahai Lu
Methanogens have long been considered strictly anaerobic and oxygen-sensitive microorganisms, but their ability to survive oxygen stress has also been documented. Indeed, methanogens have been found in oxidative environments, and antioxidant genes have been detected in their genomes. How methanogens adapt to oxidative environments, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we systematically predicted and annotated antioxidant features from representative genomes across six well-established methanogen orders...
November 14, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133078/enteric-delivery-of-regenerating-family-member-3-alpha-alters-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-controls-inflammation-in-mice-with-colitis
#2
Marion Darnaud, Alexandre Dos Santos, Patrick Gonzalez, Sandrine Augui, Claire Lacoste, Christophe Desterke, Gert De Hertogh, Emma Valentino, Emilie Braun, Jinzi Zheng, Raphael Boisgard, Christel Neut, Laurent Dubuquoy, Franck Chiappini, Didier Samuel, Patricia Lepage, Francesca Guerrieri, Joel Doré, Christian Bréchot, Nicolas Moniaux, Jamila Faivre
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Paneth cell dysfunction causes deficiencies in intestinal C-type lectins and antimicrobial peptides, which leads to dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, alters the mucosal barrier, and promotes development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated whether transgenic expression of the human regenerating family member 3 alpha gene (REG3A) alters the fecal microbiota and affects development of colitis in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with C57BL/6 mice that express human regenerating family member 3 alpha (hREG3A) in hepatocytes, via the albumin gene promoter...
November 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132331/adaptation-of-the-goldenbraid-modular-cloning-system-and-creation-of-a-toolkit-for-the-expression-of-heterologous-proteins-in-yeast-mitochondria
#3
Ana Pérez-González, Ryan Kniewel, Marcel Veldhuizen, Hemant K Verma, Mónica Navarro-Rodríguez, Luis M Rubio, Elena Caro
BACKGROUND: There is a need for the development of synthetic biology methods and tools to facilitate rapid and efficient engineering of yeast that accommodates the needs of specific biotechnology projects. In particular, the manipulation of the mitochondrial proteome has interesting potential applications due to its compartmentalized nature. One of these advantages resides in the fact that metalation occurs after protein import into mitochondria, which contains pools of iron, zinc, copper and manganese ions that can be utilized in recombinant metalloprotein metalation reactions...
November 13, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131211/pharmaco-genomic-investigations-of-organo-iridium-anticancer-complexes-reveal-novel-mechanism-of-action
#4
Jessica M Hearn, George M Hughes, Isolda Romero-Canelón, Alison F Munro, Belén Rubio-Ruiz, Zhe Liu, Neil O Carragher, Peter J Sadler
Resistance to platinum drugs (used in >50% of cancer chemotherapies) is a clinical problem. Other precious metal complexes with distinct mechanisms of action might overcome this. Half-sandwich organometallic complexes containing arene or cyclopentadienyl (Cp) ligands show promise. We screened two iridium(iii) complexes [Ir(Cp(Xbiph))(ppy)Cl] (ZL49, 1, ppy = phenylpyridine) and [Ir(Cp(Xph))(azpyNMe2)Cl]PF6 (ZL109, 2, azpyNMe2 = N,N-dimethylphenylazopyridine) in 916 cancer cell lines from 28 tissue types. On average, complex 2 was 78× more potent than 1, 36× more active than cisplatin (CDDP), and strongly active (nanomolar) in patient-derived ovarian cancer cell lines...
