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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353180/differential-changes-in-the-spinal-segmental-locomotor-output-in-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia
#1
G Martino, Y Ivanenko, M Serrao, A Ranavolo, F Draicchio, M Rinaldi, C Casali, F Lacquaniti
OBJECTIVE: A comprehensive treatment of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) should consider the specific pathophysiological changes in the spinal cord. Here we reported a detailed characterization of the spinal motoneuronal output in HSP during locomotion. METHODS: We recorded kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of 12 leg muscles in 29 patients with pure forms of HSP and compared them with 30 controls while walking at matched speeds. We assessed the spinal locomotor output by evaluating EMG patterns and by mapping them onto the rostrocaudal location of the spinal motoneuron pools...
December 23, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352988/stat3-as-a-promising-chemoresistance-biomarker-associated-with-the-cd44-high-cd24-low-aldh-bcscs-like-subset-of-the-triple-negative-breast-cancer-tnbc-cell-line
#2
Milene Pereira Moreira, Letícia da Conceição Braga, Geovanni Dantas Cassali, Luciana Maria Silva
The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept is currently employed to explain the mechanism of multidrug resistance that is implicated in the reduced efficacy of many chemotherapeutic agents, consequently leading to metastatic spread and disease relapse. We searched for potential predictive markers of doxorubicin (DOX) resistance in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) of the BT-549 human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line classified as a claudin-low subtype. In this study, we show that BT-549 presents a BCSCs-like subset determined by a CD44+/high/CD24-/low/ALDH1+ phenotype...
January 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351742/herv-w-group-evolutionary-history-in-non-human-primates-characterization-of-erv-w-orthologs-in-catarrhini-and-related-erv-groups-in-platyrrhini
#3
Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Jonas Blomberg, Jens Mayer, Enzo Tramontano
BACKGROUND: The genomes of all vertebrates harbor remnants of ancient retroviral infections, having affected the germ line cells during the last 100 million years. These sequences, named Endogenous Retroviruses (ERVs), have been transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian way, being relatively stable components of the host genome even long after their exogenous counterparts went extinct. Among human ERVs (HERVs), the HERV-W group is of particular interest for our physiology and pathology...
January 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350647/rotator-cuff-calcific-tendinopathy-from-diagnosis-to-treatment
#4
Vito Chianca, Domenico Albano, Carmelo Messina, Federico Midiri, Giovanni Mauri, Alberto Aliprandi, Michele Catapano, Lorenzo Carlo Pescatori, Cristian Giuseppe Monaco, Salvatore Gitto, Anna Pisani Mainini, Angelo Corazza, Santi Rapisarda, Grazia Pozzi, Antonio Barile, Carlo Masciocchi, Luca Maria Sconfienza
Rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy (RCCT) is a very common condition caused by the presence of calcific deposits in the rotator cuff (RC) or in the subacromial-subdeltoid (SASD) bursa when calcification spreads around the tendons. The pathogenetic mechanism of RCCT is still unclear. It seems to be related to cell-mediated disease in which metaplastic transformation of tenocytes into chondrocytes induces calcification inside the tendon of the RC. RCCT is a frequent finding in the RC that may cause significant shoulder pain and disability...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350545/sensitive-multiplex-real-time-rt-qpcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-filoviruses
#5
Vladimir G Dedkov, N'Faly Magassouba, Marina V Safonova, Sergey A Bodnev, Oleg V Pyankov, Jacob Camara, Bakary Sylla, Alexander P Agafonov, Victor V Maleev, German A Shipulin
Filoviruses are important etiological agents of emergent diseases with high mortality rates. Traditionally, filovirus fever diseases have primarily been a burden of African countries; however, global interconnectedness has increased the probability of the worldwide spread of filoviruses. Therefore, national healthcare organizations need tools for managing filovirus risk, including diagnostic kits based on real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), as this is the most suitable method for diagnosing filovirus fever diseases...
January 19, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350301/constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-nuisance-or-nuanced-answer-to-the-pathophysiological-puzzle
#6
REVIEW
Amol Sharma, Julie Kurek, John C Morgan, Chandramohan Wakade, Satish S C Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic constipation is a common, nonmotor, and prodromal symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Its underlying neuropathology may provide pathophysiological insight into PD. Here, we critically review what is currently known about the neuroanatomical and brain-gut interactions, and the origin and progression of Lewy pathology (LP) at three levels-brain/brainstem, spinal cord, and enteric nervous system. RECENT FINDINGS: Many recent studies have illustrated the challenges of examining LP in tissues obtained from colon biopsies of PD patients...
