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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778786/body-weight-and-breast-cancer-nested-case-control-study-in-southern-brazil
#1
Natália Luiza Kops, Marina Bessel, Maira Caleffi, Rodrigo Antonini Ribeiro, Eliana Marcia Wendland
BACKGROUND: Current studies have shown that fast weight gain may be more important than body mass index on the incidence of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body weight and breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a case-control study nested in a cohort of a breast cancer mammography screening program in Southern Brazil. A trained investigator administered a standardized interview to collect sociodemographic and clinical data, and body weight history (weight at menarche, at marriage, at first and last pregnancy, and at menopause)...
April 28, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778208/enhanced-infection-of-avian-influenza-virus-h9n2-with-infectious-laryngeotracheitis-vaccination-in-chickens
#2
Nagah Arafat, Abdelfattah H Eladl, Basma H Marghani, Mohamed A Saif, Reham A El-Shafei
Avian influenza and infectious laryngeotracheitis viruses are common causes of respiratory diseases in chickens with economical importance worldwide. In this study, we investigated the effect of experimental co-infection of avian influenza virus-H9N2 (AIV-H9N2) with infectious laryngeotracheitis virus (ILTV) live-attenuated vaccine (LAR-VAC® ) on chickens. Four experimental groups were included in this study: negative control group, AIV-H9N2 group, AIV-H9N2+LAR-VAC® group, and LAR-VAC® group. AIV-H9N2 was inoculated intranasally to challenged groups at 35 days of age...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777970/understanding-self-concealment-within-a-framework-of-eating-disorder-cognitions-and-body-image-flexibility-conceptual-and-applied-implications
#3
Akihiko Masuda, Janet D Latner, John P Barlie, Kayla Sargent
Although self-concealment has been long recognized in the context of body image disturbance and disordered eating concerns, empirical evidence remains limited. Following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) models of disordered eating and body image concerns, the present cross-sectional study examined whether the construct of self-concealment was related to disordered eating and body image concerns. More specifically, we investigated whether eating disorder cognitions and body image flexibility, two factors linked to the maintenance of disordered eating concerns, are uniquely associated with self-concealment, while controlling for key demographic and sociocultural variables...
May 16, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777881/single-incision-laparoscopic-versus-conventional-laparoscopic-right-colectomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Boye Dong, Zuyang Luo, Jiabao Lu, Yang Yang, Yixian Song, Jie Cao, Wanglin Li
BACKGROUND: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery has gained widespread attention because of its potential benefits such as less skin incision and faster recovery. Up to now, only one meta-analysis (performed in 2013; including 9 studies, a total of 585 cases) compared single-incision laparoscopic right colectomy (SILRC) with conventional laparoscopic right colectomy (CLRC). An updated meta-analysis was undertaken to explore more convinced comparative findings between SILRC and CLRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search for studies that compared SILRC with CLRC was done on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777704/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-by-modulating-host-bile-acid-metabolism-in-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-manner
#5
Akiho Nakatani, Xuan Li, Junki Miyamoto, Miki Igarashi, Hitoshi Watanabe, Asuka Sutou, Keita Watanabe, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue, Ikuo Kimura
The 8-globulin-rich mung bean protein (MPI) suppresses hepatic lipogenesis in rodent models and reduces fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in obese adults. However, its effects on mitigating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and the mechanism underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the metabolic phenotype, intestinal bile acid (BA) pool, and gut microbiota of conventionally raised (CONV-R) male C57BL/6 mice and germ-free (GF) mice that were randomized to receive either regular HFD or HFD containing mung bean protein isolate (MPI) instead of the dairy protein present in regular HFD...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777696/sterilized-bifidobacteria-suppressed-fat-accumulation-and-blood-glucose-level
#6
Keita Kikuchi, Mahmoud Ben Othman, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium improve the balance of intestinal microflora and have various physiological functions beneficial to human health. It is not always known whether the ingested microbial cells are viable- or killed. However, even sterilized bacterial cells are functional. Bacterial cell functions are strain-specific and their modes of action are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of sterilized bifidobacteria in obesity and lipid metabolism...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777663/a-multicenter-randomized-clinical-trial-of-etonogestrel-and-levonorgestrel-contraceptive-implants-with-nonrandomized-copper-iud-controls-effect-on-weight-variations-up-to-three-years-after-placement
#7
Luis Bahamondes, Vivian Brache, Moazzam Ali, Ndema Habib
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate weight changes in women randomized to either the etonogestrel (ENG)- or the levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing contraceptive implants and to compare with users of the TCu380A intrauterine device (IUD). STUDY DESIGN: A multi-center randomized trial with 1:1 allocation ratio of the ENG- and the LNG- implants with non-randomized, age-matched control group of women choosing TCu380A IUD. The primary objective was to assess contraceptive efficacy and method continuation rates, and secondarily the incidence of common complaints and side effects (including weight changes) associated with use of the three contraceptives...