November 13, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097988/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-can-induce-angiogenesis-and-regeneration-of-nerve-fibers-in-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#5
Sigal Tal, Amir Hadanny, Efrat Sasson, Gil Suzin, Shai Efrati
Background: Recent clinical studies in stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims suffering chronic neurological injury present evidence that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can induce neuroplasticity. Objective: To assess the neurotherapeutic effect of HBOT on prolonged post-concussion syndrome (PPCS) due to TBI, using brain microstructure imaging. Methods: Fifteen patients afflicted with PPCS were treated with 60 daily HBOT sessions. Imaging evaluation was performed using Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-Enhanced (DSC) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) MR sequences...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981387/aldh1a1-and-hltf-modulate-the-activity-of-lysosomal-autophagy-inhibitors-in-cancer-cells
#6
Shengfu Piao, Rani Ojha, Vito W Rebecca, Arabinda Samanta, Xiao-Hong Ma, Quentin Mcafee, Michael C Nicastri, Meghan Buckley, Eric Brown, Jeffrey D Winkler, Phyllis A Gimotty, Ravi K Amaravadi
Lysosomal autophagy inhibitors (LAI) such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have significant activity in a subset of cancer cell lines. LAIs are being evaluated in cancer clinical trials, but genetic determinants of sensitivity to LAIs are unknown, making it difficult to predict which tumors would be most susceptible. Here we characterize differentially expressed genes in HCQ-sensitive (-S) and -resistant (-R) cancer cells. Notably, expression of canonical macroautophagy/autophagy genes was not associated with sensitivity to HCQ...
October 5, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971842/inorganic-nitrate-supplementation-attenuates-peripheral-chemoreflex-sensitivity-but-does-not-improve-cardiovagal-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-older-adults
#7
Joshua M Bock, Kenichi Ueda, Aaron C Schneider, William E Hughes, Jacqueline K Limberg, Nathan S Bryan, Darren P Casey
Aging is associated with increased peripheral chemoreceptor activity, reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, as well as attenuation of cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), collectively increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Evidence suggests NO may attenuate peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity and increase BRS. Exogenous inorganic nitrate increases NO bioavailability via the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Our hypothesis was that inorganic nitrate supplementation would attenuate peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity and enhance spontaneous cardiovagal BRS in older adults...
September 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961500/chronic-toxicity-of-graphene-and-graphene-oxide-in-sequencing-batch-bioreactors-a-comparative-investigation
#8
Hang N Nguyen, Debora F Rodrigues
The present study investigates the chronic toxicity of graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) in activated sludge. Sequencing batch bioreactors were fed with influents containing 0, 1 and 5mgL(-1) of GO or G (12h cycles) for ten days. Reduction in performance of the bioreactors in relation to chemical oxygen demand, ammonia and phosphate removals was observed after three days in the bioreactors fed with 5mgL(-1) of nanomaterials. After about eight days, these reactors reached a steady state nutrient removal, which corresponded to recovery of certain groups of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and phosphate accumulating bacteria despite the increasing accumulation of nanomaterials in the sludge...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954629/identification-and-characterization-of-the-major-pseudocoelomic-proteins-of-the-giant-kidney-worm-dioctophyme-renale
#9
A Nahili Giorello, Malcolm W Kennedy, Marcos J Butti, Nilda E Radman, Betina Córsico, Gisela R Franchini
BACKGROUND: The giant kidney worm, Dioctophyme renale, is a debilitating and potentially lethal parasite that inhabits and destroys, typically host's right kidney, and may also be found in ectopic sites. It is circumglobally distributed, mainly in dogs, and is increasingly regarded as a threat to other domestic animals and humans. There is little information on the parasite's true incidence, or immune responses to it, and none on its biochemistry and molecular biology. RESULTS: We characterised the soluble proteins of body wall, intestine, gonads and pseudocelomic fluid (PCF) of adult parasites...
September 27, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952170/dinitromethyl-3-5-1-2-4-oxadiazole-derivatives-from-controllable-cyclization-strategies
#10
Yongxing Tang, Chunlin He, Gregory H Imler, Damon A Parrish, Jean'ne M Shreeve
N-Cyanoimidate (1) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of triethylamine gives different products (2 a or 2 b) as a function of the sequence of reactant addition. Further oxidation/nitration/decarboxylation/acidification reactions of 2 a/2 b generate dinitromethyl-3(5)-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives, including a surprising energetic compound with high oxygen balance, 3-(dinitromethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-one (5) as well as 5,5'-dinitromethyl-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-oxadiazole (9). Some salts of 5 and 9 as precursors were also prepared...
