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Fluid and water balance

Leonard Nainggolan, Saptawati Bardosono, Ermita I Ibrahim Ilyas
Background: Plasma leakage plays an important role in dengue infection, and this condition can lead to hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and shock. Fluid replacement is the main treatment for dengue. There is a lack of evidence to support certain oral fluid therapy as a treatment for dengue patients. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate tolerability and efficacy of oral isotonic solution (OIS) compared to plain water as a fluid replacement in dengue patients...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Ana Margarida Monteiro, Olinda Marques, Sofia Martins, Ana Antunes
The authors report a case of a 15-year-old girl with hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome diagnosed in the neonatal period. The patient was admitted to the emergency room with impaired consciousness and hypoglycaemia. The day before, she increased her water intake to about 1.5 L to perform a pelvic ultrasound. In the following hours, she developed vomiting and food refusal. Blood analysis revealed hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, decreased serum osmolality and normal urinary density. Hyponatraemia and adrenal crisis were managed with a gradual but slow resolution of consciousness and electrolytic balance...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Rachel N Hardy, Zinar D Simsek, Brandon Curry, Sheri L Core, Terry Beltz, Baojian Xue, Alan K Johnson, Robert L Thunhorst, Kathleen S Curtis
Age-dependent impairments in the central control of compensatory responses to body fluid challenges have received scant experimental attention, especially in females. In the present study, we found that water drinking in response to β-adrenergic activation with isoproterenol (30 μg/kg, s.c.) was reduced by more than half in aged (25 mo) vs. young (5 mo) ovariectomized female Brown Norway rats. To determine whether this age-related decrease in water intake was accompanied by changes in central nervous system areas associated with fluid balance, we assessed astrocyte density and neuronal activation in the SFO, OVLT, SON, AP and NTS of these rats using immunohistochemical labeling for GFAP and c-fos, respectively...
March 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Cindi L Dennis, Andrew Jackson, Julie Borchers, Cordula Gruettner, Robert Ivkov
We show the effects of a time-invariant magnetic field on the physical structure and magnetic properties of a colloid comprising 44 nm diameter magnetite magnetic nanoparticles, with a 24 nm dextran shell, in water. Structural ordering in this colloid parallel to the magnetic field occurs simultaneously with the onset of a colloidal uniaxial anisotropy. Further increases in the applied magnetic field cause the nanoparticles to order perpendicular to the field, producing unexpected colloidal unidirectional and trigonal anisotropies...
March 1, 2018: Nanotechnology
Vineet Augustine, Sertan Kutal Gokce, Sangjun Lee, Bo Wang, Thomas J Davidson, Frank Reimann, Fiona Gribble, Karl Deisseroth, Carlos Lois, Yuki Oka
Neural circuits for appetites are regulated by both homeostatic perturbations and ingestive behaviour. However, the circuit organization that integrates these internal and external stimuli is unclear. Here we show in mice that excitatory neural populations in the lamina terminalis form a hierarchical circuit architecture to regulate thirst. Among them, nitric oxide synthase-expressing neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) are essential for the integration of signals from the thirst-driving neurons of the subfornical organ (SFO)...
