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Lymphocytopenia, cancer

Xiaoyan Liu, Qing Zhou, Yan Xu, Minjiang Chen, Jing Zhao, Mengzhao Wang
Since the introduction of imatinib for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, several oncogenic mutations have been identified in various malignancies that can serve as targets for therapy. More recently, a deeper insight into the mechanism of antitumor immunity and tumor immunoevasion have facilitated the development of novel immunotherapy agents. Certain targeted agents have the ability of inhibiting tumor growth without causing severe lymphocytopenia and amplifying antitumor immune response by increasing tumor antigenicity, enhancing intratumoral T cell infiltration, and altering the tumor immune microenvironment, which provides a rationale for combining targeted therapy with immunotherapy...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
James E Turner, Patricia C Brum
Moderate intensity aerobic exercise training or regular physical activity is beneficial for immune function. For example, some evidence shows that individuals with an active lifestyle exhibit stronger immune responses to vaccination compared to those who are inactive. Encouragingly, poor vaccine responses, which are characteristic of an ageing immune system, can be improved by single or repeated bouts of exercise. In addition, exercise-induced lymphocytosis, and the subsequent lymphocytopenia, is thought to facilitate immune surveillance, whereby lymphocytes search tissues for antigens derived from viruses, bacteria, or malignant transformation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Naomi O Hodgins, Julie Tzu-Wen Wang, Khuloud T Al-Jamal
Nitrogen containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) including zoledronate (ZOL) and alendronate (ALD) inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase, and have been shown to have a cytotoxic affect against cancer cells as a monotherapy and to also sensitise tumour cells to destruction by γδ T cells. γδ T cells are a subset of human T lymphocytes and have a diverse range of roles in the immune system including the recognition and destruction of cancer cells. This property of γδ T cells can be harnessed for use in cancer immunotherapy through in vivo expansion or the adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated γδ T cells...
May 15, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Alexander V Karaulov, Irina V Mikhaylova, Alexander I Smolyagin, Viktor M Boev, Alexandra Kalogeraki, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Ayse Basak Engin
Exposure to benzene and its inevitable metabolites can result in deleterious effects on human health, including lymphocytopenia, hematotoxicity and cancer. However, the duration of exposure might alter the effects including immune consequences. The aim of this study was to determine whether benzene could modulate lymphocyte proliferation induced by the T cell mitogen concanavalin A, in rats, at different exposure durations. 386 Wistar rats were assigned into control and treatment groups which were subdivided into groups for 45, 90 and 135days for 0,6mL/kg of drinking water mixed benzene treatment...
June 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Zhengshui Xu, Hua Cheng
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common tumor in the world, and remains a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of death. Recently many researches have demonstrated that systemic inflammatory response is associated with prognosis and response to therapy in gastric cancer, and the peripheral blood count test can partly reflect the systemic inflammatory response. Based on the peripheral blood count test, there are a lot of research regarding the relation between the platelet count (PLT), neutrophil, lymphocyte, white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio(NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) with their prognostic role in gastric cancer...
February 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Mohsen Cheki, Ehsan Mihandoost, Alireza Shirazi, Aziz Mahmoudzadeh
Genotoxicity in lymphocytes of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy can lead to lymphocytopenia. Lymphocytopenia induced by radiotherapy is one of the most unfavorable prognostic biological markers in cancer patients, since it has been accepted to be associated with poor prognosis in terms of both survival time and response to cancer therapy. Therefore, reduction in lymphocytopenia may increase treatment efficiency. Research endeavors with synthetic radioprotectors in the past have met with little success primarily due to toxicity-related problems...
October 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Evelyn Herrmann, Diana Naehrig, Manfred Sassowsky, Martin Bigler, Jeroen Buijsen, Ilja Ciernik, Daniel Zwahlen, Alessandra Franzetti Pellanda, Andreas Meister, Peter Brauchli, Simona Berardi, Erika Kuettel, Jean-François Dufour, Daniel M Aebersold
PURPOSE: To assess feasibility and safety of conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (cfRT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed stage cT1-4, cN0-1 HCC and Child-Pugh Score (CPS) A or B disease were included in a phase I multicenter trial. Metastatic HCC were allowed if ≥90% of total tumor volume was located within the liver. Patients were enrolled onto five dose-escalation levels (54-70Gy in 2Gy fractions) based on a modified 3 + 3 design, with cohorts of five patients instead of three patients in dose levels 4 and 5...
