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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494247/climatic-conditions-and-child-height-sex-specific-vulnerability-and-the-protective-effects-of-sanitation-and-food-markets-in-nepal
#1
Prajula Mulmi, Steven A Block, Gerald E Shively, William A Masters
Environmental conditions in early life are known to have impacts on later health outcomes, but causal mechanisms and potential remedies have been difficult to discern. This paper uses the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys of 2006 and 2011, combined with earlier NASA satellite observations of variation in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at each child's location and time of birth to identify the trimesters of gestation and periods of infancy when climate variation is linked to attained height later in life...
July 22, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25630201/mars-can-wait-facing-the-challenges-of-our-civilization
#2
Geoffrey Goodman, M Eric Gershwin, Dani Bercovich
We are overwhelmed by warnings about inevitable geophysical and human problems. Earth is beset by escalating, manmade, environmental crises and our exploding population will eventually lack water, food and vital materials. This suggests, together with increasing poverty, deepening social unrest and advanced techniques for mass killing, that civilization will break down long before atmospheric CO2 or resistant microbes become catastrophic. Despite intensive searching, life has not been found in space, even though thousands of planets have been found and life there may be as problematic and unpredictable as on Earth...
December 2014: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24038244/the-role-of-nutritional-research-in-the-success-of-human-space-flight
#3
Helen W Lane, Charles Bourland, Ann Barrett, Martina Heer, Scott M Smith
The United States has had human space flight programs for >50 y and has had a continued presence in space since 2000. Providing nutritious and safe food is imperative for astronauts because space travelers are totally dependent on launched food. Space flight research topics have included energy, protein, nutritional aspects of bone and muscle health, and vision issues related to 1-carbon metabolism. Research has shown that energy needs during flight are similar to energy needs on Earth. Low energy intakes affect protein turnover...
2013: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24012282/the-past-present-and-future-of-national-aeronautics-and-space-administration-spaceflight-diet-in-support-of-microgravity-rodent-experiments
#4
REVIEW
Gwo-Shing Sun, Janet C Tou, Diane Yu, Beverly E Girten, Jacob Cohen
Rodents have been the most frequently flown animal model used to study physiological responses to the space environment. In support of future of space exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) envisions an animal research program focused on rodents. Therefore, the development of a rodent diet that is suitable for the spaceflight environment including long duration spaceflight is a high priority. Recognizing the importance of nutrition in affecting spaceflight physiological responses and ensuring reliable biomedical and biological science return, NASA developed the nutrient-upgraded rodent food bar (NuRFB) as a standard diet for rodent spaceflight...
February 2014: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23801639/impact-of-derived-global-weather-data-on-simulated-crop-yields
#5
Justin van Wart, Patricio Grassini, Kenneth G Cassman
Crop simulation models can be used to estimate impact of current and future climates on crop yields and food security, but require long-term historical daily weather data to obtain robust simulations. In many regions where crops are grown, daily weather data are not available. Alternatively, gridded weather databases (GWD) with complete terrestrial coverage are available, typically derived from: (i) global circulation computer models; (ii) interpolated weather station data; or (iii) remotely sensed surface data from satellites...
December 2013: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23678438/an-update-to-space-biomedical-research-tissue-engineering-in-microgravity-bioreactors
#6
Abolfazl Barzegari, Amir Ata Saei
INTRODUCTION: The severe need for constructing replacement tissues in organ transplanta-tion has necessitated the development of tissue engineering approaches and bioreactors that can bring these approaches to reality. The inherent limitations of conventional bioreactors in generating realistic tissue constructs led to the devise of the microgravity tissue engineering that uses Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactors initially developed by NASA. METHODS: In this review article, we intend to highlight some major advances and accomplishments in the rapidly-growing field of tissue engineering that could not be achieved without using microgravity...
2012: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23621488/hiromeri-a-specialty-ham-of-cyprus-historical-evidence-culinary-and-cultural-perspectives
#7
Nasa Patapiou, Chrystalleni Lazarou
Hiromeri is a specialty ham of Cyprus, made of smoked pork leg that is matured in wine. Until now there has been no systematic effort to present historical evidence that will support the Cypriot authenticity of this product. In this article, the historical evidence from sixteenth to twentieth centuries, referring to the production and trade of hiromeri in Cyprus, is presented. The evidence is drawn from archival testimony, travelers' descriptions, old history books, and essays on agricultural production. Moreover, a description of the hiromeri production process as well as past and current culinary uses and customs associated with its production and consumption are presented...
