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Muscle metabolism

Norma Amador-Licona, Evelin Valeria Moreno-Vargas, Claudia Martinez-Cordero
INTRODUCTION: The daily protein recommendation for adults is 0.8 g/kg/day; however, several studies argue that an intake of 1.0-1.5 g protein/kg/day could benefit the health of the elderly. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the protein intake and serum lipid levels in elderly patients with hip fracture, determining their correlation with the grip strength in both hands. METHODS: The study included 47 adult patients aged 65-85 years hospitalized for recent hip fracture...
January 10, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Young Nam Kwon, Sung Sang Yoon, Kyung-Hag Lee
Background: Sarcopenia causes loss of muscle mass in the elderly and is associated with development of metabolic syndrome in those with obesity. This study evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity (SO) in healthy Korean elderly women. Methods: This study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V, 2008-2011. Whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and body mass index measurement were performed for all patients...
February 2018: Journal of Bone Metabolism
Binod Aryal, Abhishek K Singh, Xinbo Zhang, Luis Varela, Noemi Rotllan, Leigh Goedeke, Balkrishna Chaube, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Daniel F Vatner, Tamas L Horvath, Gerald I Shulman, Yajaira Suárez, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
Alterations in ectopic lipid deposition and circulating lipids are major risk factors for developing cardiometabolic diseases. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4), a protein that inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL), controls fatty acid (FA) uptake in adipose and oxidative tissues and regulates circulating triacylglycerol-rich (TAG-rich) lipoproteins. Unfortunately, global depletion of ANGPTL4 results in severe metabolic abnormalities, inflammation, and fibrosis when mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD), limiting our understanding of the contribution of ANGPTL4 in metabolic disorders...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Juan J Díez, Susana Sangiao-Alvarellos, Fernando Cordido
Pharmacological treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults began in clinical practice more than 20 years ago. Since then, a great volume of experience has been accumulated on its effects on the symptoms and biochemical alterations that characterize this hormonal deficiency. The effects on body composition, muscle mass and strength, exercise capacity, glucose and lipid profile, bone metabolism, and quality of life have been fully demonstrated. The advance of knowledge has also taken place in the biological and molecular aspects of the action of this hormone in patients who have completed longitudinal growth...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaolei Zhang, Michelle B Trevino, Miao Wang, Stephen J Gardell, Julio E Ayala, Xianlin Han, Daniel P Kelly, Bret H Goodpaster, Rick B Vega, Paul M Coen
The progression of age-related sarcopenia can be accelerated by impaired recovery of muscle mass following periods of disuse due to illness or immobilization. However, the mechanisms underlying poor recovery of aged muscle following disuse remain to be delineated. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial energetics play an important role in regulation of muscle mass. Here, we report that 22-24 month old mice with low muscle mass and low glucose clearance rate also display poor early recovery of muscle mass following 10 days of hind limb unloading...
March 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Paula Finatto, Edson Soares Da Silva, Alexandre B Okamura, Bruna P Almada, Henrique B Oliveira, Leonardo A Peyré-Tartaruga
PURPOSE: Strength training improves distance running economy and performance. This finding is based predominantly on maximal and explosive strength programmes applied to locomotor muscles, particularly on the lower limbs. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic cost (Cmet) and an improvement in running performance is feasible with strength training of the postural and trunk muscles. METHODS: Using kinematic, neuromuscular and metabolic measurements of running at two different speeds before and after a 12-week Pilates training programme, we tested the hypothesis that core training might improve the running Cmet and performance of trained runners...