January 13, 2017: Radiation Oncology
Brody Holohan, Wanil Kim, Tsung-Po Lai, Hirotoshi Hoshiyama, Ning Zhang, Anas M Alazami, Woodring E Wright, M Stephen Meyn, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Jerry W Shay
BACKGROUND: Loss of function in genes required for telomere maintenance result in disorders known as telomeropathies, which are characterized by a pattern of symptoms including generalized and specific lymphocytopenias as well as very short telomere length and disease anticipation. METHODS: Because human LARP7 is the most likely ortholog of the Tetrahymena p65 protein, which is required for telomerase activity in that organism, we investigated the effects of LARP7 silencing in human cells as well as in two distinct families with Alazami syndrome (loss of function of LARP7)...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
N Joseph, A McWilliam, J Kennedy, C Faivre-Finn, A Choudhury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Sung Han Kim, Sohee Kim, Jungnam Joo, Ho Kyung Seo, Jae Young Joung, Kang Hyun Lee, Jinsoo Chung
BACKGROUND: To identify predictors of prolonged or shortened progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who received first-line targeted therapies. METHODS: This retrospective study included 146 patients with mRCC who were treated during 2007-2015. These patients were divided into a group with the worst response (WG), an expected group (EG), and a group with the best response (BG), based on their PFS (≤3 monthsnths, 3-18 monthsnths, and >18 monthsnths, respectively) and OS (<1 year, 1-3 years, and >3 years, respectively)...
August 2, 2016: BMC Cancer
Kenji Murata, Tomohide Tsukahara, Makoto Emori, Yuji Shibayama, Emi Mizushima, Hiroshi Matsumiya, Keiji Yamashita, Mitsunori Kaya, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Takayuki Kanaseki, Terufumi Kubo, Tetsuo Himi, Shingo Ichimiya, Toshihiko Yamashita, Noriyuki Sato, Toshihiko Torigoe
High-dose chemotherapy may kill not only tumor cells but also immunocytes, and frequently induces severe lymphocytopenia. On the other hand, patients who recover from the nadir maintain immunity against infection, suggesting the existence of an unknown memory T-cell population with stress resistance, long-living capacity, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, the differentiation system of T-cell memory has been clarified using mouse models. However, the human T-cell memory system has great diversity induced by natural antigens derived from many pathogens and tumor cells throughout life, and profoundly differs from the mouse memory system constructed using artificial antigens and transgenic T cells...
June 2016: Oncoimmunology
Rossana Berardi, Silvia Rinaldi, Matteo Santoni, Thomas Newsom-Davis, Michela Tiberi, Francesca Morgese, Miriam Caramanti, Agnese Savini, Consuelo Ferrini, Mariangela Torniai, Ilaria Fiordoliva, Marc Bower, Stefano Cascinu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the prognostic role of neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and to design models to define the prognosis of patients receiving first-line chemo- or targeted therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 401 consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC treated with first line chemo- or targeted therapy. Patients were stratified into two groups with pre-treatment NLR ≥ 3...
May 3, 2016: Oncotarget
Hideki Ueno, Masafumi Ikeda, Makoto Ueno, Nobumasa Mizuno, Tatsuya Ioka, Yasushi Omuro, Takako Eguchi Nakajima, Junji Furuse
PURPOSE: Efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine have not been clarified in Japanese patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. No pharmacokinetic profile of co-administration of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine has been reported. We conducted a phase I/II study of the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics in Japanese patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. METHODS: The patients were administered 125 mg/m(2) nab-paclitaxel followed by 1000 mg/m(2) gemcitabine on day 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks...
March 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Koichi Megumi, Hiroshi Okumura, Masataka Shimonosono, Tetsuya Ijichi, Yasuto Uchikado, Itaru Omoto, Hiroyoshi Yo, Yoshiaki Kita, Yoshikazu Uenosono, Takaaki Arigami, Shinichiro Mori, Kenji Baba, Sumiya Ishigami, Tetsuhiro Owaki, Shoji Natsugoe
A68 -year-old woman was diagnosed with advanced esophageal cancer with lymph node metastasis, for which she received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. During therapy, she had loss of appetite and weight; therefore, we inserted a nasal feeding tube for her nutrition, after which, she gained weight soon. After therapy, she had a high fever with lymphocytopenia and was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus infection because of significantly high CMV antigenemia. Ganciclovir was administered immediately, and she recovered soon...
