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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166450/night-work-and-bmi-is-it-related-to-on-shift-napping
#1
Aline Silva-Costa, Rosane Härter Griep, Lúcia Rotenberg
On-shift napping can benefit night workers regarding sleep loss, synchronization of circadian rhythms, and alertness. However, few studies on napping can be found in the literature focused on possible health benefits. This cross-sectional study has investigated the role of on-shift napping on the association between night work and BMI in 409 night-shift nursing professionals. The number of working nights and the years of exposure to night work were significantly associated with increased BMI levels among non-nappers, but not among nappers...
November 17, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166409/post-weaning-high-fat-diet-results-in-growth-cartilage-lesions-in-young-male-rats
#2
Samuel S Haysom, Mark H Vickers, Lennex H Yu, Clare M Reynolds, Elwyn C Firth, Sue R McGlashan
To determine if a high-fat diet (HF) from weaning would result in a pro-inflammatory state and affect joint cartilage, we fed male rats either HF or Chow diet post-weaning, and voluntary wheel exercise (EX) or cage only activity (SED) after 9 weeks of age. At 17 weeks body composition, plasma biomarkers and histomorphology scores of femoro-tibial cartilages of HF-SED, HF-EX, Chow-SED and Chow-EX groups were compared. Food intake and activity were not significantly different between groups. HF diet resulted in significantly higher weight gain, %fat, fat:lean ratio, and plasma leptin, insulin and TNFα concentrations, with significant interactions between diet and exercise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166399/public-responses-to-proposals-for-a-tax-on-sugar-sweetened-beverages-a-thematic-analysis-of-online-reader-comments-posted-on-major-uk-news-websites
#3
Molly Thomas-Meyer, Oliver Mytton, Jean Adams
BACKGROUND: Regular consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with weight gain, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries. The UK will introduce a levy on the manufacturers of SSBs in 2018. Details will be negotiated over the next two years. How the UK public views SSB taxes is likely to be an important determinant of the content and success of the final policy. We aimed to capture the views, ideas and concerns of commenters on major UK news websites on SSB taxes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative analysis of reader comments to online news coverage of one proposal for an SSB tax in the UK...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166386/you-prime-what-you-code-the-faim-model-of-priming-of-pop-out
#4
Wouter Kruijne, Martijn Meeter
Our visual brain makes use of recent experience to interact with the visual world, and efficiently select relevant information. This is exemplified by speeded search when target- and distractor features repeat across trials versus when they switch, a phenomenon referred to as intertrial priming. Here, we present fAIM, a computational model that demonstrates how priming can be explained by a simple feature-weighting mechanism integrated into an established model of bottom-up vision. In fAIM, such modulations in feature gains are widespread and not just restricted to one or a few features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166302/hierarchical-semi-bayes-methods-for-misclassification-in-perinatal-epidemiology
#5
Richard F MacLehose, Lisa M Bodnar, Craig Meyer, Haitao Chu, Timothy L Lash
BACKGROUND: Validation data are used to estimate the extent of misclassification in epidemiologic studies. In the Penn MOMS cohort, prepregnancy BMI is subject to misclassification and validation data are available to estimate the extent of misclassification. We use these data to estimate the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and early preterm (<32 weeks) birth using a semi-Bayes hierarchical model allowing for more flexible adjustment for misclassification...
November 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165737/management-of-hemostasis-for-pediatric-patients-on-ventricular-assist-devices
#6
Iki Adachi, Vadim Kostousov, Lisa Hensch, Martin A Chacon-Portillo, Jun Teruya
Ventricular-assist devices (VADs) have seen increased utilization in the pediatric population. Formerly, this therapeutic modality was limited to only the pulsatile VAD, EXCOR (Berlin Heart GmbH). However, the continuous flow VAD devices, HeartMate II (Abbott Inc.) and HeartWare (Medtronic Inc.), are now increasingly used in this population. Postoperatively, VAD patients are acutely anticoagulated using unfractionated heparin, often beginning 24 to 48 hours after VAD placement. Once the patient is stabilized and ready to transition to a lower acuity or outpatient setting, low-molecular-weight heparin or warfarin therapy may be instituted...