February 28, 2018: Nature
Meredith G Mock, Katie R Hirsch, Malia N M Blue, Eric T Trexler, Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
The current study sought to evaluate the effects of post-exercise ingestion of a high molecular weight glucose polymer solution (HMW) compared to an isocaloric low molecular weight solution (LMW) or placebo (PLA) on subsequent cycling performance in female athletes. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 10 competitive female cyclists (Mean ± SD; Age = 25.7 ± 5.0 yrs; VO2peak = 49.7 ± 4.3 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed three testing sessions separated by 7-10 days...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Chih-Wen Yang, Kwan-Tai Leung, Ren-Feng Ding, Hsien-Chen Ko, Yi-Hsien Lu, Chung-Kai Fang, Ing-Shouh Hwang
Atomic force microscopy is used to conduct single-asperity friction measurements at a water-graphite interface. Local mapping of the frictional force, which is based on the degree of the cantilever twisting, shows nearly friction-free when a tip scans over a nanobubble. Surprisingly, apart from being gapless, the associated friction loop exhibits a tilt in the cantilever twisting versus the tip's lateral displacement with the slope depending on the loading force. The sign of the slope reverses at around zero loading force...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nicole Hausser, Kathia Johnson, Margaret A Parsley, Jutatip Guptarak, Heidi Spratt, Stacy L Sell
With the increasing incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both civilian and military populations, TBI is now considered a chronic disease; however, few studies have investigated the long-term effects of injury in rodent models of TBI. Shown here are behavioral measures that are well-established in TBI research for times early after injury, such as two weeks, until two months. Some of these methods have previously been used at later times after injury, up to one year, but by very few laboratories. The methods demonstrated here are a short neurological assessment to test reflexes, a Beam-Balance to test balance, a Beam-Walk to test balance and motor coordination, and a working memory version of the Morris water maze that can be sensitive to deficits in reference memory...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yoko Tomo, Alexandros Askounis, Tatsuya Ikuta, Yasuyuki Takata, Khellil Sefiane, Koji Takahashi
Fluids confined in a nanoscale space behave differently than in the bulk due to strong interactions between fluid molecules and solid atoms. Here, we observed water confined inside "open" hydrophilized carbon nanotubes (CNT), with diameter of tens of nanometers, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A 1-7 nm water films adhering to most of the inner wall surface was observed and remained stable in the high vacuum (order of 10-5 Pa) of the TEM. The super-stability of this film was attributed to a combination of curvature, nano-roughness and confinement resulting in a lower vapor pressure for water and hence inhibiting its vaporization...
February 9, 2018: Nano Letters
Gil Y Yerushalmi, Lidiya Misyura, Heath A MacMillan, Andrew Donini
At low temperatures, Drosophila, like most insects, lose the ability to regulate ion and water balance across the gut epithelia, which can lead to a lethal increase of [K+] in the hemolymph (hyperkalemia). Cold-acclimation, the physiological response to a prior low temperature exposure, can mitigate or entirely prevent these ion imbalances, but the physiological mechanisms that facilitate this process are not well understood. Here, we test whether plasticity in the ionoregulatory physiology of the gut and Malpighian tubules of Drosophila may aid in preserving ion homeostasis in the cold...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Robert H Glew, Zeid J Khitan, Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Christos P Argyropoulos, Deepak Malhotra, Dominic S Raj, Emmanuel I Agaba, Mark Rohrscheib, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
The regulation of body fluid balance is a key concern in health and disease and comprises three concepts. The first concept pertains to the relationship between total body water (TBW) and total effective solute and is expressed in terms of the tonicity of the body fluids. Disturbances in tonicity are the main factor responsible for changes in cell volume, which can critically affect brain cell function and survival. Solutes distributed almost exclusively in the extracellular compartment (mainly sodium salts) and in the intracellular compartment (mainly potassium salts) contribute to tonicity, while solutes distributed in TBW have no effect on tonicity...