2013: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22136130/mission-to-mars-food-production-and-processing-for-the-final-frontier
#8
REVIEW
Michele H Perchonok, Maya R Cooper, Patricia M Catauro
The food systems of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have evolved tremendously since the early manned spaceflights of the 1960s. To date, NASA's mission focus has been limited to exploration of low Earth orbit (LEO), and the agency's prepackaged food systems have been adequate to enable success of their parent programs. With NASA's mission focus increasing to achieve manned space exploration of the Martian surface, the agency is considering a significant departure from the prepackaged food systems of current and past space programs...
2012: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21916257/determination-of-physical-processes-influencing-chl-a-distribution-using-remotely-sensed-images
#9
A M Mustapha, T Lihan, S Saitoh
In management of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis culture, it is important to understand the phytoplankton bloom development in the coastal region of the Okhotsk Sea. Variations in food available to this benthic bivalve are a primary environmental factor affecting growth in nature. This paper determined the seasonal variability of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) at the scallop farming region in the Okhotsk Sea from 1998 to 2004 using satellite imageries. Satellite images were processed using default NASA coefficients and community-standard algorithms as implemented by Sea DAS...
January 15, 2011: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21535783/developing-the-nasa-food-system-for-long-duration-missions
#10
REVIEW
Maya Cooper, Grace Douglas, Michele Perchonok
Even though significant development has transformed the space food system over the last 5 decades to attain more appealing dietary fare for low-orbit space crews, the advances do not meet the need for crews that might travel to Mars and beyond. It is estimated that a food system for a long-duration mission must maintain organoleptic acceptability, nutritional efficacy, and safety for a 3- to 5-y period to be viable. In addition, the current mass and subsequent waste of the food system must decrease significantly to accord with the allowable volume and payload limits of the proposed future space vehicles...
March 2011: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20492130/nutritional-physical-and-sensory-evaluation-of-hydroponic-carrots-daucus-carota-l-from-different-nutrient-delivery-systems
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
P N Gichuhi, D Mortley, E Bromfield, A C Bovell-Benjamin
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) has the highest carotenoid content among foods and is consumed in large quantities worldwide, while at the same time its market demand continues to increase. Carotenoids have also been associated with protective effects against cancer and other chronic diseases. The most predominant carotenoids in carrots are beta- and alpha-carotenes. Moisture, ash, fat, texture, color, carotene content, and consumer acceptance of carrots grown in a hydroponic system with nutrient film technique (NFT) and microporous tube membrane system (MTMS) were evaluated...
November 2009: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20116210/evaluation-of-the-nutrient-upgraded-rodent-food-bar-for-rodent-spaceflight-experiments
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Gwo-Shing Sun, Janet C Tou, Kurt Liittschwager, Anna M Herrera, Esther L Hill, Beverly Girten, Debra Reiss-Bubenheim, Marilyn Vasques
OBJECTIVE: Selection of an appropriate diet for rodent spaceflight experiments is critical and may have significant effects on mission results. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) rodent food bar (RFB) was reformulated and designated as the nutrient-upgraded RFB (NuRFB). The objectives of this study were to determine whether the NuRFB nutrient formulation meets the 1995 National Research Council (NRC) nutrient recommendations and whether the NuRFB can be used for short-term (45-d) and long-term (90-d) spaceflight experiments...
November 2010: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19895472/assessment-of-nutrient-stability-in-foods-from-the-space-food-system-after-long-duration-spaceflight-on-the-iss
#13
S R Zwart, V L Kloeris, M H Perchonok, L Braby, S M Smith
Maintaining an intact nutrient supply in the food system flown on spacecraft is a critical issue for mission success and crew health. Ground-based evidence indicates that some vitamins may be altered and fatty acids oxidized (and therefore rendered useless, or even dangerous) by long-term storage and by exposure to radiation, both of which will be issues for long-duration exploration missions in space. In this study, the stability of nutrients was investigated in food samples exposed to spaceflight on the Intl...
September 2009: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19697013/impulsivity-as-a-behavioral-measure-of-withdrawal-of-orally-delivered-pcp-and-nondrug-rewards-in-male-and-female-monkeys
#14
Marilyn E Carroll, Jami L Mach, Rachel M La Nasa, Jennifer L Newman
BACKGROUND: Withdrawal of phencyclidine (PCP), ethanol (ETOH), and other drugs reduces operant responding maintained by food. OBJECTIVES: Experiment 1 examined the effects of withdrawing daily short access (2 h) to drug on impulsivity for saccharin (SACC) using a delay discounting task and comparing male and female rhesus monkeys. Experiment 2 examined the effects of withdrawing a nondrug substance (e.g., food or SACC) on impulsivity for PCP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In experiment 1, either PCP or ETOH was available daily with water for 2 h under a fixed ratio 16 (FR 16) or FR 8 schedule, respectively...
