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Weight gain

Ramy K A Sayed, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, María E Diaz-Casado, Iryna Rusanova, Ibtissem Rahim, Germaine Escames, Luis C López, Doaa M Mokhtar, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
To gain insight into the mechanism of sarcopenia and the protective effect of melatonin, the gastrocnemius muscles of young (3-4 months), early-aged (12 months), and old-aged (24 months) wild type C57BL/6J female mice, were examined by magnetic resonance and microscopy. Locomotor activity, lactate production and nuclear apoptosis were also assessed. The results support the early onset of sarcopenia at 12 months of age, with reduction of muscle fibers' number, muscle weight/body weight ratio, lactate, and locomotor activity...
March 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Gracinda Nogueira Oliveira, Rajiv Mohan, Andrew Fagbemi
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disorder with a multiform presentation and therefore a challenging diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose is to identify the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and histologic characteristics of children with celiac disease at diagnosis and on follow-up. METHODS: Children with previously established or newly diagnosed celiac disease, admitted in a tertiary centre in a two-year period (2014-2016) were recruited...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Loïck Locatelli, Alain Golay
Psychotropic drugs can induce weight gain and a metabolic syndrome, reducing the quality of life and the life expectancy of patients. Weight gain is also responsible for poor adherence to treatment and therefore relapses of mental illness. This weight gain and the metabolic syndrome are insufficiently treated for obese patients with mental disorders. Recommendations exist.
March 21, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Fanny Pandolfi, Sandra A Edwards, Dominiek Maes, Ilias Kyriazakis
This study aimed to provide an overview of the interconnections between biosecurity, health, welfare, and performance in commercial pig farms in Great Britain. We collected on-farm data about the level of biosecurity and animal performance in 40 fattening pig farms and 28 breeding pig farms between 2015 and 2016. We identified interconnections between these data, slaughterhouse health indicators, and welfare indicator records in fattening pig farms. After achieving the connections between databases, a secondary data analysis was performed to assess the interconnections between biosecurity, health, welfare, and performance using correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and hierarchical clustering...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
M Vázquez-Gómez, C García-Contreras, L Torres-Rovira, S Astiz, C Óvilo, A González-Bulnes, B Isabel
Background: The aim of this study was to determine how maternal undernutrition during pregnancy and offspring birth-weight can affect the postnatal development of offspring under farm conditions, which may lead to consequences in its meat and carcass quality. The current study involved a total of 80 litters from Iberian sows fed a diet fulfilling daily requirements ( n  = 47; control) or providing 70% daily requirements ( n  = 33; underfed) from d 38 to d 90 of gestation when fetal tissue development begins...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Robin Cloarec, Sylvian Bauer, Natacha Teissier, Fabienne Schaller, Hervé Luche, Sandra Courtens, Manal Salmi, Vanessa Pauly, Emilie Bois, Emilie Pallesi-Pocachard, Emmanuelle Buhler, François J Michel, Pierre Gressens, Marie Malissen, Thomas Stamminger, Daniel N Streblow, Nadine Bruneau, Pierre Szepetowski
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections represent one leading cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently, we reported on a rat model of CMV infection of the developing brain in utero , characterized by early and prominent infection and alteration of microglia-the brain-resident mononuclear phagocytes. Besides their canonical function against pathogens, microglia are also pivotal to brain development. Here we show that CMV infection of the rat fetal brain recapitulated key postnatal phenotypes of human congenital CMV including increased mortality, sensorimotor impairment reminiscent of cerebral palsy, hearing defects, and epileptic seizures...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Dina A Schneider, Soo-Ho Choi, Colin Agatisa-Boyle, Laurence Zhu, Jungsu Kim, Jennifer Pattison, Dorothy D Sears, Philip L S M Gordts, Longhou Fang, Yury I Miller
Apolipoprotein A-I Binding Protein (AIBP) has been shown to augment cholesterol efflux from endothelial cells and macrophages. In zebrafish and mice, AIBP-mediated regulation of cholesterol levels in the plasma membrane of endothelial cells controls angiogenesis. The goal of this work was to evaluate metabolic changes and atherosclerosis in AIBP loss-of-function and gain-of-function animal studies. Here we show that Apoa1bp-/-Ldlr-/- mice fed a high-cholesterol, high-fat diet had exacerbated weight gain, liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and larger atherosclerotic lesions compared to Ldlr-/- mice...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Clare Whicher, Hermione Clare Price, Richard Ig Holt
Objective There have been concerns about the effects of antipsychotics on weight gain and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This article aims to provide an up to date review on the evidence addressing this issue and the practical implications for the management of people taking antipsychotics in the context of T2DM. Methods We carried out searches on MEDLINE/PUBMED and the website in August 2017 using the terms 'antipsychotic' and 'diabetes' or 'glucose' citing articles published after 2006 preferentially...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Yongwoog Andrew Jeon, Brent Hale, Eric Knackmuhs, Michael Mackert
BACKGROUND: Anonymous verbal attacks against overweight individuals on social media are common and widespread. These comments often use negative, misogynist, or derogatory words, which stigmatize the targeted individuals with obesity. These verbal attacks may cause depression in overweight individuals, which could subsequently promote unhealthy eating behavior (ie, binge eating) and further weight gain. To develop an intervention policy and strategies that tackle the anonymous, Web-based verbal attacks, a thorough understanding of the comments is necessary...
