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Fluid and water balance

Piyaphong Panpisut, Saad Liaqat, Eleni Zacharaki, Wendy Xia, Haralampos Petridis, Anne Margaret Young
PURPOSE: This study developed light cured dental composites with added monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), tristrontium phosphate (TSrP) and antimicrobial polylysine (PLS). The aim was to produce composites that have enhanced water sorption induced expansion, can promote apatite precipitation and release polylysine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental composite formulations consisted of light activated dimethacrylate monomers combined with 80 wt% powder. The powder phase contained a dental glass with and without PLS (2...
2016: PloS One
M C O van IJzendoorn, H Buter, W P Kingma, G J Navis, E C Boerma
Background. ICU acquired hypernatremia (IAH, serum sodium concentration (sNa) ≥ 143 mmol/L) is mainly considered iatrogenic, induced by sodium overload and water deficit. Main goal of the current paper was to answer the following questions: Can the development of IAH indeed be explained by sodium intake and water balance? Or can it be explained by renal cation excretion? Methods. Two retrospective studies were conducted: a balance study in 97 ICU patients with and without IAH and a survey on renal cation excretion in 115 patients with IAH...
2016: Critical Care Research and Practice
Stacy L Sell, Kathia M Johnson, Douglas DeWitt, Donald S Prough
Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is now considered a chronic disease, few studies have investigated the long-term behavioral deficits elicited by a well-established rodent model of injury. Here we evaluate behavioral measures, commonly used in TBI research, to determine which tests are useful for studying long-term effects of brain injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were handled and pre-trained to neurological, balance and motor coordination tests prior to receiving parasagittal fluid-percussion-injury (FPI), sham-injury or maintenance as naïve cohorts...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hans K H Ng, Kaleeckal G Harikumar, Laurence J Miller, Billy K C Chow
The involvement of secretin (SCT) and secretin receptor (SCTR) in regulating body water homeostasis is well established. Identified as one of the vasopressin (Vp)-independent mechanisms in fluid balance, SCT regulates aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in the kidney distal collecting duct cells through activating intracellular cAMP production. This ability to bypass Vp-mediated water reabsorption in kidney implicates SCT's potential to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Research on NDI in the past has largely been focused on the searching for mutations in vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2), while the functional relationship between SCTR, AVPR2 and NDI remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
Andrew J Kondash, Elizabeth Albright, Avner Vengosh
The management and disposal of flowback and produced waters (FP water) is one of the greatest challenges associated with unconventional oil and gas development. The development and production of unconventional natural gas and oil is projected to increase in the coming years, and a better understanding of the volume and quality of FP water is crucial for the safe management of the associated wastewater. We analyzed production data using multiple statistical methods to estimate the total FP water generated per well from six of the major unconventional oil and gas formations in the United States...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Otto Schück, Miroslava Horáčková
UNLABELLED: The differential diagnosis of hyponatremia is often difficult. This most frequently occurring disorder of the water and electrolyte metabolism is frequently connected with deviations relating to the acid-base balance (ABB). This survey analyzes the relationship between the changes of the volume of body fluids and ABB and infers to what extent the analysis of combinations of the two disorders can support the differential diagnosis of different forms of hyponatremia (differentiation between the dilution vs...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Elaine M Kaptein, Divya Sreeramoju, John M Kaptein, Matthew J Kaptein
BACKGROUND: Wide ranges of sodium concentrations for different body fluid losses have been noted with minimal substantiating data and variability among sources, leading to use of "cumulative fluid balance" regardless of composition in hospitalized patients. AIMS: To define the sodium concentrations of fluid losses from the body. METHOD: We performed a systematic search and literature review in adult humans using PubMed database. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were met for 107 full-text articles...
October 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Tatiane Vilhena-Franco, André Souza Mecawi, Lucila Leico Kagohara Elias, José Antunes-Rodrigues
Water deprivation (WD) induces changes in plasma volume and osmolality, which in turn activate several responses, including thirst, the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion. These systems seem to be influenced by oestradiol, as evidenced by the expression of its receptor in brain areas that control fluid balance. Thus, we investigated the effects of oestradiol treatment on behavioural and neuroendocrine changes of ovariectomized rats in response to WD...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Carla Bizzarri, Stefania Pedicelli, Marco Cappa, Stefano Cianfarani
In newborns and infants, dehydration and salt wasting represent a relatively common cause of admission to hospital and may result in life-threatening complications. Kidneys are responsible for electrolyte homoeostasis, but neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the distal nephron, leading to reduced ability to concentrate urine. High extrarenal fluid losses often contribute to the increased occurrence of electrolyte disorders. Aldosterone is essential for sodium retention in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands and colon...
September 7, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco2) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Ashkan Davanlou
It is known that the temperature difference between a droplet and a liquid surface can extend the levitation time of that droplet by providing a thin air film between the surface and the droplet. However, the effect of fluid properties, liquid surface velocity, and air film thickness on the lifetime of droplets is still not well understood. Also, there is inconsistency in the literature about the role of vapor pressure in noncoalescence. Here we test a variety of liquids including silicone oil, Fluorinert, and water to understand the effect of surface tension, density ratio, viscosity, and heat capacity on the lifetime of a droplet...
