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Fluid and water balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769818/carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-and-hydration-strategies-on-cycling-performance-in-30-km-time-trial-a-randomized-crossover-controlled-trial
#1
Amanda M J Ferreira, Luiz F Farias-Junior, Thaynan A A Mota, Hassan M Elsangedy, Aline Marcadenti, Telma M A M Lemos, Alexandre H Okano, Ana P T Fayh
The aim of this study was to investigate whether carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) improves physical performance of cyclists during a 30-km time trial test and its influence on water balance compared to other strategies of fluid intake. Eleven recreationally trained male cyclists completed a 30 km time trial cycle ergometer under three experimental interventions: (a) CMR, (b) drinking to replace all weight loss (DWL), and (c) drinking "ad libitum" (DAL). Time to complete the 30 km time trial, heart rate, average power, velocity, weight loss, urine color, urine density and pH were evaluated...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740578/using-electrolyte-free-water-balance-to-rationalize-and-treat-dysnatremias
#2
REVIEW
Sanjeev R Shah, Gautam Bhave
Dysnatremias or abnormalities in plasma [Na+ ] are often termed disorders of water balance, an unclear physiologic concept often confused with changes in total fluid balance. However, most clinicians clearly recognize that hypertonic or hypotonic gains or losses alter plasma [Na+ ], while isotonic changes do not modify plasma [Na+ ]. This concept can be conceptualized as the electrolyte free water balance (EFWB), which defines the non-isotonic components of inputs and outputs to determine their effect on plasma [Na+ ]...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726604/thermodynamic-insights-into-effects-of-water-displacement-and-rearrangement-upon-ligand-modification-using-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#3
Joel Wahl, Martin Smiesko
Computational methods, namely Molecular Dynamics Simulations (MD simulations) in combination with Inhomogeneous Fluid Solvation Theory (IFST) were used to retrospectively investigate various cases of ligand structure modifications that led to the displacement of binding site water molecules. Our findings are that the water displacement per se is energetically unfavorable in the discussed examples, and that it is merely the fine balance between change in protein-ligand interaction energy, ligand solvation free energies and binding site solvation free energies that determine if water displacement is favorable or not...
May 4, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691755/my-patient-has-received-fluid-how-to-assess-its-efficacy-and-side-effects
#4
REVIEW
Xavier Monnet, Jean-Louis Teboul
Many efforts have been made to predict, before giving fluid, whether it will increase cardiac output. Nevertheless, after fluid administration, it is also essential to assess the therapeutic efficacy and to look for possible adverse effects. Like for any drug, this step should not be missed. Basically, volume expansion is aimed at improving tissue oxygenation and organ function. To assess this final result, clinical signs are often unhelpful. The increase in urine output in case of acute kidney injury is a poor marker of the kidney perfusion improvement...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657727/preoperative-fluid-restriction-for-trauma-patients-with-hemorrhagic-shock-decreases-ventilator-days
#5
Shigenari Matsuyama, Ryusuke Miki, Hirotada Kittaka, Haruki Nakayama, Shota Kikuta, Satoshi Ishihara, Shinichi Nakayama
Aim: In recent years, with the concept of damage control resuscitation, hemostasis and preoperative fluid restriction have been carried out, but there is controversy regarding the effectiveness of fluid restriction. Methods: From April 2007 to March 2013, 101 trauma patients presented with hemorrhagic shock (systolic blood pressure ≤90 mmHg) at the prehospital or emergency department and were admitted to Hyogo Emergency Medical Center (Hyogo, Japan). They underwent emergency hemostasis by surgery and transcatheter arterial embolization...
April 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616878/integrating-competing-demands-of-osmoregulatory-and-thermoregulatory-homeostasis
#6
Michael J McKinley, Davide Martelli, Glenn L Pennington, David Trevaks, Robin M McAllen
Mammals are characterized by a stable core body temperature. When maintenance of core temperature is challenged by ambient or internal heat loads, mammals increase blood flow to the skin, sweat and/or pant, or salivate. These thermoregulatory responses enable evaporative cooling at moist surfaces to dissipate body heat. If water losses incurred during evaporative cooling are not replaced, body fluid homeostasis is challenged. This article reviews the way mammals balance thermoregulation and osmoregulation.
