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Muscle metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214295/blood-flow-restriction-increases-metabolic-stress-but-decreases-muscle-activation-during-high-load-resistance-exercise
#1
Emerson L Teixeira, Renato Barroso, Carla Silva-Batista, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke, Hamilton Roschel, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Valmor Tricoli
INTRODUCTION: We investigated differences in metabolic stress (lactate) and muscle activation (electromyography) when high load exercise is compared to a condition where blood flow restriction (BFR) is applied during the exercise or during the rest interval. METHODS: Twelve participants performed high load resistance exercise with BFR during the intervals (BFR-I), during the set (BFR-S) and without BFR (HL). Each condition consisted of 3 sets of 8 repetitions with knee-extension at 70% of one-repetition-maximum...
February 18, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213970/efficacy-and-safety-of-immuno-magnetically-sorted-smooth-muscle-progenitor-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-restoring-urethral-sphincter-function
#2
Yanhui Li, Morgaine Green, Yan Wen, Yi Wei, Prachi Wani, Zhe Wang, Renee Reijo Pera, Bertha Chen
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-based cell therapy holds promise for treating stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, safety concerns, especially tumorgenic potential of residual undifferentiated cells in hiPSC derivatives, are major barriers for its clinical translation. An efficient, fast and clinical-scale strategy for purifying committed cells is also required. Our previous studies demonstrated the regenerative effects of hiPSC-derived smooth muscle progenitor cells (pSMCs) on the injured urethral sphincter in SUI, but the differentiation protocol required fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) which is not practical for autologous clinical applications...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213823/long-term-resistance-exercise-induced-muscular-hypertrophy-is-associated-with-autophagy-modulation-in-rats
#3
Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Joon-Yong Cho, Young C Jang, Youngil Lee
Elevation of anabolism and concurrent suppression of catabolism are critical metabolic adaptations for muscular hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise (RE). Here, we investigated if RE-induced muscular hypertrophy is acquired by modulating a critical catabolic process autophagy. Male Wistar Hannover rats (14 weeks old) were randomly assigned to either sedentary control (SC, n = 10) or resistance exercise (RE, n = 10). RE elicited significant hypertrophy of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles in parallel with enhancement in anabolic signaling pathways (phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213570/blunted-transcriptional-response-to-skeletal-muscle-ischemia-in-rats-with-chronic-kidney-disease-potential-role-for-impaired-ischemia-induced-angiogenesis
#4
Rafael U Heiss, Fabian Fahlbusch, Johannes Jacobi, Christoph Daniel, Arif B Ekici, Nada Cordasic, Kerstin Amann, Andrea Hartner, Karl F Hilgers
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies indicated an impairment of ischemia-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle of rats with CKD. We performed a systematic comparison of early gene expression in response to ischemia in rats with or without CKD to identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying impaired angiogenesis in CKD. CKD was induced in male rats by 5/6 nephrectomy (SNX); control rats were sham operated (sham). Eight weeks later, ischemia of the right limb was induced by ligation and resection of the femoral artery...
February 17, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213398/foxo-integration-of-insulin-signaling-with-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#5
Sojin Lee, Henry H Dong
The forkhead box O family consists of FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4 and FoxO6 proteins in mammals. Expressed ubiquitously in the body, the four FoxO isoforms share in common the amino DNA binding domain, known as "forkhead box" domain. They mediate the inhibitory action of insulin or insulin-like growth factor on key functions involved in cell metabolism, growth, differentiation, oxidative stress, senescence, autophagy and aging. Genetic mutations in FoxO genes or abnormal expression of FoxO proteins are associated with metabolic disease, cancer or altered lifespan in humans and animals...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212894/exogenous-thyroid-hormones-regulate-the-activity-of-citrate-synthase-and-cytochrome-c-oxidase-in-warm-but-not-cold-acclimated-lake-whitefish-coregonus-clupeaformis
#6
Megan A Zak, Amy M Regish, Stephen D McCormick, Richard G Manzon
Thermal acclimation is known to elicit metabolic adjustments in ectotherms, but the cellular mechanisms and endocrine control of these shifts have not been fully elucidated. Here we examined the relationship between thermal acclimation, thyroid hormones and oxidative metabolism in juvenile lake whitefish. Impacts of thermal acclimation above (19 °C) or below (8 °C) the thermal optimum (13 °C) and exposure to exogenous thyroid hormone (60 µg T4/g body weight) were assessed by quantifying citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in liver, red muscle, white muscle and heart...