2018: PloS One
Geoffrey D Abrams, David Feldman, Marc R Safran
Vitamin D is known to be important for calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. It also has important direct effects on skeletal muscle. Unlike authentic vitamins, which cannot be synthesized in the body, vitamin D is produced in the skin using sunlight. Through its nuclear receptor (ie, vitamin D receptor) located throughout the body, including skeletal muscle, vitamin D initiates genomic and nongenomic pathways regulating multiple actions, including myocyte proliferation and growth. In some studies, vitamin D supplementation has been shown to increase muscle strength, particularly in people who are vitamin D deficient...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Tina Stopp, Michael Feichtinger, Wolfgang Eppel, Thomas M Stulnig, Peter Husslein, Christian Göbl
McArdle disease or glycogen storage disease (GSD) type V is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder in skeletal muscle metabolism leading to exercise intolerance, muscle cramps and in some cases to rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to elevated serum myoglobin levels. Albeit the uterine smooth muscle is not affected, pregnancy and delivery can be physically strenuous and may require specific anesthesiologic care. However, data on pregnancy progress and outcome and on special implications linked to anesthesia in women with McArdle's disease is scarce, thus posing a challenge to pre- and peripartal management...
March 21, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Weijing Wang, Dongfeng Zhang, Chunsheng Xu, Yili Wu, Haiping Duan, Shuxia Li, Qihua Tan
Serum uric acid (SUA), as the end product of purine metabolism, has proven emerging roles in human disorders. Here based on a sample of 379 middle and old-aged Chinese twin pairs, we aimed to explore the magnitude of genetic impact on SUA variation by performing sex-limitation twin modeling analyses and further detect specific genetic variants related to SUA by conducting a genome-wide association study. Monozygotic (MZ) twin correlation for SUA level (rMZ = 0.56) was larger than for dizygotic (DZ) twin correlation (rDZ = 0...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Laura C O'Brien, Zachary A Graham, Qun Chen, Edward J Lesnefsky, Christopher Cardozo, Ashraf S Gorgey
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationships between circulating adiponectin levels, body composition, metabolic profile, and measures of skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and biogenesis. SETTINGS: Clinical Research in a Medical Center. METHODS: Plasma adiponectin was quantified in 19 individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Body composition was evaluated by dual x-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging...
March 20, 2018: Spinal Cord
Samuel Silva Aguiar, Caio Victor Sousa, Herbert Gustavo Simões, Rodrigo Vanerson Passos Neves, Fernando Costa, Michel Kendy Souza, Milton Moraes, Jonato Prestes, Marcelo Magalhães Sales, Anderson Sola Haro, Jeffrey Michael Willardson, Thiago Dos Santos Rosa
Resistance exercise (RE) can be an excellent modality for glycemic control. Studies have demonstrated that a single RE session can reduce glycemia in subjects with or without diabetes. Little is known about the dose-response effect of RE on glycemic control. This study aimed to investigate the acute metabolic responses after different RE protocols. Eighty-nine men were separated into six groups that completed RE protocols: two sets of 18 repetitions (2x18 at 50% of 1RM; n=19); three sets of 12 repetitions (3x12 at 70% of 1RM; n=14); four sets of nine repetitions (4x9 at 80% of 1RM; n=13); six sets of six repetitions (6x6 at 90% of 1RM; n=19); circuit (2x18 at 50% of 1RM; n=12); and a control session (n=12)...