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593868/recommendations-for-active-correction-of-hypernatremia-in-volume-resuscitated-shock-or-sepsis-patients-should-be-taken-with-a-grain-of-salt-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Joseph W Quinn, Kerry Sewell, Dell E Simmons
Background: Healthcare-acquired hypernatremia (serum sodium >145 mEq/dL) is common among critically ill and other hospitalized patients and is usually treated with hypotonic fluid and/or diuretics to correct a "free water deficit." However, many hypernatremic patients are eu- or hypervolemic, and an evolving body of literature emphasizes the importance of rapidly returning critically ill patients to a neutral fluid balance after resuscitation. Objective: We searched for any randomized- or observational-controlled studies evaluating the impact of active interventions intended to correct hypernatremia to eunatremia on any outcome in volume-resuscitated patients with shock and/or sepsis...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584442/drainage-from-a-fluid-handling-component-with-multiple-orifices-due-to-inclination-or-rotation
#8
C W Extrand
The onset of drainage of liquids from fluid-handling components with two or more orifices was evaluated. The components were filled with water, ethylene glycol, or ethyl alcohol and oriented vertically with their orifices facing downward. The lower end of the components was slowly raised toward the horizon. No flow occurred until a critical angle of inclination was reached. The resistance to drainage was greatest for small, closely spaced orifices and declined precipitously as the size and spacing of the orifices increased...
March 27, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531435/the-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-oral-isotonic-solution-versus-plain-water-in-dengue-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Leonard Nainggolan, Saptawati Bardosono, Ermita I Ibrahim Ilyas
Background: Plasma leakage plays an important role in dengue infection, and this condition can lead to hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and shock. Fluid replacement is the main treatment for dengue. There is a lack of evidence to support certain oral fluid therapy as a treatment for dengue patients. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate tolerability and efficacy of oral isotonic solution (OIS) compared to plain water as a fluid replacement in dengue patients...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523609/iatrogenic-water-intoxication-in-a-female-adolescent-with-hypopituitarism
#10
Ana Margarida Monteiro, Olinda Marques, Sofia Martins, Ana Antunes
The authors report a case of a 15-year-old girl with hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome diagnosed in the neonatal period. The patient was admitted to the emergency room with impaired consciousness and hypoglycaemia. The day before, she increased her water intake to about 1.5 L to perform a pelvic ultrasound. In the following hours, she developed vomiting and food refusal. Blood analysis revealed hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, decreased serum osmolality and normal urinary density. Hyponatraemia and adrenal crisis were managed with a gradual but slow resolution of consciousness and electrolytic balance...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518407/aging-affects-isoproterenol-induced-water-drinking-astrocyte-density-and-central-neuronal-activation-in-female-brown-norway-rats
#11
Rachel N Hardy, Zinar D Simsek, Brandon Curry, Sheri L Core, Terry Beltz, Baojian Xue, Alan K Johnson, Robert L Thunhorst, Kathleen S Curtis
Age-dependent impairments in the central control of compensatory responses to body fluid challenges have received scant experimental attention, especially in females. In the present study, we found that water drinking in response to β-adrenergic activation with isoproterenol (30 μg/kg, s.c.) was reduced by more than half in aged (25 mo) vs. young (5 mo) ovariectomized female Brown Norway rats. To determine whether this age-related decrease in water intake was accompanied by changes in central nervous system areas associated with fluid balance, we assessed astrocyte density and neuronal activation in the SFO, OVLT, SON, AP and NTS of these rats using immunohistochemical labeling for GFAP and c-fos, respectively...
March 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497325/the-importance-of-the-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-s-loop-in-renal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#12
REVIEW
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493534/correlation-between-physical-structure-and-magnetic-anisotropy-of-a-magnetic-nanoparticle-colloid
#13
C L Dennis, A J Jackson, J A Borchers, C Gruettner, R Ivkov
We show the effects of a time-invariant magnetic field on the physical structure and magnetic properties of a colloid comprising 44 nm diameter magnetite magnetic nanoparticles, with a 24 nm dextran shell, in water. Structural ordering in this colloid parallel to the magnetic field occurs simultaneously with the onset of a colloidal uniaxial anisotropy. Further increases in the applied magnetic field cause the nanoparticles to order perpendicular to the field, producing unexpected colloidal unidirectional and trigonal anisotropies...
May 25, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489747/hierarchical-neural-architecture-underlying-thirst-regulation
#14
Vineet Augustine, Sertan Kutal Gokce, Sangjun Lee, Bo Wang, Thomas J Davidson, Frank Reimann, Fiona Gribble, Karl Deisseroth, Carlos Lois, Yuki Oka
Neural circuits for appetites are regulated by both homeostatic perturbations and ingestive behaviour. However, the circuit organization that integrates these internal and external stimuli is unclear. Here we show in mice that excitatory neural populations in the lamina terminalis form a hierarchical circuit architecture to regulate thirst. Among them, nitric oxide synthase-expressing neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) are essential for the integration of signals from the thirst-driving neurons of the subfornical organ (SFO)...