November 17, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165684/can-biomarkers-advance-hiv-research-and-care-in-the-art-era
#7
Amy C Justice, Kristine M Erlandson, Paolo G Miotti, Alan Landay, Peter W Hunt, Russell P Tracy
Despite achieving HIV-1 RNA suppression below levels of detection and, for most, improved CD4 counts, those aging with HIV experience excess low-level inflammation, hypercoagulability, and immune dysfunction (chronic inflammation) compared to demographically and behaviorally similar uninfected individuals. A host of biomarkers that are linked to chronic inflammation are also associated with HIV-associated non-AIDS events including cardiovascular disease, many forms of cancer, liver disease, renal disease, neurocognitive decline, and osteoporosis...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165663/oral-contraceptives-and-cigarette-smoking-a-review-of-the-literature-and-future-directions
#8
Alicia M Allen, Andrea H Weinberger, Reagan R Wetherill, Carol L Howe, Sherry A McKee
Introduction: Evidence continues to mount indicating that endogenous sex hormones (e.g., progesterone and estradiol) play a significant role in smoking-related outcomes. Although approximately 1 out of 4 premenopausal smokers use oral contraceptives (OCs), which significantly alter progesterone and estradiol levels, relatively little is known about how OCs may influence smoking-related outcomes. Thus, the goal of this review paper is to describe the state of the literature and offer recommendations for future directions...
November 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165390/comparison-of-anionic-cationic-and-nonionic-surfactants-as-dispersing-agents-for-graphene-based-on-the-fluorescence-of-riboflavin
#9
Rocío Mateos, Soledad Vera, Mercedes Valiente, Ana María Díez-Pascual, María Paz San Andrés
Fluorescence quenching is a valuable tool to gain insight about dynamic changes of fluorophores in complex systems. Graphene (G), a single-layered 2D nanomaterial with unique properties, was dispersed in surfactant aqueous solutions of different nature: non-ionic polyoxyethylene-23-lauryl ether (Brij L23), anionic sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS), and cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB). The influence of the surfactant type, chain length and concentration, G total concentration and G/surfactant weight ratio on the fluorescence intensity of vitamin B₂ (riboflavin) was investigated...
November 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164576/potentiation-of-treatment-efficacy-against-colon-cancer-of-dopamine-via-elevating-klf2-expression-in-tumor-vascular-endothelial-cells
#10
S Chen, Y-M Zhang, Y-G Zhang, J Jia, R-W Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-tumor effect and potential mechanism of dopamine combined with 5-FU in colon cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Babl/c F1 generation male mice (N = 60) were inoculated with mouse C26 colon cancer cells below the pit to construct colon cancer model. Tumor-bearing mice were then divided into 4 groups (N = 8 each): model control group, dopamine group, 5-FU group and dopamine combined with 5-FU group. Dopamine (100 mg/kg/d) was intraperitoneally injected into mice...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163842/real-world-experience-of-afatinib-as-a-first-line-therapy-for-advanced-egfr-mutation-positive-lung-adenocarcinoma
#11
Sheng-Kai Liang, Min-Shu Hsieh, Meng-Rui Lee, Li-Ta Keng, Jen-Chung Ko, Jin-Yuan Shih
We evaluated the real-world efficacy and side effects of afatinib as a first-line therapy for advanced EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. The medical records of patients receiving afatinib as a first-line therapy after National Health Insurance reimbursement between May 2014 and January 2016 were reviewed, and information on patient characteristics and treatment courses were collected consecutively. Rebiopsy tissue was collected for EGFR mutation and MET amplification analyses. MET amplification was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163644/evaluation-of-amprolium-and-toltrazuril-efficacy-in-controlling-natural-intestinal-rabbit-coccidiosis
#12
A El-Ghoneimy, I El-Shahawy
This trial was undertaken with the objective to evaluate the efficacy of amprolium, toltrazuril and their combination in rabbits naturally infected with Eimeria species (32 × 10(3) ± 4.63 oocysts per gram (OPG) of faeces). Thirty-six rabbits (11 weeks old with average body weight (BW) 2000 ± 75 g), were randomly allocated into six groups (six kits each), namely, negative untreated and was retained as negative control (group 1), infected and kept untreated (group 2), treated with single oral dose of amprolium at 50 mg/kg BW for 5 days (group 3), received toltrazuril at 5 mg/kg BW for 2 days (group 4), treated orally with toltrazuril at 2...