September 27, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931042/evaluation-of-the-cytotoxicity-of-the-bithionol-paclitaxel-combination-in-a-panel-of-human-ovarian-cancer-cell-lines
#11
Vijayalakshmi N Ayyagari, Paula L Diaz-Sylvester, Tsung-Han Jeff Hsieh, Laurent Brard
Previously, Bithionol (BT) was shown to enhance the chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines to cisplatin treatment. In the present study, we focused on the anti-tumor potential of the BT-paclitaxel combination when added to a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines. This in vitro study aimed to 1) determine the optimum schedule for combination of BT and paclitaxel and 2) assess the nature and mechanism(s) underlying BT-paclitaxel interactions. The cytotoxic effects of both drugs either alone or in combination were assessed by presto-blue cell viability assay using six human ovarian cancer cell lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898468/nanodroplet-containing-polymers-for-efficient-low-power-light-upconversion
#12
Roberto Vadrucci, Angelo Monguzzi, Felipe Saenz, Bodo D Wilts, Yoan C Simon, Christoph Weder
Sensitized triplet-triplet-annihilation-based photon upconversion (TTA-UC) permits the conversion of light into radiation of higher energy and involves a sequence of photophysical processes between two dyes. In contrast to other upconversion schemes, TTA-UC allows the frequency shifting of low-intensity light, which makes it particularly suitable for solar-energy harvesting technologies. High upconversion yields can be observed for low viscosity solutions of dyes; but, in solid materials, which are better suited for integration in devices, the process is usually less efficient...
September 12, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890417/the-impact-of-vessel-size-orientation-and-intravascular-contribution-on-the-neurovascular-fingerprint-of-bold-bssfp-fmri
#13
Mario Gilberto Báez-Yánez, Philipp Ehses, Christian Mirkes, Philbert S Tsai, David Kleinfeld, Klaus Scheffler
Monte Carlo simulations have been used to analyze oxygenation-related signal changes in pass-band balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) as well as in gradient echo (GE) and spin echo (SE) sequences. Signal changes were calculated for artificial cylinders and neurovascular networks acquired from the mouse parietal cortex by two-photon laser scanning microscopy at 1 μm isotropic resolution. Signal changes as a function of vessel size, blood volume, vessel orientation to the main magnetic field B0 as well as relations of intra- and extravascular and of micro- and macrovascular contributions have been analyzed...
September 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884708/dual-echo-asl-based-assessment-of-motor-networks-a-feasibility-study
#14
Silvia Francesca Storti, Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo, Francesca B Pizzini, Gloria Menegaz
OBJECTIVE: Dual-echo arterial spin labeling (DE-ASL) techniques have been recently proposed for the simultaneous acquisition of ASL and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The assessment of this technique in detecting functional connectivity at rest or during motor and motor imagery tasks is still unexplored both per-se and in comparison with conventional methods. The purpose is to quantify the sensitivity of the DE-ASL sequence with respect to the conventional fMRI sequence (cvBOLD) in detecting brain activations, and to assess and compare the relevance of node features in decoding the network structure...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833782/population-transcriptomic-characterization-of-the-genetic-and-expression-variation-of-a-candidate-progenitor-of-miscanthus-energy-crops
#15
Juan Yan, Zhihong Song, Qin Xu, Lifang Kang, Caiyun Zhu, Shilai Xing, Wei Liu, Josef Greimler, Tobias Züst, Jianqiang Li, Tao Sang
The use of transcriptome data in the study of the population genetics of a species can capture faint signals of both genetic variation and expression variation and can provide a broad picture of a species' genomic response to environmental conditions. In this study, we characterized the genetic and expression diversity of Miscanthus lutarioriparius by comparing more than 16,225 transcripts obtained from 78 individuals, belonging to 10 populations distributed across the species' entire geographic range. We only observed a low level of nucleotide diversity (π = 0...