March 8, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489721/post-exercise-ingestion-of-low-or-high-molecular-weight-glucose-polymer-solution-does-not-improve-cycle-performance-in-female-athletes
#15
Meredith G Mock, Katie R Hirsch, Malia N M Blue, Eric T Trexler, Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
The current study sought to evaluate the effects of post-exercise ingestion of a high molecular weight glucose polymer solution (HMW) compared to an isocaloric low molecular weight solution (LMW) or placebo (PLA) on subsequent cycling performance in female athletes. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 10 competitive female cyclists (Mean ± SD; Age = 25.7 ± 5.0 yrs; VO2peak = 49.7 ± 4.3 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed three testing sessions separated by 7-10 days...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449590/lateral-force-microscopy-of-interfacial-nanobubbles-friction-reduction-and-novel-frictional-behavior
#16
Chih-Wen Yang, Kwan-Tai Leung, Ren-Feng Ding, Hsien-Chen Ko, Yi-Hsien Lu, Chung-Kai Fang, Ing-Shouh Hwang
Atomic force microscopy is used to conduct single-asperity friction measurements at a water-graphite interface. Local mapping of the frictional force, which is based on the degree of the cantilever twisting, shows nearly friction-free when a tip scans over a nanobubble. Surprisingly, apart from being gapless, the associated friction loop exhibits a tilt in the cantilever twisting versus the tip's lateral displacement with the slope depending on the loading force. The sign of the slope reverses at around zero loading force...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443022/detecting-behavioral-deficits-in-rats-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Nicole Hausser, Kathia Johnson, Margaret A Parsley, Jutatip Guptarak, Heidi Spratt, Stacy L Sell
With the increasing incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both civilian and military populations, TBI is now considered a chronic disease; however, few studies have investigated the long-term effects of injury in rodent models of TBI. Shown here are behavioral measures that are well-established in TBI research for times early after injury, such as two weeks, until two months. Some of these methods have previously been used at later times after injury, up to one year, but by very few laboratories. The methods demonstrated here are a short neurological assessment to test reflexes, a Beam-Balance to test balance, a Beam-Walk to test balance and motor coordination, and a working memory version of the Morris water maze that can be sensitive to deficits in reference memory...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424547/superstable-ultrathin-water-film-confined-in-a-hydrophilized-carbon-nanotube
#18
Yoko Tomo, Alexandros Askounis, Tatsuya Ikuta, Yasuyuki Takata, Khellil Sefiane, Koji Takahashi
Fluids confined in a nanoscale space behave differently than in the bulk due to strong interactions between fluid molecules and solid atoms. Here, we observed water confined inside "open" hydrophilized carbon nanotubes (CNT), with diameter of tens of nanometers, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A 1-7 nm water film adhering to most of the inner wall surface was observed and remained stable in the high vacuum (order of 10-5 Pa) of the TEM. The superstability of this film was attributed to a combination of curvature, nanoroughness, and confinement resulting in a lower vapor pressure for water and hence inhibiting its vaporization...
March 14, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367271/functional-plasticity-of-the-gut-and-the-malpighian-tubules-underlies-cold-acclimation-and-mitigates-cold-induced-hyperkalemia-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Gil Y Yerushalmi, Lidiya Misyura, Heath A MacMillan, Andrew Donini
At low temperatures, Drosophila , like most insects, lose the ability to regulate ion and water balance across the gut epithelia, which can lead to a lethal increase of [K+ ] in the hemolymph (hyperkalemia). Cold acclimation, the physiological response to a prior low temperature exposure, can mitigate or entirely prevent these ion imbalances, but the physiological mechanisms that facilitate this process are not well understood. Here, we test whether plasticity in the ionoregulatory physiology of the gut and Malpighian tubules of Drosophila may aid in preserving ion homeostasis in the cold...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359117/fluid-balance-concepts-in-medicine-principles-and-practice
#20
REVIEW
Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Robert H Glew, Zeid J Khitan, Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Christos P Argyropoulos, Deepak Malhotra, Dominic S Raj, Emmanuel I Agaba, Mark Rohrscheib, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
The regulation of body fluid balance is a key concern in health and disease and comprises three concepts. The first concept pertains to the relationship between total body water (TBW) and total effective solute and is expressed in terms of the tonicity of the body fluids. Disturbances in tonicity are the main factor responsible for changes in cell volume, which can critically affect brain cell function and survival. Solutes distributed almost exclusively in the extracellular compartment (mainly sodium salts) and in the intracellular compartment (mainly potassium salts) contribute to tonicity, while solutes distributed in TBW have no effect on tonicity...
January 6, 2018: World Journal of Nephrology
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