November 2009: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17306929/four-men-in-a-space-station-to-say-nothing-of-the-cow-the-quest-for-finding-respite-and-work-in-the-ultimate-frontier
#15
EDITORIAL
Biji T Kurien, Yaser Dorri, Anil D'Souza, R Hal Scofield
Fed up with life on earth, four scientists attempt to make it to space to live in the International Space Station (ISS) and carry out experiments. The difficulties in getting selected by NASA, the rigourous training to fly and the risks of the journey to life and health are the rate limiting steps in their quest. They propose commercialization of space and also ferrying cows to space for food as well as generation of biogas. The anaerobic environment is particularly suitable for biogas generation and if successful they plan to get NASA to launch space vehicles to Mars using this natural fuel with the ISS as the staging area...
2007: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16175693/the-conceptual-design-of-a-hybrid-life-support-system-based-on-the-evaluation-and-comparison-of-terrestrial-testbeds
#16
M Czupalla, G Horneck, H J Blome
This report summarizes a trade study of different options of a bioregenerative Life Support System (LSS) and a subsequent conceptual design of a hybrid LSS. The evaluation was based mainly on the terrestrial testbed projects MELISSA (ESA) and BIOS (Russia). In addition, some methods suggested by the Advanced Life Support Project (NASA) were considered. Computer models, including mass flows were established for each of the systems with the goal of closing system loops to the extent possible. In order to cope with the differences in the supported crew size and provided nutrition, all systems were scaled for supporting a crew of six for a 780 day Mars mission (180 days transport to Mars; 600 days surface period) as given in the NASA Design Reference Mission Scenario [Hoffman, S...
2005: Advances in Space Research: the Official Journal of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16044627/countermeasure-for-space-flight-effects-on-immune-system-nutritional-nucleotides
#17
A D Kulkarni, K Yamauchi, A Sundaresan, G T Ramesh, N R Pellis
Microgravity and its environment have adverse effects on the immune system. Abnormal immune responses observed in microgravity may pose serious consequences, especially for the recent directions of NASA for long-term space missions to Moon, Mars and deep Space exploration. The study of space flight immunology is limited due to relative inaccessibility, difficulty of performing experiments in space, and inadequate provisions in this area in the United States and Russian space programs (Taylor 1993). Microgravity and stress experienced during space flights results in immune system aberration (Taylor 1993)...
June 2005: Gravitational and Space Biology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15806741/analysis-of-a-spacecraft-life-support-system-for-a-mars-mission
#18
M Czupalla, V Aponte, S Chappell, D Klaus
This report summarizes a trade study conducted as part of the Fall 2002 semester Spacecraft Life Support System Design course (ASEN 5116) in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department at the University of Colorado. It presents an analysis of current life support system technologies and a preliminary design of an integrated system for supporting humans during transit to and on the surface of the planet Mars. This effort was based on the NASA Design Reference Mission (DRM) for the human exploration of Mars [NASA Design Reference Mission (DRM) for Mars, Addendum 3...
August 2004: Acta Astronautica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15226467/nutritional-status-changes-in-humans-during-a-14-day-saturation-dive-the-nasa-extreme-environment-mission-operations-v-project
#19
Scott M Smith, Janis E Davis-Street, J Vernell Fesperman, Myra D Smith, Barbara L Rice, Sara R Zwart
Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive...
July 2004: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/14974490/sensory-characterization-of-a-ready-to-eat-sweetpotato-breakfast-cereal-by-descriptive-analysis
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
M A Dansby, A C Bovell-Benjamin
The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam], an important industry in the United States, has been selected as a candidate crop to be grown on future long-duration space missions by NASA. Raw sweetpotato roots were processed into flour, which was used to formulate ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEBC). Twelve trained panelists evaluated the sensory attributes of the extruded RTEBC using descriptive analysis. The samples were significantly different (P<0.05) for all attributes. Twelve perceived sensory attributes, which could be used to differentiate the appearance, texture, and flavor of sweetpotato RTEBC, were described...
March 2003: Journal of Food Science
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