August 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833514/tissue-oxygenation-mapping-by-combined-chemical-shift-and-t1-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Florence Franconi, Laurent Lemaire, Hervé Saint-Jalmes, Patrick Saulnier
PURPOSE: To propose a method for determining tissue oxygenation via the measurement of fat T1 . The method is based on a 2D fat/water chemical shift-encoded and T1 -weighted acquisition. THEORY AND METHODS: A 2D data set was acquired with a fast spin echo sequence with several echo asymmetries and repetition times, wherein one dimension is related to the fat/water phase modulation and the other to the T1 saturation recovery. A joint magnitude-based process of phase modulation and T1 evolution allowed for the collection of the fat fraction and T1 maps with resolved fat or water dominance ambiguity while avoiding the phased error problem...
August 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831531/brain-functional-networks-correlation-analysis-with-clinical-indexes-in-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#17
Hui Dai, Yu Zhang, Lillian Lai, Su Hu, Ximing Wang, Yonggang Li, Chunhong Hu, Hailin Shen
PURPOSE: The relationship between parameters of brain functional networks and clinical indexes is unclear so far in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). This paper is to investigate this. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with different grades of DR and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled from August 2012 to September 2014. The clinical indexes recorded included DR grade, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, diabetic foot screen, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, Homa-β, Homa-IR, insulin sensitive index (ISI), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and patient sex and age...
November 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830345/physiological-and-de-novo-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-fermentation-mechanism-of-cerasus-sachalinensis-roots-in-response-to-short-term-waterlogging
#18
Peng Zhang, Deguo Lyu, Luting Jia, Jiali He, Sijun Qin
BACKGROUND: Cerasus sachalinensis is widely used in cool regions as a sweet cherry rootstock and is known for its sensitivity to soil waterlogging and waterlogging stress. However, the limited availability of Cerasus genomic resources has considerably restricted the exploration of its waterlogging response mechanism. To understand its reaction to short-term waterlogging, we analyzed the physiology and transcriptomes of C. sachalinensis roots in response to different waterlogging durations...
August 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827794/isocitrate-protects-dj-1-null-dopaminergic-cells-from-oxidative-stress-through-nadp-dependent-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-idh
#19
Jinsung Yang, Min Ju Kim, Woongchang Yoon, Eun Young Kim, Hyunjin Kim, Yoonjeong Lee, Boram Min, Kyung Shin Kang, Jin H Son, Hwan Tae Park, Jongkyeong Chung, Hyongjong Koh
DJ-1 is one of the causative genes for early onset familiar Parkinson's disease (PD) and is also considered to influence the pathogenesis of sporadic PD. DJ-1 has various physiological functions which converge on controlling intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In RNA-sequencing analyses searching for novel anti-oxidant genes downstream of DJ-1, a gene encoding NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), which converts isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate, was detected. Loss of IDH induced hyper-sensitivity to oxidative stress accompanying age-dependent mitochondrial defects and dopaminergic (DA) neuron degeneration in Drosophila, indicating its critical roles in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and DA neuron survival...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821876/transcriptomic-biochemical-and-physio-anatomical-investigations-shed-more-light-on-responses-to-drought-stress-in-two-contrasting-sesame-genotypes
#20
Komivi Dossa, Donghua Li, Linhai Wang, Xiaomin Zheng, Aili Liu, Jingyin Yu, Xin Wei, Rong Zhou, Daniel Fonceka, Diaga Diouf, Boshou Liao, Ndiaga Cissé, Xiurong Zhang
Sesame is an important oilseed crop with a high oil quality. It is prone to drought stress in the arid and semi-arid areas where it is widely grown. This study aims to decipher the response of tolerant (DT) and sensitive (DS) genotypes to progressive drought based on transcriptome, biochemical and physio-anatomical characterizations. Results indicated that under severe stress, DT relied on a well-functioning taproot while DS displayed a disintegrated root due to collapsed cortical cells. This was attributed to a higher accumulation of osmoprotectants and strong activity of antioxidant enzymes especially peroxidases in DT...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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