May 16, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777375/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-antibiotics-probiotics-synbiotics-and-prebiotics-on-the-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-broilers
#8
Vahid Tayeri, Alireza Seidavi, Leila Asadpour, Clive J C Phillips
Routine use of the antibiotic flavomycin in broiler production may lead to resistance, and alternative growth promoters are used to enhance performance. Two hundred day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were allocated to five dietary supplements included from d 1-42: flavomycin, three possible alternatives, a probiotic, prebiotic and a synbiotic, as well as a control treatment. There were four replicate cages of 10 birds each in each treatment. Compared with the control and antibiotics treatments, the probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments increased (p = 0...
May 18, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777365/effects-of-replacing-rye-grass-lolium-spp-hay-by-banana-musa-acuminata-l-by-products-on-feed-intake-growth-and-feed-conversion-rate-of-canary-hair-sheep-breed-pelibuey-lambs
#9
M Barbera, J R Jaber, S Ahmed-Salek, A Ravelo-Garcia, E Rodríguez-Ponce, L Rey, M R Ventura
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing rye-grass (Lolium spp.) hay with banana (Musa acuminata L.) by-products on feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion rate (FCR) in Pelibuey (hair sheep breed) lambs. The lambs (n = 22; initial BW = 14.8 ± 2.5 kg) were individually housed and fed on two different types of diet for 58 days: the first group (experimental diet) received as forage a mixture of fresh banana by-products composed of leaves and pseudostem...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777240/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-women-with-excessive-weight-gain-during-pregnancy-and-in-their-offspring-at-age-5-6-years
#10
Gemma Carreras-Badosa, Cristina Armero-Bujaldón, Laia Solé-Amat, Anna Prats-Puig, Ferran Díaz-Roldán, Pilar Soriano-Rodriguez, Francis de Zegher, Lourdes Ibañez, Judit Bassols, Abel López-Bermejo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels [25(OH)D] may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In pregnant women excessive weight gain and 25(OH)D deficiency are common complications and both could have deleterious consequences on their children. We aimed to study the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and CVD risk factors in pregnant women and in their offspring at school age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fasting serum 25(OH)D and its bioavailable fraction were quantified in 310 healthy pregnant women [with adequate (n = 113), insufficient (n = 113) and excessive (n = 84) weight gain]...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777232/maternal-overnutrition-programs-epigenetic-changes-in-the-regulatory-regions-of-hypothalamic-pomc-in-the-offspring-of-rats
#11
Thanuja Gali Ramamoorthy, Tiffany-Jayne Allen, Alison Davies, Erika Harno, Charlotte Sefton, Christopher Murgatroyd, Anne White
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Maternal overnutrition has been implicated in affecting the offspring by programming metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes, by mechanisms that are not clearly understood. This study aimed to determine the long-term impact of maternal high-fat (HF) diet feeding on epigenetic changes in the offspring's hypothalamic Pomc gene, coding a key factor in the control of energy balance. Further, it aimed to study the additional effects of postnatal overnutrition on epigenetic programming by maternal nutrition...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776801/determinants-of-a-good-perinatal-outcome-in-588-pregnancies-in-women-with-type-1-diabetes
#12
J Lepercq, C Le Ray, C Godefroy, L Pelage, D Dubois-Laforgue, J Timsit
AIM: This study assessed pregnancy outcomes in women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) over the last 15 years and identified modifiable factors associated with good perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Pregnancy outcomes were prospectively assessed in this cohort study of 588 singleton pregnancies (441 women) managed by standardized care from 2000 to 2014. A good perinatal outcome was defined as the uncomplicated delivery of a normally formed, non-macrosomic, full-term infant with no neonatal morbidity...
May 8, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776784/100-juice-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-among-children-in-the-special-supplemental-nutrition-program-for-women-infants-and-children-and-nonparticipants
#13
Kelsey A Vercammen, Alyssa J Moran, Laura Y Zatz, Eric B Rimm
INTRODUCTION: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides monthly food packages to low-income children (aged 1-4 years) in the U.S., including 128 ounces of 100% fruit juice and an $8 cash value voucher for purchasing fruits and vegetables. The fruit juice allowance translates to 71%-107% of the maximum intake recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (4-6 ounces/day). Careful examination of WIC food package allocations is necessary because overconsumption of fruit juice among young children has been linked to weight gain and juice lacks important nutrients found in whole fruit (e...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776692/risk-of-hospitalization-associated-with-body-mass-index-and-weight-changes-among-prevalent-haemodialysis-patients
#14
Juan J Carrero, Ivan Rodríguez-Cabezas, Abdul R Qureshi, Jürgen Floege, Markus Ketteler, Gerard London, Francesco Locatelli, Dimitrios Memmos, David Goldsmith, Aníbal Ferreira, Judit Nagy, Vladimir Teplan, Carlos Martínez-Salgado, José L Fernández-Martín, Carmine Zoccali, Jorge B Cannata-Andia
The impact of body mass index (BMI) and body weight on hospitalization rates in haemodialysis patients is unknown. This study hypothesizes that being either underweight or obese is associated with a higher hospitalization rate. Observational study of 6296 European haemodialysis patients with prospective data collection and follow-up every six months for three years (COSMOS study). The risk of being hospitalized was estimated by a time-dependent Cox regression model and the annual risk (incidence rate ratios, IRR) by Poisson regression...