2017: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163542/effects-of-food-additives-on-immune-cells-as-contributors-to-body-weight-gain-and-immune-mediated-metabolic-dysregulation
#13
REVIEW
Heitor A Paula Neto, Priscila Ausina, Lilian S Gomez, João G B Leandro, Patricia Zancan, Mauro Sola-Penna
Food additives are compounds used in order to improve food palatability, texture, and shelf life. Despite a significant effort to assure safety of use, toxicological analysis of these substances, generally, rely on their direct toxicity to target organs (liver and kidney) or their genotoxic effects. Much less attention is paid to the effects of these compounds on cells of the immune system. This is of relevance given that metabolic dysregulation and obesity have a strong immune-mediated component. Obese individuals present a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to the establishment of insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities known as the metabolic syndrome...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163373/placental-nutrient-transport-in-gestational-diabetic-pregnancies
#14
REVIEW
Marisol Castillo-Castrejon, Theresa L Powell
Maternal obesity during pregnancy is rising and is associated with increased risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy (1). Fetal growth is determined by the maternal nutrient supply and placental nutrient transfer capacity. GDM-complicated pregnancies are more likely to be complicated by fetal overgrowth or excess adipose deposition in utero. Infants born from GDM mothers have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disorders later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163369/preconception-prebiotic-and-sitagliptin-treatment-in-obese-rats-affects-pregnancy-outcomes-and-offspring-microbiota-adiposity-and-glycemia
#15
Carol A Dennison, Amanda J Eslinger, Raylene A Reimer
Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications and greater risk of obesity in offspring, but studies designed to examine preconception weight loss are limited. The objective of this study was to determine if a combined dietary [oligofructose (OFS)] and pharmacological (sitagliptin) preconception intervention could mitigate poor pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and improve offspring metabolic health and gut microbiota composition. Diet-induced obese female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to one of four intervention groups for 8 weeks: (1) Obese-Control (consumed control diet during intervention); (2) Obese-OFS (10% OFS diet); (3) Obese-S (sitagliptin drug); (4) Obese-OFS + S (combination treatment)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163116/a-sensitivity-analysis-of-an-inverted-pendulum-balance-control-model
#16
Jantsje H Pasma, Tjitske A Boonstra, Joost van Kordelaar, Vasiliki V Spyropoulou, Alfred C Schouten
Balance control models are used to describe balance behavior in health and disease. We identified the unique contribution and relative importance of each parameter of a commonly used balance control model, the Independent Channel (IC) model, to identify which parameters are crucial to describe balance behavior. The balance behavior was expressed by transfer functions (TFs), representing the relationship between sensory perturbations and body sway as a function of frequency, in terms of amplitude (i.e., magnitude) and timing (i...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162546/evaluation-of-probiotic-bacillus-aerius-b81e-isolated-from-healthy-hybrid-catfish-on-growth-disease-resistance-and-innate-immunity-of-pla-mong-pangasius-bocourti
#17
Ratchanu Meidong, Kulwadee Khotchanalekha, Sompong Doolgindachbaporn, Takahiro Nagasawa, Miki Nakao, Kenji Sakai, Saowanit Tongpim
Infectious diseases have been found to be a major cause of mortality in fish hatcheries. Probiotics have been introduced to replace antibiotics commonly used for treatment of bacterial infection in aquaculture. This study was conducted to isolate, screen, and evaluate the probiotic Bacillus spp. for potential use as a feed supplement to enhance fish growth, disease resistance and innate immunity of Pla-mong Pangasius bocourti. Bacillus aerius strain B81e was selectively isolated from the intestine of healthy catfish and chosen based on its probiotic properties both in vitro and in vivo...
November 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162261/-valentin-was-born-prematurely
#18
Anne-Charlotte B
Anne-Charlotte B. is the proud mother of Valentin, born prematurely seven years ago. Despite the complications of the birth, the initial separation and the difficult start to breastfeeding, Valentin gradually gained weight and has never suffered any sequelae. The family has since grown.
November 2017: Soins. Pédiatrie, Puériculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161929/changes-in-anthropometry-and-selected-metabolic-parameters-in-young-men-during-their-first-year-of-study-at-a-university-of-physical-education
#19
Anna Kȩska, Grażyna Lutosławska, Krzysztof Mazurek, Anna Czajkowska, Joanna Tkaczyk, Dagmara Iwańska
This study aims to determine main health-related anthropometric and metabolic parameters in young physically active male students in their first year of study. Sixty one male students from a Polish university of physical education were studied twice-at the beginning of their first and second academic years. Body weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition were measured. Plasma levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), leptin, cortisol, and insulin, as well as insulin resistance (IR) using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) were determined...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161908/an-exploration-of-the-determinants-of-gestational-weight-gain-in-african-american-women-genetic-factors-and-energy-expenditure
#20
Ying Meng, Susan W Groth, Patricia Stewart, Joyce A Smith
BACKGROUND: Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) has a long-term impact on women's body weight and contributes to the development of obesity in the mother and her child. Many risk factors for GWG have been identified, but to date, only 6-33.8% of the variance in GWG has been explained. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall variance of GWG that can be explained by including weight-adjusted resting metabolic rate (aRMR) and a genetic risk score constructed on obesity-related genes in addition to sociodemographic and lifestyle factors...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
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