October 2015: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Narek Shaverdian, Darlene Veruttipong, Jason Wang, Dorthe Schaue, Patrick Kupelian, Percy Lee
INTRODUCTION: We determined whether pretreatment immunologic parameters could predict the outcomes and toxicity in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The pretreatment leukocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts, serum albumin levels, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR,) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were evaluated to determine the association with locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and treatment-related toxicity...
January 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
Naoya Hashimoto, Akihiro Tsuboi, Naoki Kagawa, Yasuyoshi Chiba, Shuichi Izumoto, Manabu Kinoshita, Noriyuki Kijima, Yoshihiro Oka, Soyoko Morimoto, Hiroko Nakajima, Satoshi Morita, Junichi Sakamoto, Sumiyuki Nishida, Naoki Hosen, Yusuke Oji, Norio Arita, Toshiki Yoshimine, Haruo Sugiyama
To investigate the safety of combined Wilms tumor 1 peptide vaccination and temozolomide treatment of glioblastoma, a phase I clinical trial was designed. Seven patients with histological diagnosis of glioblastoma underwent concurrent radiotherapy and temozolomide therapy. Patients first received Wilms tumor 1 peptide vaccination 1 week after the end of combined concurrent radio/temozolomide therapy, and administration was continued once per week for 7 weeks. Temozolomide maintenance was started and performed for up to 24 cycles, and the observation period for safety encompassed 6 weeks from the first administration of maintenance temozolomide...
June 2015: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Rodryg Ramlau, Michael Thomas, Silvia Novello, Ruth Plummer, Martin Reck, Tomomi Kaneko, Mike R Lau, Jane Margetts, John Lunec, Joyce Nutt, Giorgio V Scagliotti
INTRODUCTION: Lapatinib is a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets epidermal growth factor receptor and HER2. We report on a dose-escalation study of lapatinib combined with pemetrexed in second-line treatment to evaluate the safety and efficacy in advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and an exploratory study in which circulating cell-free thymidylate synthase ribonucleic acid (cfTSmRNA) was measured in all patients and compared with clinical benefit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had stage IIIB or IV NSCLC after 1 previous line of chemotherapy and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2...
September 2015: Clinical Lung Cancer
Anish Thomas, Arun Rajan, Arlene Berman, Yusuke Tomita, Christina Brzezniak, Min-Jung Lee, Sunmin Lee, Alexander Ling, Aaron J Spittler, Corey A Carter, Udayan Guha, Yisong Wang, Eva Szabo, Paul Meltzer, Seth M Steinberg, Jane B Trepel, Patrick J Loehrer, Giuseppe Giaccone
BACKGROUND: No standard treatments are available for advanced thymic epithelial tumours after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy. We investigated the activity of sunitinib, an orally administered tyrosine kinase inhibitor. METHODS: Between May 15, 2012, and Oct 2, 2013, we did an open-label phase 2 trial in patients with histologically confirmed chemotherapy-refractory thymic epithelial tumours. Patients were eligible if they had disease progression after at least one previous regimen of platinum-containing chemotherapy, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of two or lower, measurable disease, and adequate organ function...
February 2015: Lancet Oncology
Shane McGann, Evan R Horton
OBJECTIVE: To review and evaluate the clinical trial efficacy and safety of radium 223 ((223)Ra) along with its place in therapy in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). DATA SOURCES: A literature search in PubMed/MEDLINE (up to October 2014) was performed using various combinations of the terms radium, hormone-refractory prostate cancer, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. The New Drug Application Medical, Pharmacology, and Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics Reviews for radium (223)Ra dichloride were also utilized...
April 2015: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Taha Nazir, Azharul Islam, Muhammad Ovais Omer, Mazhar Mustafa
Cancer chemotherapy exerts deleterious effects in patients, causing structural and physiological changes to their vital organs. These drugs are capable of destroying bone marrow cells and may reduce lymphocyte count. This study was aimed to investigate the frequency of lymphocytopenia in cancer patients taking vinorelbine and its combination as part of cancer chemotherapy. A total 60 adult cancer patients were selected and divided into two groups; Group-1 patients were either on Vinorelbine alone treatment protocol, while group 2 patients were on either Vinorelbine/Cisplatin or Vinorelbine/Doxorubicin treatment protocol...
2015: Breast Disease
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