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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092749/public-value-at-risk-from-phytophthora-ramorum-and-phytophthora-kernoviae-spread-in-england-and-wales
#1
Ben Drake, Glyn Jones
Heritage gardens, heathland and woodland are increasingly under threat from the non-native tree and plant diseases Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora kernoviae. However, there exist only limited literature that estimates the public non-market value that may be lost from a continued spread of Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora kernoviae into these habitats. This paper therefore uses a contingent valuation survey to assess the non-extractive public use and non-use values at risk from an uncontrolled spread of these diseases in England and Wales...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091855/combining-dispersion-modelling-with-synoptic-patterns-to-understand-the-wind-borne-transport-into-the-uk-of-the-bluetongue-disease-vector
#2
Laura Burgin, Marie Ekström, Suraje Dessai
Bluetongue, an economically important animal disease, can be spread over long distances by carriage of insect vectors (Culicoides biting midges) on the wind. The weather conditions which influence the midge's flight are controlled by synoptic scale atmospheric circulations. A method is proposed that links wind-borne dispersion of the insects to synoptic circulation through the use of a dispersion model in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. We illustrate how to identify the main synoptic situations present during times of midge incursions into the UK from the European continent...
January 14, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091625/mplex-a-method-for-simultaneous-pathogen-inactivation-and-extraction-of-samples-for-multi-omics-profiling
#3
Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Jennifer E Kyle, Amie J Eisfeld, Cameron P Casey, Kelly G Stratton, Juan F Gonzalez, Fabien Habyarimana, Nicholas M Negretti, Amy C Sims, Sadhana Chauhan, Larissa B Thackray, Peter J Halfmann, Kevin B Walters, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Carrie D Nicora, Karl K Weitz, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Brian Ahmer, Michael E Konkel, Vladimir Motin, Ralph S Baric, Michael S Diamond, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Katrina M Waters, Richard D Smith, Thomas O Metz
The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of great concern, and systems biology approaches to infectious disease research can advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can take place only subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements...
January 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091341/correlation-between-infectious-disease-and-soil-radiation-in-japan-an-exploratory-study-using-national-sentinel-surveillance-data
#4
S Inaida, T Tsuda, S Matsuno
We investigated the relationship between epidemics and soil radiation through an exploratory study using sentinel surveillance data (individuals aged <20 years) during the last three epidemic seasons of influenza and norovirus in Japan. We used a spatial analysis method of a geographical information system (GIS). We mapped the epidemic spreading patterns from sentinel incidence rates. We calculated the average soil radiation [dm (μGy/h)] for each sentinel site using data on uranium, thorium, and potassium oxide in the soil and examined the incidence rate in units of 0·01 μGy/h...
January 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090318/dengue-virus-antibodies-enhance-zika-virus-infection
#5
Lauren M Paul, Eric R Carlin, Meagan M Jenkins, Amanda L Tan, Carolyn M Barcellona, Cindo O Nicholson, Scott F Michael, Sharon Isern
For decades, human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, were sporadic, associated with mild disease, and went underreported since symptoms were similar to other acute febrile diseases. Recent reports of severe disease associated with ZIKV have greatly heightened awareness. It is anticipated that ZIKV will continue to spread in the Americas and globally where competent Aedes mosquito vectors are found. Dengue virus (DENV), the most common mosquito-transmitted human flavivirus, is both well-established and the source of outbreaks in areas of recent ZIKV introduction...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089289/evaluation-of-five-serologic-assays-for-bovine-tuberculosis-surveillance-in-domestic-free-range-pigs-from-southern-spain
#6
Fernando Cardoso-Toset, Inmaculada Luque, Librado Carrasco, Francisco Jurado-Martos, María Ángeles Risalde, Ángel Venteo, José A Infantes-Lorenzo, Javier Bezos, Paloma Rueda, Istar Tapia, Christian Gortázar, Lucas Domínguez, Mercedes Domínguez, Jaime Gomez-Laguna
In countries where bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still prevalent the contact among different animal species in extensive systems contributes to the circulation of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Thus, free-range pigs can develop subclinical infections and may contribute to disease spread to bovine and wildlife. Serodiagnosis has been proposed as a screening tool for detecting infected pig herds; however, the value of this method to obtain an accurate diagnosis in this species is still not clear...
