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chest care clinic pharmacokinetics

Reiner Frey, Soundos Saleh, Corina Becker, Wolfgang Mück
Riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the pharmacokinetics of riociguat and its metabolite M1 in young (18-45 years) and elderly (64.5-80 years) healthy volunteers of both sexes to assist planning of the dose regimens for clinical trials. The data were also used to draw comparisons with the effects of age and sex on riociguat pharmacokinetics in patients with PAH and CTEPH from the riociguat phase 3 trials, PATENT and CHEST...
March 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
G M Rangari, V Roy, G R Sethi, T K Mishra, A Khanna
BACKGROUND: Under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) in India children are receiving antituberculosis treatment (ATT) as per a weight band system. In this children may be receiving antituberculosis drugs in doses which may be more or less than that recommended in mg/kg body weight doses. The recommended dose of isoniazid (INH) for intermittent therapy under the RNTCP is 8-12 mg/kg body weight and by the World Health Organization (WHO) for daily therapy is 10-15 mg/kg body weight...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
A Arya, V Roy, A Lomash, S Kapoor, A Khanna, G Rangari
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum levels of rifampicin (RMP) in children with tuberculosis (TB) at doses administered according to India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) 2009 report. METHOD: Prospective, open label, non-randomised single-dose study in 20 children aged 5-12 years. SETTING: The out-patient chest clinic of a tertiary care hospital, New Delhi, India. RESULTS: The median RMP dose administered was 9...
April 2015: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Sjoerd de Hoogd, Sabine J G M Ahlers, Eric P A van Dongen, Dick Tibboel, Albert Dahan, Catherijne A J Knibbe
BACKGROUND: Chronic thoracic pain after cardiac surgery is prevalent (11 to 56%) and may affect patients' physical and mental health status. Despite its favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, high doses of remifentanil administered during surgery are reported to cause acute postoperative pain and increased requirements for analgesics. Recently, an association between remifentanil use and the incidence of chronic thoracic pain in the long term was also reported. Our objective is to investigate the influence of the intraoperative remifentanil on chronic postoperative pain in a prospective randomized controlled trial...
November 27, 2014: Trials
Russell D Hull
Pulmonary embolism (PE) remains a major clinical problem associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. In patients with PE, appropriate anticoagulant therapy has been shown to significantly reduce both recurrence and mortality. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is at least as effective as unfractionated heparin (UFH) in the treatment of PE, with a similar risk of bleeding. Furthermore, LMWH offers more predictable pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant effects. As a result, current guidelines from both the American College of Chest Physicians and the joint American College of Physicians/American Academy of Family Physicians recommend the use of LMWH over UFH (in patients with submassive PE)...
March 2008: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
B Pearce, I S Grant
Clinically significant liver damage in patients taking therapeutic doses of paracetamol is very rare. We report two cases of fulminant hepatic failure caused by therapeutic (4 g x day(-1)) paracetamol administration on our Intensive Care Unit. Both patients had a muscular dystrophy and presented with a chest infection on a background of endstage neuromuscular respiratory failure. We also noted one further similar case in the literature and suggest a relationship between muscular dystrophy and paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity...
January 2008: Anaesthesia
Chengde Wu, E Radford Decker, Natalie Blok, Huong Bui, Tony J You, Junmei Wang, Andree R Bourgoyne, Vippra Knowles, Kurt L Berens, George W Holland, Tommy A Brock, Richard A F Dixon
Sitaxsentan (1) (Wu et al. J. Med. Chem. 1997, 40, 1690) is our first endothelin antagonist being evaluated in clinical trials. It has demonstrated biological effects in an acute hemodynamic study in CHF (Givertz et al. Circulation 2000, 101, 2922), an open-label 20-patient pulmonary hypertension trial (Barst et al. Chest 2002, 121, 1860-1868), and a 31-patient trial in essential hypertension (Calhoun et al. AHA Scientific Sessions 2000). In a phase 2b/3 pulmonary arterial hypertension trial, once a day treatment of 100 mg of sitaxsentan statistically significantly improved 6-min walk distance and NYHA class at 12 weeks (Barst et al...
April 8, 2004: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Luis Máiz-Carro, Enrique Navas-Elorza
The prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) recovered from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) appears to be increasing, probably related to improved surveillance and microbiological procedures and an increase in the life expectancy of patients with CF. The distinction between active lung infection and colonization is often difficult to assess in patients with CF because of the marked overlap in the clinical and radiological presentation of CF lung disease and lung disease caused by NTM infection. The possibility of active NTM lung infection should be considered in those patients with compatible radiographic changes and/or progressive deterioration in lung function who do not improve with specific antibiotic therapy and who have repeatedly positive sputum cultures and smears for NTM...