March 20, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Teresa Małecka-Massalska, Aleksandra Majdan
Chronic inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to metabolic changes has an effect on body composition. Up to two thirds of patients may be affected by the loss of body cell mass and, thereby, malnutrition including its most severe form - cachexia. Among patients with RA and malnutrition, the total body weight is not reduced and the muscle loss is partially compensated by an increase in body fat. The excess of visceral and trunk adipose tissue is the main factor of increased prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in RA patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Keith G Avin, Julian A Vallejo, Neal X Chen, Kun Wang, Chad D Touchberry, Marco Brotto, Sarah L Dallas, Sharon M Moe, Michael J Wacker
Skeletal muscle dysfunction accompanies the clinical disorders of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets. In both disorders fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone regulating phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, becomes chronically elevated. FGF23 has been shown to play a direct role in cardiac muscle dysfunction; however, it is unknown whether FGF23 signaling can also directly induce skeletal muscle dysfunction. We found expression of potential FGF23 receptors ( Fgfr1-4) and α-Klotho in muscles of two animal models (CD-1 and Cy/+ rat, a naturally occurring rat model of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder) as well as C2 C12 myoblasts and myotubes...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ryszard Rzepecki, Yosef Gruenbaum
Lamins are evolutionarily conserved nuclear intermediate filament proteins. They provide structural support for the nucleus and help regulate many other nuclear activities. Mutations in human lamin genes, and especially in the LMNA gene, cause numerous diseases, termed laminopathies, including muscle, cardiac, metabolic, neuronal and early aging diseases. Most laminopathies arise from autosomal dominant missense mutations. Many of the mutant residues are conserved in the lamin genes of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
March 20, 2018: Nucleus
Edward L E Jester, Jared I Loader, Harold A Flores Quintana, Kathleen R El Said, Ronald A Benner, Ann Abraham
The use of chloramphenicol (CAP) in aquaculture products is banned in many countries, including the United States, due to human health issues. Very few depletion and metabolism studies of CAP in seafood have been performed. Current detection methods for CAP residues in food are directed toward the parent drug molecule, but rapid elimination following treatment suggests the need for an alternative marker residue. We identified, characterized, and determined the persistence of two CAP metabolites, CAP-base (CAP-B) and CAP-alcohol (CAP-OH), in crab and shrimp...
April 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Ji-Sun Kim, Hyunjung Lee, Chang Hwa Jung, Sung-Joon Lee, Tae-Youl Ha, Jiyun Ahn
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance. Although chicoric acid (CA) is known to have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, the involvement of mitochondrial function has not been elucidated yet. Here, we investigated the effect of CA on insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes, CA improved impaired glucose uptake and insulin signaling pathways, along with enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption...
March 20, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jan C van der Meijden, Michelle E Kruijshaar, Laurike Harlaar, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Nadine A M E van der Beek, Ans T van der Ploeg
OBJECTIVES: Pompe disease is a progressive metabolic myopathy for which enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was approved in 2006. While various publications have examined the effects of ERT in classic-infantile patients and in adults, little has been published on ERT in children with non-classic presentations. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective study was conducted from June 1999 to May 2015. Seventeen patients from various countries participated. Outcome measures comprised muscle function (6-minute walk test, quick motor-function test (QMFT)), muscle strength (hand-held dynamometry; manual muscle testing), and lung function (FVC sitting and supine)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Patricia Cristine Borck, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Renato Chaves Souto Branco, Thiago Martins Batista, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Vanessa Yumi Nakanishi, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro
The sulfur-containing amino acid, taurine (Tau), regulates glucose and lipid homeostasis under normal, pre- and diabetic conditions. Here, we aimed to verify whether Tau supplementation exerts its beneficial effects against obesity, hyperglycemia and alterations in islet functions, in leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob), over a long period of treatment. From weaning until 12 months of age, female ob/ob mice received, or not, 5% Tau in drinking water (obTau group). After this period, a reduction in hypertriglyceridemia and an improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were observed in obTau mice...
March 19, 2018: Amino Acids
Goro Katsuumi, Ippei Shimizu, Yohko Yoshida, Tohru Minamino
In mammals, aging is associated with accumulation of senescent cells. Stresses such as telomere shortening and reactive oxygen species induce "cellular senescence", which is characterized by growth arrest and alteration of the gene expression profile. Chronological aging is associated with development of age-related diseases, including heart failure, diabetes, and atherosclerotic disease, and studies have shown that accumulation of senescent cells has a causative role in the pathology of these age-related disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Nikita M Bajwa, Chandrasekhar Kesavan, Subburaman Mohan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to long-term cognitive, behavioral, affective deficits, and increase neurodegenerative diseases. It is only in recent years that there is growing awareness that TBI even in its milder form poses long-term health consequences to not only the brain but to other organ systems. Also, the concept that hormonal signals and neural circuits that originate in the hypothalamus play key roles in regulating skeletal system is gaining recognition based on recent mouse genetic studies. Accordingly, many TBI patients have also presented with hormonal dysfunction, increased skeletal fragility, and increased risk of skeletal diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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