December 29, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089098/toward-a-collaborative-model-of-pandemic-preparedness-and-response-taiwan-s-changing-approach-to-pandemics
#7
REVIEW
Jonathan Schwartz, Muh-Yong Yen
BACKGROUND: Over time, as newly emerging infectious diseases have become increasingly common and more easily spread, it has become clear that traditional response mechanisms have proven inadequate to the task of prevention and control. PURPOSE: To explore whether enhanced cooperation with local government and community institutions can effectively supplement traditional state-centric public health epidemic responses. METHODS: Drawing on Taiwan as a case study, we assess the role of the whole-of-society approach to epidemic response as arises from the collaborative governance literature...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088399/the-timing-of-pertussis-cases-in-unvaccinated-children-in-an-outbreak-year-oregon-2012
#8
Steve G Robison, Juventila Liko
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether, during a 2012 pertussis outbreak, unvaccinated and poorly vaccinated cases occurred earlier on a community level. STUDY DESIGN: Pediatric pertussis among children 2 months to 10 years of age in the Oregon Sentinel Surveillance region during an epidemic starting at the beginning of 2012 were stratified by immunization status, age, zip code, and calendar date of disease onset. Differences in median onset as days between fully or mostly vaccinated, poorly vaccinated, and unvaccinated cases were examined overall and within local zip code areas...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088130/vaccine-candidates-against-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Ava Behrouzi, Farzam Vaziri, Fatemeh Rahimi-Jamnani, Parviz Afrough, Mohammad Rahbar, Fereshteh Satarian, Seyed Davar Siadat
Nonencapsulated, nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) remains an important cause of acute otitis and respiratory diseases in children and adults. NTHi bacteria are one of the major causes of respiratory tract infections, including acute otitis media, cystic fibrosis, and community-acquired pneumonia among children, especially in developing countries. The bacteria can also cause chronic diseases such as chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the lower respiratory tract of adults...
2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087945/innate-immune-responses-to-tuberculosis
#10
Jeffrey S Schorey, Larry S Schlesinger
Tuberculosis remains one of the greatest threats to human health. The causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is acquired by the respiratory route. It is exquisitely adapted to humans and is a prototypic intracellular pathogen of macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being the primary conduit of infection and disease. However, M. tuberculosis bacilli interact with and are affected by several soluble and cellular components of the innate immune system which dictate the outcome of primary infection, most commonly a latently infected healthy human host, in whom the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response within the confines of tissue granuloma, the host histopathologic hallmark...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087922/urogenital-tuberculosis
#11
André A Figueiredo, Antônio M Lucon, Miguel Srougi
Urogenital tuberculosis is the second most frequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Starting with a pulmonary focus, 2 to 20% of patients develop urogenital tuberculosis through hematogenous spread to the kidneys, prostate, and epididymis; through the descending collecting system to the ureters, bladder, and urethra; and through the ejaculatory ducts to the genital organs. Urogenital tuberculosis occurs at all age ranges, but it is predominant in males in their fourth and fifth decades. It is a serious, insidious disease, generally developing symptoms only at a late stage, which leads to a diagnostic delay with consequent urogenital organ destruction; there are reports of patients with renal failure as their initial clinical presentation...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086955/evaluation-of-the-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-assay-and-microscopy-for-the-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-namibia
#12
Rooyen T Mavenyengwa, Emma Shaduka, Innocent Maposa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) kills approximately two million people and infects around nine million worldwide annually. Its proper management, especially in resource-limited settings, has been hindered by the lack of rapid and easy-to-use diagnostic tests. Sputum smear microscopy remains the cheapest, readily available diagnostic method but it only identifies less than half of the patients with a HIV/TB co-infection because the bacilli would have disseminated from the lungs to other areas of the body...
