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Disease spreading

Radha V Patel, Kristy M Shaeer, Pooja Patel, Aleksey Garmaza, Kornwalee Wiangkham, Rachel B Franks, Olivia Pane, Nicholas W Carris
In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern including West Nile Virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Sujin Ahn, Peng Zhang, Hyunung Yu, Seungah Lee, Seong Ho Kang
Super-localization of immunoplasmonic nanotags on antibody-bound gold-nanoislands (GNIs) along the x, y coordinates was determined using total internal reflection scattering-based super-resolution microscopy (TIRS-SRM) at subdiffraction limit resolu-tion. Individual immunoplasmonic nanotags (20-nm silver nanoparticles) and 100-nm GNIs were selectively acquired in the eva-nescent field layer by wavelength-dependent plasmonic scattering using two illumination lasers (405 nm and 635 nm, respectively). Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a liver cancer-related model protein, was immobilized as a target molecule on the GNI arrays...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
A Villalobos-Hernandez, D Bobbala, R Kandhi, M G M Khan, M Mayhue, C M Dubois, G Ferbeyre, C Saucier, S Ramanathan, S Ilangumaran
BACKGROUND: The suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) gene is repressed in prostate cancer (PCa) by epigenetic silencing and microRNA miR30d. Increased expression of the SOCS1-targeting miR30d correlates with higher biochemical recurrence, suggesting a tumor suppressor role of SOCS1 in PCa, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We have shown that SOCS1 inhibits MET receptor kinase signaling, a key oncogenic pathway in cancer progression. Here we evaluated the role of SOCS1 in attenuating MET signaling in PCa cells and tumor growth in vivo...
October 25, 2016: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
B Büttner, A Mansur, M Bauer, J Hinz, I Bergmann
Unilateral spinal anesthesia is a cost-effective and rapidly performed anesthetic technique. An exclusively unilateral block only affects the sensory, motor and sympathetic functions on one side of the body and offers the advantages of a spinal block without the typical adverse side effects seen with a bilateral block. The lack of hypotension, in particular, makes unilateral spinal anesthesia suitable for patients with cardiovascular risk factors e. g. aortic valve stenosis or coronary artery disease. Increasing numbers of surgical procedures are now being performed on an outpatient basis...
October 24, 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Carsten Kirkeby, Kaare Græsbøll, Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Lasse E Christiansen, Nils Toft, Erik Rattenborg, Tariq Halasa
We describe a new mechanistic bioeconomic model for simulating the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) within a dairy cattle herd. The model includes age-dependent susceptibility for infection; age-dependent sensitivity for detection; environmental MAP build up in five separate areas of the farm; in utero infection; infection via colostrum and waste milk, and it allows for realistic culling (i.e., due to other diseases) by including a ranking system. We calibrated the model using a unique dataset from Denmark, including 102 random farms with no control actions against spread of MAP...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Megha Sharma, Kapil Yadav, Nitika Yadav, Keith C Ferdinand
The arrival of Zika virus in the United States has generated a lot of activity on social media focusing on the algorithmic increase in the spread of the disease and its concerning complications. Accurate and credible dissemination of correct information about the arbovirus could help in decreasing the pandemic spread and associated apprehension in the population. Our study examined the effective use of the social media site Facebook (Facebook Inc, Menlo Park, CA) as an information source for the Zika virus pandemic...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Richard Lindqvist, Filip Mundt, Jonathan D Gilthorpe, Silke Wölfel, Nelson O Gekara, Andrea Kröger, Anna K Överby
BACKGROUND: Neurotropic flaviviruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) are causative agents of severe brain-related diseases including meningitis, encephalitis, and microcephaly. We have previously shown that local type I interferon response within the central nervous system (CNS) is involved in the protection of mice against tick-borne flavivirus infection. However, the cells responsible for mounting this protective response are not defined...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Penelope Anne Lynch, Mike Boots
Evolution persistently undermines vector control programs through insecticide resistance. Here we propose a novel strategy which instead exploits evolution to generate and sustain new control tools. Effective spatial repellents are needed to keep vectors out of houses. Our approach generates such new repellents by combining a high-toxicity insecticide with a candidate repellent initially effective against only part of the vector population. By killing mosquitoes that enter treated properties the insecticide selects for vector phenotypes deflected by the repellent, increasing efficacy of the repellent against the target vector population and in turn protecting the insecticide against the spread of insecticide resistance...