May 15, 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776399/simulation-based-power-calculations-for-planning-a-two-stage-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#15
Joie Ensor, Danielle L Burke, Kym I E Snell, Karla Hemming, Richard D Riley
BACKGROUND: Researchers and funders should consider the statistical power of planned Individual Participant Data (IPD) meta-analysis projects, as they are often time-consuming and costly. We propose simulation-based power calculations utilising a two-stage framework, and illustrate the approach for a planned IPD meta-analysis of randomised trials with continuous outcomes where the aim is to identify treatment-covariate interactions. METHODS: The simulation approach has four steps: (i) specify an underlying (data generating) statistical model for trials in the IPD meta-analysis; (ii) use readily available information (e...
May 18, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776343/physical-inactivity-gender-and-culture-in-arab-countries-a-systematic-assessment-of-the-literature
#16
Eman Sharara, Chaza Akik, Hala Ghattas, Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is associated with excess weight and adverse health outcomes. We synthesize the evidence on physical inactivity and its social determinants in Arab countries, with special attention to gender and cultural context. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Popline, and SSCI for articles published between 2000 and 2016, assessing the prevalence of physical inactivity and its social determinants. We also included national survey reports on physical activity, and searched for analyses of the social context of physical activity...
May 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775565/a-role-of-neuropeptide-cart-in-hyperphagia-and-weight-gain-induced-by-olanzapine-treatment-in-rats
#17
Kartik T Nakhate, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Although olanzapine is highly efficacious and most widely used second generation antipsychotic drug, the success of treatment has been hampered by its propensity to induce weight gain. While the underlying neuronal mechanisms are unclear, their elucidation may help to target alternative pathways regulating energy balance. The present study was undertaken to define the role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), a well-known anorexic peptide, in olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and body weight gain in rats...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775549/growth-trajectories-of-young-children-s-objectively-determined-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-body-mass-index
#18
Zan Gao
PURPOSE: This study examined trajectories in children's physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and body mass index (BMI) for both genders, and relationships among these trajectories, from childhood through early adolescence. METHODS: A total of 261 seconds and third-grade children (135 girls; Meanage  = 7.81; 73% White) from two U.S. elementary schools participated in this study. Their objective PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI were measured yearly from 2012 to 2015...
May 18, 2018: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774926/an-anionic-shell-shields-a-cationic-core-allowing-for-uptake-and-release-of-polyelectrolytes-within-core-shell-responsive-microgels
#19
Arjan P H Gelissen, Andrea Scotti, Sarah K Turnhoff, Corinna Janssen, Aurel Radulescu, Andrij Pich, Andrey A Rudov, Igor I Potemkin, Walter Richtering
To realize carriers for drug delivery, cationic containers are required for anionic guests. Nevertheless, the toxicity of cationic carriers limits their practical use. In this study, we investigate a model system of polyampholyte N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-based microgels with a cationic core and an anionic shell to study whether the presence of a negative shell allows the cationic core to be shielded while still enabling the uptake and release of the anionic guest polyelectrolytes. These microgels are loaded with polystyrene sulfonate of different molecular weights to investigate the influence of their chain length on the uptake and release process...
May 18, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774758/evaluation-of-natural-bv-as-a-novel-feed-additive-in-fast-growing-broilers
#20
Da Hye Kim, Sang Mi Han, Moung Cheul Keum, Sang Lee, Byoung Ki An, Sang-Rak Lee, Kyung-Woo Lee
1. The present study was designed to evaluate purified bee venom (BV) as an alternative to antibiotics in broiler chickens. The experimental treatment diets were formulated by adding BV into a maize-soybean meal-based diet to give 0, 10, 50, 100, and 500 μg BV per kg of diet. 2. Dietary BV quadratically improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio and increased body weight gain at 1-21 days as level in diet increased. Higher BV levels lowered relative weight of spleen (linear and quadratic, P<0.05), bursa of Fabricius (quadratic, P<0...
May 18, 2018: British Poultry Science
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