September 27, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ismael San Mauro Martín, Denisse Aracely Romo Orozco, Paula Mendive Dubourdieu, Elena Garicano Vilar, Ana Valente, Fabiana Betancor, Alexis Daniel Morales Hurtado, Cristina Garagarza
INTRODUCTION: Achieving an adequate intake of water is crucial within a balanced diet. For that purpose, dietary guidelines for healthy eating and drinking are an important consideration and need to be updated and disseminated to the population. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the liquid intake habits of a Mediterranean and Latin American population (Spain-Portugal and Mexico-Uruguay) and if they support the current recommendations of hydration by the EFSA. METHODS: A record of fluid intake was obtained from 1168 participants from 4 countries above; and then compared with current consensus about hydration 1600 mL/day (female) and 2000 mL/day (male)...
2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Helen Williams
It is proposed that negative central nervous system (CNS) pressure is one of the filling mechanisms of the fluid spaces of the CNS. Negative CNS pressure is caused by the combination of gravitational force and body movement. The venous system imposes pressure fluctuations on the CNS due to changes in posture and body cavity pressure. It is proposed here that filling of veins, arteries and cerebrospinal (CSF) spaces are all assisted by negative CNS pressure. Hyperemia in the CNS in response to pressure changes with movement was described in the first part of this hypothesis...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Christopher A Zimmerman, Yen-Chu Lin, David E Leib, Ling Guo, Erica L Huey, Gwendolyn E Daly, Yiming Chen, Zachary A Knight
Thirst motivates animals to drink in order to maintain fluid balance. Thirst has conventionally been viewed as a homeostatic response to changes in blood volume or tonicity. However, most drinking behaviour is regulated too rapidly to be controlled by blood composition directly, and instead seems to anticipate homeostatic imbalances before they arise. How this is achieved remains unknown. Here we reveal an unexpected role for the subfornical organ (SFO) in the anticipatory regulation of thirst in mice. By monitoring deep-brain calcium dynamics, we show that thirst-promoting SFO neurons respond to inputs from the oral cavity during eating and drinking and then integrate these inputs with information about the composition of the blood...
August 3, 2016: Nature
Martin Kroupa, Michal Vonka, Miroslav Soos, Juraj Kosek
The rheological behavior of concentrated suspensions is a complicated problem because it originates in the collective motion of particles and their interaction with the surrounding fluid. For this reason, it is difficult to accurately model the effect of various system parameters on the viscosity even for highly simplified systems. We model the viscosity of a hard-sphere suspension subjected to high shear rates using the dynamic discrete element method (DEM) in three spatial dimensions. The contact interaction between particles was described by the Hertz model of elastic spheres (soft-sphere model), and the interaction of particles with flow was accounted for by the two-way coupling approach...
August 23, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ramy Magdy Hanna, Wan-Ting Yang, Eduardo A Lopez, Joseph Nabil Riad, James Wilson
BACKGROUND: Improper correction of hyponatremia can cause severe complications, including osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). The Adrogué-Madias equation (AM), the Barsoum-Levine (BL) equation, the Electrolyte Free Water Clearance (EFWC) equation and the Nguyen-Kurtz (NK) equation are four derived equations based on the empirically derived Edelman equation for predicting sodium at a later time (Na2) from a known starting sodium (Na1), fluid/electrolyte composition and input and output volumes...
August 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
Suzanne Seery, Philip Jakeman
Appropriate rehydration and nutrient intake in recovery is a key component of exercise performance. This study investigated whether the recovery of body net fluid balance (NFB) following exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of body mass (BM) was enhanced by a metered rate of ingestion of milk (M) compared with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) or water (W). In randomised order, seven active men (aged 26·2 (sd 6·1) years) undertook exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of BM on three occasions...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
M Schrader, B Treff, T Sandholtet, N Maassen, V Shushakov, J Kaesebieter, M Maassen
BACKGROUND: Investigations of the effect of beverages containing carbohydrates, only, on the sodium and fluid balance during intermittent exercise of high intensity are rare. Therefore, we compared the effects of water and carbohydrate supplementation on plasma, blood volume, and electrolyte shifts during intermittent exercise. METHODS: Ten male subjects performed an intermittent exercise test twice. In one trial, tap water (4 ml/kg/15 min) was consumed (Plac trial)...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Zhiting Wang, Junjie Zhao, Abhijeet Bagal, Erinn C Dandley, Christopher J Oldham, Tiegang Fang, Gregory N Parsons, Chih-Hao Chang
Wicking, the absorption of liquid into narrow spaces without the assistance of external forces, has drawn much attention due to its potential applications in many engineering fields. Increasing surface roughness using micro/nanostructures can improve capillary action to enhance wicking. However, reducing the structure length scale can also result in significant viscous forces to impede wicking. In this work, we demonstrate enhanced wicking dynamics by using nanostructures with three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical features to increase the surface area while mitigating the obstruction of liquid flow...
August 16, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Lieqi Tang, Catherine Y Cheng, Xiangrong Sun, Alexandra J Pedicone, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, Sam X Cheng
Different from other epithelia, the intestinal epithelium has the complex task of providing a barrier impeding the entry of toxins, food antigens, and microbes, while at the same time allowing for the transfer of nutrients, electrolytes, water, and microbial metabolites. These molecules/organisms are transported either transcellularly, crossing the apical and basolateral membranes of enterocytes, or paracellularly, passing through the space between enterocytes. Accordingly, the intestinal epithelium can affect energy metabolism, fluid balance, as well as immune response and tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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