March 20, 2018: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
Lin Zheng, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Ling Tang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Yun-Yun Zeng, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Yang Liu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary selenium on resistance to skin haemorrhages and lesions and on immune function as well as the underlying mechanisms of those effects in the head kidney, spleen and skin of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 healthy grass carp with initial body weight (226.48 ± 0.68 g) were randomly divided into six groups and fed six separate diets with graded dietary levels of selenium (0.025, 0.216, 0.387, 0.579, 0.795 and 1.049 mg/kg diet) for 80 days...
March 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
D R B Brito, L M Costa-Júnior, J L Garcia, J F J Torres-Acosta, H Louvandini, J A A Cutrim-Júnior, J F M Araújo, E D S Soares
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) cause considerable economic losses in grazing goat herds. At present, GIN control cannot rely on conventional anthelmintic (AH) drugs because parasites have developed resistance against such drugs. Thus, alternative control methods are being sought to reduce the dependence on AH. Many tannin-rich plants exhibit AH activity and may be used as alternatives for GIN control. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia is a tannin-rich shrub consumed by small ruminants in Brazil. This study evaluated the in vivo AH effect of M...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
M D Edmonds, A F Vatta, A A Marchiondo, H B Vanimisetti, J D Edmonds
In 2013, a 118-day study was initiated to investigate the efficacy of concurrent treatment at pasture turnout with an injectable macrocyclic lactone with activity up to 28 days and an oral benzimidazole, referred to as "conventional" anthelmintics, when compared to treatment with conventional macrocyclic lactone alone or an injectable macrocyclic lactone with extended activity of 100 days or longer. A group of 210 steers were obtained from a ranch in California and transported to Idaho, USA. A total of 176 steers with the highest fecal egg counts were blocked by pre-treatment body weights and pasture location...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Rasha Babiker, Khalifa Elmusharaf, Michael B Keogh, Amal M Saeed
BACKGROUND: There is a strong association between cardiometabolic risk and adipose tissue dysfunction with great consequences on type 2 diabetic patients. Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) is an indirect clinical marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Gum Arabic (GA) is a safe dietary fiber, an exudate of Acacia Senegal. Gum Arabic had shown lipid lowering effect in both humans and animals. The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of GA supplementation on anthropometric obesity marker, Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
March 20, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Sarbast K Kheravii, Robert A Swick, Mingan Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
BACKGROUND: Measures to improve bird performance have been sought due to the imminent phase out of in-feed antibiotics in poultry and continued demand for higher poultry feeding efficiency. Increasing grain particle size and dietary fibre may improve gizzard function, digestive efficiency and nutrient absorption. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect increased particle size of corn and inclusion of sugarcane bagasse (SB) on mRNA expression of genes encoding digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in broilers...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Rebecca J Beeken, Sundus Mahdi, Fiona Johnson, Susanne F Meisel
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. METHODS: UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584) or >45 years (older adults; n = 107) participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance...
March 21, 2018: Obesity Facts
Koonal K Shah, Aki Tsuchiya, Allan J Wailoo
A source of debate in the health care priority setting literature is whether to weight health gains to account for equity considerations, such as concern for those with very short life expectancy. This paper reviews the empirical evidence in the published social sciences literature relevant to the following research question: do members of the public wish to place greater weight on a unit of health gain for end-of-life patients than on that for other types of patients? An electronic search of the Social Sciences Citation Index for articles published until October 2017 was conducted, with follow-up of references to obtain additional data...
March 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Michael Leung, Nandita Perumal, Elnathan Mesfin, Aditi Krishna, Seungmi Yang, William Johnson, Diego G Bassani, Daniel E Roth
Metrics to quantify child growth vary across studies of the developmental origins of health and disease. We conducted a scoping review of child growth studies in which length/height, weight or body mass index (BMI) was measured at ≥ 2 time points. From a 10% random sample of eligible studies published between Jan 2010-Jun 2016, and all eligible studies from Oct 2015-June 2016, we classified growth metrics based on author-assigned labels (e.g., 'weight gain') and a 'content signature', a numeric code that summarized the metric's conceptual and statistical properties...
2018: PloS One
Audrey R C Elias, Kari J Harris, Paul C LaStayo, Ryan L Mizner
BACKGROUND: Limited knee flexion and increased muscle co-contraction during jump landing are believed to diminish outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The efficacy of jump training to improve patients' mechanical and neuromuscular deficits is understudied. HYPOTHESIS: Jump training will improve functional, mechanical, and neuromuscular outcomes and higher repetition training augmented by body weight support will result in better retention of gains...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Alexej Barg, Clayton C Bettin, Albert H Burstein, Charles L Saltzman, Jeremy Gililland
BACKGROUND: In the last 2 decades, total ankle replacement has gained greater acceptance as a treatment option in patients with end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. However, there is a lack of literature on total ankle replacement using a lateral transfibular approach. Therefore, we sought to report early clinical and radiographic results for a patient cohort treated with total ankle replacement using a lateral transfibular approach, performed by a single surgeon. METHODS: From October 2012 to December 2014, 55 primary total ankle arthroplasties using the Zimmer Trabecular Metal Total Ankle implant were performed in 54 patients (29 male and 25 female; mean age, 67...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Kah Kheng Goh, Chun-Hsin Chen, Mong-Liang Lu
OBJECTIVE: Weight gain is one of the most challenging issues in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. Several meta-analyses have been conducted to review the efficacy of topiramate in reducing weight, however, several issues regarding the methodology had arisen of which make the results remain ambiguous. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials about the use of topiramate in patients with schizophrenia for weight reduction...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
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