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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213749/effect-of-continuous-sub-culturing-on-infectivity-of-clostridium-perfringens-atcc13124-in-mouse-gas-gangrene-model
#1
Ravi Bhushan Kumar, Syed Imteyaz Alam
Clostridium perfringens is a Validated Biological Agent and a pathogen of medical, veterinary, and military significance. Gas gangrene is the most destructive of all the clostridial diseases and is caused by C. perfringens type A strains wherein the infection spreads quickly (several inches per hour) with production of gas. Influence of repeated in vitro cultivation on the infectivity of C. perfringens was investigated by comparing the surface proteins of laboratory strain and repository strains of the bacterium using 2DE-MS approach...
February 17, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212848/major-vectors-and-vector-borne-diseases-in-small-ruminants-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Kassahun Asmare, Takele Abayneh, Berhanu Sibhat, Dessie Shiferaw, Barbara Szonyi, Randi I Krontveit, Eystein Skjerve, Barbara Wieland
Vector-borne diseases are among major health constraints of small ruminant in Ethiopia. While various studies on single vector-borne diseases or presence of vectors have been conducted, no summarized evidence is available on the occurrence of these diseases and the related vectors. This systematic literature review provides a comprehensive summary on major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Search for published and unpublished literature was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015...
February 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211266/-non-febrile-syndromes-in-the-traveler-returning-from-tropical-regions-admitted-in-a-monographic-unit
#3
A Anula-Morales, B Martin-Giner, M Hernández-Cabrera, C Carranza-Rodríguez, E Pisos-Álamo, N Jaén-Sánchez, J L Pérez-Arellano
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to analyse those syndromes without fever in travellers who return from tropical regions evaluated at our Department of Infectology and Tropical Medicine. Clarifying these conditions intends to reach earlier diagnoses and, perhaps, to avoid the emergence and spread of imported diseases, as well as to establish appropriate preventive measures. METHODS: An observational descriptive transversal study was performed, selecting those patients who returned from tropical regions without fever (n = 281), amongst all travellers evaluated in our department between 1998 and 2013...
February 17, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211008/injected-amyloid-beta-in-the-olfactory-bulb-transfers-to-other-brain-regions-via-neural-connections-in-mice
#4
Baixuan He, Minying Zheng, Qiang Liu, Zhe Shi, Simei Long, Xilin Lu, Zhong Pei, Ti-Fei Yuan, Huanxing Su, Xiaoli Yao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive neuronal degeneration and pathological accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain. It has been proposed that the prion-like spreading of amyloid beta (Aβ) protein could contribute to the progression of the disease. Olfactory bulb (OB) is one of the earliest brain regions affected in AD and olfaction is easily impaired prior to cognitive symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether Aβ accumulation in the OB would spread along olfactory projections to other connected brain regions and trigger further neurodegeneration...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210916/a-multiscale-mathematical-model-of-tumour-invasive-growth
#5
Lu Peng, Dumitru Trucu, Ping Lin, Alastair Thompson, Mark A J Chaplain
Known as one of the hallmarks of cancer (Hanahan and Weinberg in Cell 100:57-70, 2000) cancer cell invasion of human body tissue is a complicated spatio-temporal multiscale process which enables a localised solid tumour to transform into a systemic, metastatic and fatal disease. This process explores and takes advantage of the reciprocal relation that solid tumours establish with the extracellular matrix (ECM) components and other multiple distinct cell types from the surrounding microenvironment. Through the secretion of various proteolytic enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases or the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), the cancer cell population alters the configuration of the surrounding ECM composition and overcomes the physical barriers to ultimately achieve local cancer spread into the surrounding tissue...
February 16, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209200/roles-of-preoperative-c-reactive-protein-are-more-relevant-in-buccal-cancer-than-other-subsites
#6
Shiao Fwu Tai, Huei-Tzu Chien, Chi-Kuang Young, Chung-Kang Tsao, Alba de Pablo, Kang-Hsing Fan, Chun-Ta Liao, Hung-Ming Wang, Chung-Jan Kang, Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang, Shiang-Fu Huang
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an early marker for inflammation, and a relationship between serum CRP levels and survival in oral cancer has been demonstrated previously. In this study, we investigated the roles of CRP in different oral cancer subsites. METHODS: Three hundred and forty-three oral squamous cell carcinoma patients between June 1999 and March 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Serum CRP levels were measured preoperatively. RESULTS: The elevation of CRP levels (≥5...