2002: American Journal of Respiratory Medicine: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
R H de Jong, F M Grazer
Recent qualms about the safety of aesthetic lipoplasty may be attributable more to support system flaws than to technical process deficiencies. The authors here focus on perfunctory patient monitoring when sedative or analgesic drugs are given, cavalier infiltration of mega-dose lidocaine, cursory intraoperative patient observation by team members with conflicting responsibilities, anesthesia providers unfamiliar with the unique surgical physiology of liposuction, hurried-discharge policies that virtually ignore the residual depressant effects of sedatives and analgesics, and compressive dressings that impair postoperative chest-wall expansion and venous return...
April 1, 2001: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
B Hausen, K Boeke, G J Berry, I Segarra, L Z Benet, U Christians, R E Morris
BACKGROUND: Neoral and rapamycin derivative (RAD) have complementary mechanisms for inhibition of lymphocyte activation and are substrates for the same pathways of drug metabolism. Therefore, we investigated treatment regimens designed to minimize pharmacokinetic interactions and to potentiate immunosuppressive efficacy in a highly stringent rat lung allograft model. METHODS: Lewis recipients of Brown Norway lungs received the following daily oral doses: (A) RAD at 2...
April 15, 1999: Transplantation
N R Cutler, P K Narang
It is important to understand both the kinetic and the dynamic implications of dosing TCAs and BZs in the elderly, for whom these drugs are frequently prescribed. The TCAs are used to treat responsive signs and symptoms including such somatic complaints as chest pain, dizziness, and arthralgias, as well as the endogenous signs such as loss of appetite with associated weight loss, psychomotor retardation, loss of libido, and insomnia. The pharmacokinetic studies of TCAs such as desipramine and nortriptyline have shown few, if any, age-related changes...
December 1984: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
J J Schentag, D P Reitberg, T J Cumbo
Nephrotoxicity frequently complicates the use of aminoglycosides in severely compromised acute care patients. Therefore, an open clinical trial was initiated to determine if cefmenoxime alone is useful in serious nosocomial pneumonias. Thirty consecutive patients were entered in the trial, and 28 patients with an average age of 66 years were evaluable. Most were malnourished at entry, with serum albumin averaging 2.8 g/dl and prognostic nutritional index values over 70 percent (normal less than 40 percent)...
December 21, 1984: American Journal of Medicine
A Shafer, M L Sung, P F White
The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of alfentanil were studied in 64 surgical patients. Alfentanil was administered as a loading infusion (25-130 micrograms/kg) followed by a maintenance infusion (0.25-1.3 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) as part of a nitrous oxide-narcotic-muscle relaxant technique. Although alfentanil doses of at least 50 micrograms/kg (in combination with thiopental, 2 mg/kg) were required to prevent hemodynamic changes during intubation, apnea or chest wall rigidity frequently occurred with alfentanil loading infusions exceeding 75 micrograms/kg...
October 1986: Anesthesia and Analgesia
J D Rutherford, E Braunwald
Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), streptokinase (SK), and anisoylated plasminogen-streptokinase activator complex (APSAC) have salutary effects on mortality when administered to patients with evolving acute myocardial infarction (MI). Studies suggest that intravenous rt-PA is more effective in reperfusing occluded infarct-related arteries than SK, and the results of ongoing studies directly comparing the influence of SK and rt-PA on mortality are awaited. The clinical role of agents such as APSAC, urokinase, and pro-urokinase, used alone or in combination, remains to be determined...
April 1990: Chest
D E Moulin, J H Kreeft, N Murray-Parsons, A I Bouquillon
To compare the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous and intravenous infusion of opioid analgesics, a randomised, double-blind, crossover trial was carried out in inpatients. 15 patients with severe cancer pain received two 48 h infusions of hydromorphone--one subcutaneously and one intravenously in randomly allocated order. The study was made double-blind by the use of two infusion pumps throughout; during the active subcutaneous infusion the intravenous pump delivered saline and vice versa. Serial measurements of pain intensity, pain relief, mood, and sedation by means of visual analogue scales showed no clinically or statistically significant difference between the two infusion routes...
February 23, 1991: Lancet
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