January 6, 2018: World Journal of Nephrology
Horacio V Guzman, Christoph Junghans, Kurt Kremer, Torsten Stuehn
Multiscale and inhomogeneous molecular systems are challenging topics in the field of molecular simulation. In particular, modeling biological systems in the context of multiscale simulations and exploring material properties are driving a permanent development of new simulation methods and optimization algorithms. In computational terms, those methods require parallelization schemes that make a productive use of computational resources for each simulation and from its genesis. Here, we introduce the heterogeneous domain decomposition approach, which is a combination of an heterogeneity-sensitive spatial domain decomposition with an a priori rearrangement of subdomain walls...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Heather K Vincent, Laura A Zdziarski, Kyle Fallgatter, Giorgio Negron, Cong Chen, Trevor Leavitt, MaryBeth Horodyski, Joseph G Wasser, Kevin R Vincent
PURPOSE: This study determined whether differential kinematics, kinetics, rates of energy use and cardiopulmonary responses occurred during running with water bottles and bottle belt holders compared to running only. METHODS: Trained runners (N=42; 27.2±6.4 yr) ran on an instrumented treadmill for four conditions in a randomized order: 1) control run (CON); 2) hand-held full water bottle (FULL, 16.9 fluid oz; 454 g); 3) hand-held half-full water bottle (HALF, 8...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Bellamkonda K Kishore, Simon C Robson, Karen M Dwyer
Extracellular ATP interacts with purinergic type 2 (P2) receptors and elicits many crucial biological functions. Extracellular ATP is sequentially hydrolyzed to ADP and AMP by the actions of defined nucleotidases, such as CD39, and AMP is converted to adenosine, largely by CD73, an ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Extracellular adenosine interacts with P1 receptors and often opposes the effects of P2 receptor activation. The balance between extracellular ATP and adenosine in the blood and extracellular fluid is regulated chiefly by the activities of CD39 and CD73, which constitute the CD39-adenosinergic axis...
January 13, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
David B Kantor, Eliotte L Hirshberg, Molly C McDonald, Jonathan Griffin, Tess Buccigrosso, Nicole Stenquist, Craig D Smallwood, Kyle A Nelson, David Zurakowski, Wanda Phipatanakul, Joel N Hirschhorn
RATIONALE: The effects of fluid administration during acute asthma exacerbation are likely unique in this patient population: highly negative inspiratory intrapleural pressure resulting from increased airway resistance may interact with excess fluid administration to favor the accumulation of extravascular lung water, leading to worse clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Investigate how fluid balance influences clinical outcomes in children hospitalized for asthma exacerbation...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Tamara M Kear
Optional function of body systems depends upon fluid and electrolyte balance; however, across the lifespan, disorders of fluid and electrolytes offset this, and the causative factors are varied. Nurses play a major role in the management of fluid and electrolyte balance. This article focuses on the role total body water content, plasma proteins, kidney function, and drug metabolism have on the age-related physiology impacting fluid and electrolyte balance, and on nursing implications.
November 2017: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
Nina S Stachenfeld, Cheryl A Leone, E Soibhan Mitchell, Eric Freese, Laura Harkness
INTRODUCTION: Healthy women do not always consume Recommended Daily Levels of fluid intake ad libitum. We hypothesized that 1) women lose≥1.0% BW during daily activities, 2) that mild body water loss impairs memory and executive function, 3) water intake to recommended daily levels will improve cognitive function. METHODS: We tested 12 women (26±5yr, 22.5±2.6kg/m2 BMI). Session 1 was a control (CON) session, during which subjects monitored their food and fluid intake (diary) and activity (Fitbit®)...
December 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Kyoko Namura, Kaoru Nakajima, Motofumi Suzuki
We experimentally investigated Marangoni flows around a microbubble in diluted 1-butanol/water, 2-propanol/water, and ethanol/water mixtures using the thermoplasmonic effect of gold nanoisland film. A laser spot on the gold nanoisland film acted as a highly localized heat source that was utilized to generate stable air microbubbles with diameters of 32-48 μm in the fluid and to induce a steep temperature gradient on the bubble surface. The locally heated bubble has a flow along the bubble surface, with the flow direction showing a clear transition depending on the alcohol concentrations...
December 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
C W Extrand
The onset of drainage of liquids from fluid-handling components with a single, circular orifice was evaluated. A component was filled with water, ethylene glycol, or ethyl alcohol and then oriented vertically with its orifice facing downward. The lower end of the component was slowly tilted toward the horizon. No flow occurred until a critical angle of inclination was reached. The onset of drainage was successfully modeled as a balance between the hydrostatic pressure in the bulk liquid and the Laplace pressure of the air-liquid interface within the orifice...
December 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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