February 16, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209138/using-whole-genome-sequencing-to-investigate-transmission-in-a-multi-host-system-bovine-tuberculosis-in-new-zealand
#7
Joseph Crispell, Ruth N Zadoks, Simon R Harris, Brent Paterson, Desmond M Collins, Geoffrey W de-Lisle, Paul Livingstone, Mark A Neill, Roman Biek, Samantha J Lycett, Rowland R Kao, Marian Price-Carter
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is an important livestock disease raising public health and economic concerns around the world. In New Zealand, a number of wildlife species are implicated in the spread and persistence of bTB in cattle populations, most notably the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Whole Genome Sequenced (WGS) M. bovis isolates sourced from infected cattle and wildlife across New Zealand were analysed. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted to estimate the substitution rate of the sampled population and investigate the role of wildlife...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208855/dengue-an-analysis-of-epidemiological-pattern-over-a-six-year-period
#8
Nidhi Singla, Preeti Chaudhary, Monika Thakur, Jagdish Chander
INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an arboviral infection transmitted among humans by Aedes aegypti, the urban vector and Aedes albopictus as a maintenance vector in sub-urban and rural areas. The diagnosis is routinely established by detection of NS1 antigen and/or by IgM antibodies testing. Dengue infects 50-100 million cases per year worldwide with atleast half million serious cases needing hospitalization. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the surveillance ongoing to timely look out for changes occurring in disease pattern over a geographical area...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208595/congenital-malformations-in-river-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#9
REVIEW
Sara Albarella, Francesca Ciotola, Emanuele D'Anza, Angelo Coletta, Luigi Zicarelli, Vincenzo Peretti
The world buffalo population is about 168 million, and it is still growing, in India, China, Brazil, and Italy. In these countries, buffalo genetic breeding programs have been performed for many decades. The occurrence of congenital malformations has caused a slowing of the genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals, or damage to their reproductive ability or failing of milk production. Moreover, they cause animal welfare reduction because they can imply foetal dystocia and because the affected animals have a reduced fitness with little chances of survival...
February 10, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208446/effective-distances-for-epidemics-spreading-on-complex-networks
#10
Flavio Iannelli, Andreas Koher, Dirk Brockmann, Philipp Hövel, Igor M Sokolov
We show that the recently introduced logarithmic metrics used to predict disease arrival times on complex networks are approximations of more general network-based measures derived from random walks theory. Using the daily air-traffic transportation data we perform numerical experiments to compare the infection arrival time with this alternative metric that is obtained by accounting for multiple walks instead of only the most probable path. The comparison with direct simulations reveals a higher correlation compared to the shortest-path approach used previously...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207977/adaptation-of-the-pathogen-pseudomonas-syringae-during-experimental-evolution-on-a-native-versus-alternative-host-plant
#11
Sean Meaden, Britt Koskella
The specialization and distribution of pathogens among species has substantial impact on disease spread, especially when reservoir hosts can maintain high pathogen densities or select for increased pathogen virulence. Theory predicts that optimal within-host growth rate will vary among host genotypes/species, and therefore that pathogens infecting multiple hosts should experience different selection pressures depending on the host environment in which they are found. This should be true for pathogens with broad host ranges, but also those experiencing opportunistic infections on novel hosts or that spill over among host populations...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207905/the-one-health-approach-to-identify-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-that-affect-community-involvement-in-the-control-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks
#12
Osama Ahmed Hassan, Hippolyte Affognon, Joacim Rocklöv, Peter Mburu, Rosemary Sang, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral mosquito-borne disease with the potential for global expansion, causes hemorrhagic fever, and has a high case fatality rate in young animals and in humans. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living in small village in Sudan with respect to RVF outbreaks. A special One Health questionnaire was developed to compile data from 235 heads of household concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to controlling RVF...
February 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207688/transmission-of-zika-virus-haiti-october-12-2015-september-10-2016
#13
Ito Journel, Lesly L Andrécy, Dudley Metellus, Jean S Pierre, Rose Murka Faublas, Stanley Juin, Amber M Dismer, David L Fitter, Daniel Neptune, Marie José Laraque, Salomon Corvil, Manise Pierre, Josiane Buteau, Donald Lafontant, Roopal Patel, Jean Frantz Lemoine, David W Lowrance, Macarthur Charles, Jacques Boncy, Paul Adrien
Zika virus disease is caused by infection with a flavivirus with broad geographic distribution and is most frequently transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. The disease was first identified in the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas in 2015 and was followed by a surge in reported cases of congenital microcephaly in Brazil; Zika virus disease rapidly spread to the rest of the region and the Caribbean (1), including Haiti. Infection with the virus is associated with adverse fetal outcomes (1) and rare neurologic complications in adults...