January 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086897/application-of-the-analytic-hierarchy-approach-to-the-risk-assessment-of-zika-virus-disease-transmission-in-guangdong-province-china
#13
Xing Li, Tao Liu, Lifeng Lin, Tie Song, Xiaolong Du, Hualiang Lin, Jianpeng Xiao, Jianfeng He, Liping Liu, Guanghu Zhu, Weilin Zeng, Lingchuan Guo, Zheng Cao, Wenjun Ma, Yonghui Zhang
BACKGROUND: An international spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has attracted global attention in 2015. The infection also affected Guangdong province, which is located in southern China. Multiple factors, including frequent communication with South America and Southeast Asia, suitable climate (sub-tropical) for the habitat of Aedes species, may increase the risk of ZIKV disease transmission in this region. METHODS: An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to develop a semi-quantitative ZIKV risk assessment model...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081250/cutaneous-deficiency-of-filaggrin-and-stat3-exacerbates-vaccinia-disease-in-vivo
#14
Yong He, Ishrat Sultana, Kazuyo Takeda, Jennifer L Reed
RATIONALE: Defects in filaggrin and STAT3 are associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) and susceptibility to severe skin infection. METHODS: We evaluated skin infection with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000, in immunosuppressed mice with combined cutaneous deficiency in filaggrin and STAT3. In parallel, early events post-infection with ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes in which filaggrin expression was knocked down via siRNA. RESULTS: Immunosuppressed, filaggrin-deficient mice, treated with the topical STAT3 inhibitor Stattic® prior to ACAM-2000 infection, demonstrated rapid weight loss, prolonged vaccinia burden in skin, and dermatitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081235/comprehensive-rna-seq-profiling-to-evaluate-the-sheep-mammary-gland-transcriptome-in-response-to-experimental-mycoplasma-agalactiae-infection
#15
Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly, Melanie Korb, René Brunthaler, Reinhard Ertl
Mycoplasma agalactiae is a worldwide serious pathogen of small ruminants that usually spreads through the mammary route causing acute to subacute mastitis progressing to chronic persistent disease that is hard to eradicate. Knowledge of mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in the mammary gland are still insufficient, especially the host-pathogen interplay that enables it to reside in a chronic subclinical state. This study reports transcriptome profiling of mammary tissue from udders of sheep experimentally infected with M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080992/microevolutionary-traits-and-comparative-population-genomics-of-the-emerging-pathogenic-fungus-cryptococcus-gattii
#16
Rhys A Farrer, Kerstin Voelz, Daniel A Henk, Simon A Johnston, Matthew C Fisher, Robin C May, Christina A Cuomo
Emerging fungal pathogens cause an expanding burden of disease across the animal kingdom, including a rise in morbidity and mortality in humans. Yet, we currently have only a limited repertoire of available therapeutic interventions. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of fungal virulence and of the emergence of hypervirulence within species is therefore needed for new treatments and mitigation efforts. For example, over the past decade, an unusual lineage of Cryptococcus gattii, which was first detected on Vancouver Island, has spread to the Canadian mainland and the Pacific Northwest infecting otherwise healthy individuals...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080990/food-system-consequences-of-a-fungal-disease-epidemic-in-a-major-crop
#17
H Charles J Godfray, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Sherman Robinson
Fungal diseases are major threats to the most important crops upon which humanity depends. Were there to be a major epidemic that severely reduced yields, its effects would spread throughout the globalized food system. To explore these ramifications, we use a partial equilibrium economic model of the global food system (IMPACT) to study a hypothetical severe but short-lived epidemic that reduces rice yields in the countries affected by 80%. We modelled a succession of epidemic scenarios of increasing severity, starting with the disease in a single country in southeast Asia and ending with the pathogen present in most of eastern Asia...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079976/maresin-1-induces-a-novel-pro-resolving-phenotype-in-human-platelets
#18
Katie L Lannan, Sherry L Spinelli, Neil Blumberg, Richard P Phipps
BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet therapy is a cornerstone of modern medical practice and is routinely employed to reduce the likelihood of myocardial infarction, thrombosis, and stroke. However, current antiplatelet therapies, such as aspirin, often have adverse side effects, including increased risk of bleeding, and some patients are relatively "aspirin-resistant". Platelets are intimately involved in hemostasis and inflammation, and clinical consequences are associated with excessive or insufficient platelet activation...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079855/acute-sarcoid-myopathy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
José Miguel Gómez-Verdú, Salvador Valero Cifuentes, Francisco Pastor Quirante, Francisco Román López-Andreu
Sarcoidosis is a worldwide spread disease with brad clinical spectrum, in which the pulmonary involvement is the main manifestation (more than 90% of cases); nevertheless, extrathoracic symptoms can predominate in the clinical picture and they may even be the first manifestation. One of them is the skeletal muscle involvement that normally is chronic and silent, with poor response to treatment with glucocorticoids. However, in some cases, it has an acute presentation. We present a case of a 61-year-old man with diagnosis of sarcoidosis whe were evaluated for proximal lower limb weakness within few days of evolution...
December 23, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078850/acupuncture-in-endocrine-disorders-a-critical-appraisal
#20
Y Z Deng, L B Li, L G Xu, D Zhou, L J Wei, Y Liu
Acupuncture is an integral part of ancient Chinese medical practice. The technique has been used extensively in pain relief and is being tried for many other chronic conditions. Industrial development and affluence lead to the increase in the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and polycystic ovarian disease. The rising prevalence of the endocrine morbidity is observed in both the developing and developed nations. The management of these disorders involves major lifestyle modification coupled with a long-term drug intake...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
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