January 19, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348881/allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-patients-older-than-60-years-a-survey-from-the-acute-leukemia-working-party-of-ebmt
#7
Gabrielle Roth-Guepin, Jonathan Canaani, Annalisa Ruggeri, Myriam Labopin, Juergen Finke, Jan J Cornelissen, Jeremy Delage, Gernot Stuhler, Monserrat Rovira, Mike Potter, Michael Stadler, Hendrik Veelken, Jean Yves Cahn, Matthew Collin, Yves Beguin, Sebastian Giebel, Arnon Nagler, Mohamad Mohty
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is being increasingly explored as a treatment modality for older patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Yet, concerns regarding the long term outcome of transplantation in older patients limit the wide spread applicability of this approach. In this analysis we set out to determine the outcome of ALL patients over the age of 60 who underwent reduced intensity HSCT. Herein, we present the experience of the acute leukemia working party (ALWP) of the EBMT in this age group...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348572/areca-nut-extracts-mobilize-calcium-and-release-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-from-various-immune-cells
#8
Malika Faouzi, Ram P Neupane, Jian Yang, Philip Williams, Reinhold Penner
Betel nut consumption has significant implications for the public health globally, as the wide-spread habit of Areca chewing throughout Asia and the Pacific is associated with a high prevalence of oral carcinoma and other diseases. Despite a clear causal association of betel nut chewing and oral mucosal diseases, the biological mechanisms that link Areca nut-contained molecules, inflammation and cancer remain underexplored. In this study we show that the whole Areca nut extract (ANE) is capable of mobilizing Ca2+ in various immune cell lines...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348295/tuning%C3%A2-crispr-cas9-gene-drives-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Emily Roggenkamp, Rachael M Giersch, Madison N Schrock, Emily Turnquist, Megan Halloran, Gregory C Finnigan
Control of biological populations is an ongoing challenge in many fields including agriculture, biodiversity, ecological preservation, pest control, and the spread of disease. In some cases, such as insects that harbor human pathogens (e.g. malaria), elimination or reduction of a small number of species would have a dramatic impact across the globe. Given the recent discovery and development of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology, a unique arrangement of this system-a nuclease based "gene drive"-allows for the Super-Mendelian spread and forced propagation of a genetic element through a population...
January 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347965/characterization-of-highly-virulent-multidrug-resistant-vibrio-cholerae-isolated-from-a-large-cholera-outbreak-in-ghana
#10
Patrick Kwame Feglo, Miriam Sewurah
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the virulent factors of Vibrio cholerae which caused an unprecedented large cholera outbreak in Ghana in 2014 and progressed into 2015, affected 28,975 people with 243 deaths. RESULTS: The V. cholerae isolates were identified to be the classical V. cholerae 01 biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, responsible for the large cholera outbreak in Ghana. These El Tor strains bear CtxAB and Tcp virulent genes, making the strains highly virulent...
January 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347209/takeover-times-for-a-simple-model-of-network-infection
#11
Bertrand Ottino-Löffler, Jacob G Scott, Steven H Strogatz
We study a stochastic model of infection spreading on a network. At each time step a node is chosen at random, along with one of its neighbors. If the node is infected and the neighbor is susceptible, the neighbor becomes infected. How many time steps T does it take to completely infect a network of N nodes, starting from a single infected node? An analogy to the classic "coupon collector" problem of probability theory reveals that the takeover time T is dominated by extremal behavior, either when there are only a few infected nodes near the start of the process or a few susceptible nodes near the end...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347135/discrete-time-dynamic-network-model-for-the-spread-of-susceptible-infective-recovered-diseases
#12
Sanjeev Kumar Chauhan
We propose a discrete-time dynamic network model describing the spread of susceptible-infective-recovered diseases in a population. We consider the case in which the nodes in the network change their links due to social mixing dynamics as well as in response to the disease. The model shows the behavior that, as we increase social mixing, disease spread is inhibited in certain cases, while in other cases it is enhanced. We also extend this dynamic network model to take into account the case of hidden infection...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346439/interspecies-diversity-of-chloride-channel-regulators-calcium-activated-3-genes
#13
Lars Mundhenk, Nancy A Erickson, Nikolai Klymiuk, Achim D Gruber
Members of the chloride channel regulators, calcium-activated (CLCA) family, have been implicated in diverse biomedical conditions, including chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, the activation of macrophages, and the growth and metastatic spread of tumor cells. Several observations, however, could not be repeated across species boundaries and increasing evidence suggests that select CLCA genes are particularly prone to dynamic species-specific evolvements...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346373/reconciling-pasteur-and-darwin-to-control-infectious-diseases
#14
Samuel Alizon, Pierre-Olivier Méthot
The continual emergence of new pathogens and the increased spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations remind us that microbes are living entities that evolve at rates that impact public health interventions. Following the historical thread of the works of Pasteur and Darwin shows how reconciling clinical microbiology, ecology, and evolution can be instrumental to understanding pathology, developing new therapies, and prolonging the efficiency of existing ones.