February 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206865/assessment-of-a-simple-compound-saving-method-to-study-insecticidal-activity-of-natural-extracts-and-pure-compounds-against-mosquito-larvae
#14
Michaël Falkowski, Arnaud Jahn-Oyac, Emma Ferrero, Jean Issaly, Véronique Eparvier, Romain Girod, Alice M S Rodrigues, Didier Stien, Emeline Houël, Isabelle Dusfour
Research on natural insecticides has intensified with the spread of resistance to chemicals among insects, particularly disease vectors. To evaluate compounds, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published standardized procedures. However, those may be excessively compound-consuming when it comes to assessing the activity of natural extracts and pure compounds isolated in limited amount. As part of our work on the discovery of new mosquito larvicides from Amazonian plants, we developed a compound-saving assay in 5-ml glass tubes instead of WHO larval 100-ml cups...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205565/entorhinal-cortex-dysfunction-can-be-rescued-by-inhibition-of-microglial-rage-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#15
Chiara Criscuolo, Veronica Fontebasso, Silvia Middei, Martina Stazi, Martine Ammassari-Teule, Shirley ShiDu Yan, Nicola Origlia
The Entorhinal cortex (EC) has been implicated in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, spreading of neuronal dysfunction within the EC-Hippocampal network has been suggested. We have investigated the time course of EC dysfunction in the AD mouse model carrying human mutation of amyloid precursor protein (mhAPP) expressing human Aβ. We found that in mhAPP mice plasticity impairment is first observed in EC superficial layer and further affected with time. A selective impairment of LTP was observed in layer II horizontal connections of EC slices from 2 month old mhAPP mice, whereas at later stage of neurodegeneration (6 month) basal synaptic transmission and LTD were also affected...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205494/language-deficits-as-a-preclinical-window-into-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-from-asymptomatic-parkin-and-dardarin-mutation-carriers
#16
Adolfo M García, Lucas Sedeño, Natalia Trujillo, Yamile Bocanegra, Diana Gomez, David Pineda, Andrés Villegas, Edinson Muñoz, William Arias, Agustín Ibáñez
OBJECTIVES: The worldwide spread of Parkinson's disease (PD) calls for sensitive and specific measures enabling its early (or, ideally, preclinical) detection. Here, we use language measures revealing deficits in PD to explore whether similar disturbances are present in asymptomatic individuals at risk for the disease. METHODS: We administered executive, semantic, verb-production, and syntactic tasks to sporadic PD patients, genetic PD patients with PARK2 (parkin) or LRRK2 (dardarin) mutation, asymptomatic first-degree relatives of the latter with similar mutations, and socio-demographically matched controls...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205368/cancer-as-a-contagious-disease
#17
REVIEW
H V Siddle
Contagious cancers are malignant cells that are physically transferred between individuals as a natural allograft, forming new clonal tumours. These cancers are highly unusual, but have emerged in 2 mammalian species, the dog and the Tasmanian devil, as well as 4 species of bivalve. The transfer of malignant cells in mammals should initiate a robust immune response and although invertebrates have a less complex immune system, these species still have mechanisms that should prevent engraftment and protect against cellular parasitism...
February 15, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203367/efficacy-of-washing-and-disinfection-in-cattle-markets-in-ireland
#18
Jarlath T O Connor, Tracy A Clegg, Simon J More
BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported on the effectiveness of the washing and disinfection methods used in cattle markets in Ireland. Purchasing cattle into recipient herds poses a high biosecurity risk due to the possibility of introducing disease. In Ireland, livestock markets are an important intermediary in the movement of cattle to new herds. Thus disease control strategies need to consider the disease risk associated with moving livestock through markets. Some cattle are also moved directly from markets for slaughter at abattoirs...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203202/plasma-exosomes-spread-and-cluster-around-%C3%AE-amyloid-plaques-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Tingting Zheng, Jiali Pu, Yanxing Chen, Yanfang Mao, Zhangyu Guo, Hongyu Pan, Ling Zhang, Heng Zhang, Binggui Sun, Baorong Zhang
Exosomes, a type of extracellular vesicle, have been shown to be involved in many disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Exosomes may contribute to the spread of misfolded proteins such as amyloid-β (Aβ) and α-synuclein. However, the specific diffusion process of exosomes and their final destination in brain are still unclear. In the present study, we isolated exosomes from peripheral plasma and injected them into the hippocampus of an AD mouse model, and investigated exosome diffusion. We found that injected exosomes can spread from the dentate gyrus (DG) to other regions of hippocampus and to the cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202819/-melas-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes
#20
Hidetomo Murakami, Kenjiro Ono
Mitochondrial disease is caused by a deficiency in the energy supply to cells due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a mitochondrial disease that presents with stroke-like episodes such as acute onset of neurological deficits and characteristic imaging findings. Stroke-like episodes in MELAS have the following features: 1) neurological deficits due to localization of lesions in the brain, 2) episodes often accompany epilepsy, 3) lesions do not follow the vascular supply area, 4) lesions are more often seen in the posterior brain than in the anterior brain, 5) lesions spread to an adjacent area in the brain, and 6) neurological symptoms often disappear together with imaging findings, but later relapse...
February 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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