October 25, 2016: ELife
Ali Fatih Demir, Qammer Abbasi, Zekeriyya Esat Ankarali, Akram Alomainy, Khalid Qaraqe, Erchin Serpedin, Huseyin Arslan
In vivo wireless body area networks (WBANs) and their associated technologies are shaping the future of healthcare by providing continuous health monitoring and noninvasive surgical capabilities, in addition to remote diagnostic and treatment of diseases. To fully exploit the potential of such devices, it is necessary to characterize the communication channel which will help to build reliable and high-performance communication systems. This paper presents an in vivo wireless communication channel characterization for male torso both numerically and experimentally (on a human cadaver) considering various organs at 915 MHz and 2...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Oscar Patterson-Lomba, Muntaser Safan, Sherry Towers, Jay Taylor
Urban areas, with large and dense populations, offer conditions that favor the emergence and spread of certain infectious diseases. One common feature of urban populations is the existence of large socioeconomic inequalities which are often mirrored by disparities in access to healthcare. Recent empirical evidence suggests that higher levels of socioeconomic inequalities are associated with worsened public health outcomes, including higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and lower life expectancy...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Hillary T Graham, Daniel M Rotroff, Skylar W Marvel, John B Buse, Tammy M Havener, Alyson G Wilson, Michael J Wagner, Alison A Motsinger-Reif
Given the high costs of conducting a drug-response trial, researchers are now aiming to use retrospective analyses to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify underlying genetic contributions to drug-response variation. To prevent confounding results from a GWAS to investigate drug response, it is necessary to account for concomitant medications, defined as any medication taken concurrently with the primary medication being investigated. We use data from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Disease (ACCORD) trial in order to implement a novel scoring procedure for incorporating concomitant medication information into a linear regression model in preparation for GWAS...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Truc T Pham, Shengli Meng, Yan Sun, Wenli Lv, Justin Bahl
A comprehensive monitoring strategy is vital for tracking the spread of mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Virus detection consists of passive surveillance of primarily humans and swine, and/or active surveillance in mosquitoes, which may be a valuable proxy in providing insights into ecological processes underlying the spread and persistence of JEV. However, it has not been well characterized whether passive surveillance alone can capture the circulating genetic diversity to make reasonable inferences...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Lu Lu, Nguyen Van Dung, Juliet E Bryant, Juan Carrique-Mas, Nguyen Van Cuong, Pham Honh Anh, Maia A Rabaa, Stephen Baker, Peter Simmonds, Mark E Woolhouse
Members of the Picornaviridae are important and often zoonotic viruses responsible for a variety of human and animal diseases. However, the evolution and spatial dissemination of different picornaviruses circulating in domestic animals are not well studied. We examined the rate of evolution and time of origin of porcine enterovirus G (EV-G) and porcine kobuvirus species C lineages (PKV-C) circulating in pig farms in Vietnam and from other countries. We further explored the spatiotemporal spread of EV-G and PKV-C in Southwest Vietnam using phylogeographic models...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Sihem Ait-Oudhia, Donald E Mager
Cancer is a complex disease that is characterized by an uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. Drug development in oncology is particularly challenging and is associated with one of the highest attrition rates of compounds despite substantial investments in resources. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling seeks to couple experimental data with mathematical models to provide key insights into factors controlling cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutics and cancer progression. PK/PD modeling of anti-cancer compounds is equally challenging, partly based on the complexity of biological and pharmacological systems...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Elena García, Gerardo Espeso, Rocío Fernández, Ángel Gómez-Martín, José María Rodríguez-Linde, Christian De la Fe
Coxiella (C.) burnetii is the etiological agent of the zoonotic disease known a Q fever. This agent can infect multiple hosts although its pathogenic potential in wild ruminants has been poorly studied. The polymerase chain reaction and the serological test detected the presence of C. burnetii in a population of North African gazelles (n = 355), comprising dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas neglecta), dama gazelle (Nanger dama mhorr) and Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri) which, some of them, they recently aborted...
September 19, 2016: Theriogenology
Agata A Cisek, Iwona Dąbrowska, Karolina P Gregorczyk, Zbigniew Wyżewski
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine with a mortality rate approaching 100 percent. African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a double-stranded DNA virus with a complex molecular structure. Its large genome, encoding multiple virulence factors, allows for efficient replication, which takes place predominantly in the cytoplasm of monocytes and macrophages. Also, ASFV has the ability to interfere with cell signalling pathways, which leads to various modulations in the synthesis profiles of interferon and other cytokines...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
Richard A Armstrong, Ann C McKee, Victor E Alvarez, Nigel J Cairns
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder which may result from repetitive brain injury. A variety of tau-immunoreactive pathologies are present, including neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), neuropil threads (NT), dot-like grains (DLG), astrocytic tangles (AT), and occasional neuritic plaques (NP). In tauopathies, cellular inclusions in the cortex are clustered within specific laminae, the clusters being regularly distributed parallel to the pia mater. To determine whether a similar spatial pattern is present in CTE, clustering of the tau-immunoreactive pathology was studied in the cortex, hippocampus, and dentate gyrus in 11 cases of CTE and 7 cases of Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) without CTE...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Kelly R Moran, Sara Y Del Valle
Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions...
2016: PloS One
Heather Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Silvia Mangiacavalli, A Pompa, V Ferretti, C Klersy, F Cocito, M Varettoni, C S Cartia, M Cazzola, A Corso
Extramedullary relapse (EMR) represents a poor prognostic marker in the course of multiple myeloma (MM). We reviewed data from 329 patients, diagnosed between 2000 and 2010, without extramedullary disease at onset to explore possible risk factors for EMR. The median overall survival of our study cohort was 6.4 years. The risk of EMR was 28 % with a median time from diagnosis to first EMR of 2.2 years (0.2-9.1 years). Patients with soft tissue masses located in extra-osseous organs (EMR-S) showed the worst outcome, compared to those with tumor masses arising from adjacent bone (EMR-B) (median OS 1...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Hematology
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