January 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345996/delays-in-global-disease-outbreak-responses-lessons-from-h1n1-ebola-and-zika
#15
Steven J Hoffman, Sarah L Silverberg
In global disease outbreaks, there are significant time delays between the source of an outbreak and collective action. Some delay is necessary, but recent delays have been extended by insufficient surveillance capacity and time-consuming efforts to mobilize action. Three public health emergencies of international concern (PHEICs)-H1N1, Ebola, and Zika-allow us to identify and compare sources of delays and consider seven hypotheses about what influences the length of delays. These hypotheses can then motivate further research that empirically tests them...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345601/vaccine-effectiveness-and-use-of-collar-impregnated-with-insecticide-for-reducing-incidence-of-leishmania-infection-in-dogs-in-an-endemic-region-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-brazil
#16
E G Lopes, A P Sevá, F Ferreira, C M Nunes, L B Keid, R M Hiramoto, H L Ferreira, T M F S Oliveira, F G Ovallos, E A B Galati, T J Villegas, D V Bortoletto, S Y O B Valadas, R M Soares
Although a national programme for control of visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is being run in Brazil, the disease continues to spread. This programme is essentially based on culling infected dogs from endemic regions. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop other control measures against VL to deter its advance. Here, a subunit vaccine, a recombinant vaccine, an insecticide-impregnated collar and the associations between these measures were evaluated for reducing the incidence of Leishmania infection in dogs. This was through a cohort study conducted in an endemic region of Brazil, considering the incidence and time of total exposure over a period of 1 year...
January 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345125/naturally-acquired-bovine-besnoitiosis-disease-frequency-risk-and-outcome-in-an-endemically-infected-beef-herd
#17
N S Gollnick, J C Scharr, S Schares, A Bärwald, G Schares, M C Langenmayer
The recent spread of bovine besnoitiosis warrants further epidemiological investigations to improve the knowledge on disease development. Thus, a 4-year longitudinal open cohort study was conducted in the first German cattle herd naturally infected with Besnoitia besnoiti. At seven herd-visits between 2008 and 2012, fourteen breeding bulls (>1.5 years) and 131 females (>1 year) were examined clinically and serologically. In females, clinical and serological prevalences, incidence and remission rates were determined...
January 17, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345000/cell-death-under-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-control-in-prostate-cancer-therapeutic-response
#18
REVIEW
Diane Begemann, Harry Anastos, Natasha Kyprianou
Prostate cancer is a widespread problem among men, with >160 000 new cases in 2017 alone. Androgen deprivation therapy is commonly used in prostate cancer treatment to block androgens required for cancer growth, but disease relapse after androgen deprivation therapy is both common and severe. Changes in androgen receptor signaling from androgen deprivation therapy have been linked to therapeutic resistance and tumor progression. Resistant cells can become reprogrammed to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a phenotypic switch from benign, epithelial cells to a mobile cell with mesenchymal traits...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344095/metachronous-metastasis-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-to-the-urinary-bladder-a-case-report
#19
Ruben De Groote, Alessandro Larcher, Marijn Goossens, De Raeve Hendrik, Van Der Steen Kris, Vincent De Coninck, Geert De Naeyer, Peter Schatteman, Frederiek D'Hondt, Alexandre Mottrie
We report a case of intravesical metastasis of a clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In renal cell carcinoma 16% of patients present with metastatic disease. Renal cell carcinoma can metastasize to nearly every organ, although metastatic spread to the urinary bladder is rare, with fewer than 70 described cases. The route and pattern of metastatic spread is not yet fully understood and different pathways are suggested. Gross haematuria is the presenting symptom in the majority of cases. These intravesical metastases may be synchronous or metachronous and can be solitary or part of polymetastatic disease...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343577/cellular-and-humoral-immunity-protect-against-vaginal-zika-virus-infection-in-mice
#20
Jason M Scott, Tania J Lebratti, Justin M Richner, Xiaoping Jiang, Estefania Fernandez, Haiyan Zhao, Daved H Fremont, Michael S Diamond, Haina Shin
Zika virus (ZIKV), which can cause devastating disease in fetuses of infected pregnant women, can be transmitted by mosquito inoculation and sexual routes. Little is known about immune protection against sexually transmitted ZIKV. In this study, we show that previous infection through intravaginal or subcutaneous routes with a contemporary Brazilian strain of ZIKV can protect against subsequent intravaginal challenge with a homologous strain. Both routes of inoculation induced high titers of ZIKV-specific and neutralizing antibody in serum and the vaginal lumen...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
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