February 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212122/a-research-of-soft-tissue-lipoma-genesis-factor-with-immunohistochemical-analysis
#7
Jun Beom Lee, Hwan Jun Choi, Eun Taik Son, Jun Hyuk Kim
INTRODUCTION: Lipoma is the most familiar soft-tissue tumor. But the etiology of lipoma remains imprecise. Sex steroid hormones such as estrogen have effects on muscle and adipose tissue development. There is now significant evidence that sex steroids are involved in the site specificities of adipose tissue metabolism. This association of adipose tissue metabolism between sex steroid hormones suggests a possible role for sex steroids in the pathogenesis of lipoma. METHODS: To investigate this concept, the authors evaluated the expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR) in soft tissue lipoma in this study...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211057/reproductive-energy-expenditure-and-changes-in-body-morphology-for-a-population-of-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha-with-a-long-distance-migration
#8
T E Bowerman, A Pinson-Dumm, C A Peery, C C Caudill
Energetic demands of a long freshwater migration, extended holding period, gamete development and spawning were evaluated for a population of stream-type Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Female and male somatic mass decreased by 24 and 21%, respectively, during migration and by an additional 18 and 12% during holding. Between freshwater entry and death after spawning, females allocated 14% of initial somatic energy towards gonad development and 78% for metabolism (46, 25 and 7% during migration, holding and spawning, respectively)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209896/hawkmoths-use-nectar-sugar-to-reduce-oxidative-damage-from-flight
#9
E Levin, G Lopez-Martinez, B Fane, G Davidowitz
Nectar-feeding animals have among the highest recorded metabolic rates. High aerobic performance is linked to oxidative damage in muscles. Antioxidants in nectar are scarce to nonexistent. We propose that nectarivores use nectar sugar to mitigate the oxidative damage caused by the muscular demands of flight. We found that sugar-fed moths had lower oxidative damage to their flight muscle membranes than unfed moths. Using respirometry coupled with δ(13)C analyses, we showed that moths generate antioxidant potential by shunting nectar glucose to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), resulting in a reduction in oxidative damage to the flight muscles...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209743/skeletal-muscle-bioenergetics-during-all-out-exercise-mechanistic-insight-into-the-oxygen-uptake-slow-component-and-neuromuscular-fatigue
#10
Ryan M Broxterman, Gwenael Layec, Thomas J Hureau, Markus Amann, Russell S Richardson
Although commonly used, the physiological mechanisms underlying all-out exercise performance are still unclear and an in-depth assessment of skeletal muscle bioenergetics is lacking. Therefore, phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) was utilized to assess skeletal muscle bioenergetics during a 5-min all-out intermittent isometric knee-extensor protocol in 8 healthy men. The metabolic perturbation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rates, ATP cost of contraction, and mitochondrial capacity were determined from intramuscular concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4⁻ ), and pH...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209382/err%C3%AE-a-junior-orphan-with-a-senior-role-in-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Jagannath Misra, Don-Kyu Kim, Hueng-Sik Choi
Estrogen-related receptor (ERR)γ is an orphan nuclear hormone receptor that belongs to the ERR subfamily of transcription factors. No endogenous ligand has been identified to date. ERRγ possesses ligand-independent transcriptional activity that is regulated by co-regulator interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs). Recent data from animal models have established ERRγ as a crucial mediator of multiple endocrine and metabolic signals. ERRγ plays important roles in pathological conditions such as insulin resistance, alcoholic liver injury, and cardiac hypertrophy, and controls energy metabolism in the heart, skeletal muscle, and pancreatic β cells...
February 13, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209124/rna-seq-and-metabolomic-analyses-of-akt1-mediated-muscle-growth-reveals-regulation-of-regenerative-pathways-and-changes-in-the-muscle-secretome
#12
Chia-Ling Wu, Yoshinori Satomi, Kenneth Walsh
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a major regulator of systemic metabolism as it serves as the major site for glucose disposal and the main reservoir for amino acids. With aging, cachexia, starvation, and myositis, there is a preferential loss of fast glycolytic muscle fibers. We previously reported a mouse model in which a constitutively-active Akt transgene is induced to express in a subset of muscle groups leading to the hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers with an accompanying increase in strength...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208792/an%C3%A2-exercise-only%C3%A2-intervention%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-obese%C3%A2-fathers%C3%A2-restores%C3%A2-glucose%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-insulin%C3%A2-regulation%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-conjunction%C3%A2-with%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-rescue%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-pancreatic%C3%A2-islet%C3%A2-cell%C3%A2-morphology%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-microrna%C3%A2-expression%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-male%C3%A2-offspring
#13
Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Lauren Sandeman, Julie A Owens, Tod Fullston
Paternal obesity programs metabolic syndrome in offspring. Low-impact exercise in obese  males improves the metabolic health of female offspring, however whether this occurred in male  offspring remained unknown. C57BL/6NHsd (Harlan) mice were fed a control diet (CD; 6% fat, n =  7) or a high-fat diet (HFD; 21% fat, n = 16) for 18 weeks. After 9 weeks, HFD-fed mice either remained  sedentary (HH, n = 8) or undertook low-moderate exercise (HE, n = 8) for another 9 weeks...
February 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208108/dietary-administration-of-edc-mixtures-a-focus-on-fish-lipid-metabolism
#14
O Carnevali, V Notarstefano, I Olivotto, M Graziano, P Gallo, I Di Marco Pisciottano, L Vaccari, A Mandich, E Giorgini, F Maradonna
Many man-made chemical compounds are recognized as endocrine disruptors and once released into the environment are likely to spread and bioaccumulate in wild species. Due to their lipophilic nature, these substances pass through the cell membrane or bind to specific receptors activating physiological responses that in the long run can cause reproductive impairment, physiological disorders, including the occurrence of metabolic syndromes. One significant source of contamination is represented by the consumption of polluted food...
February 6, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207880/skeletal-muscle-metabolic-adaptations-to-endurance-exercise-training-are-attainable-in-mice-with-simvastatin-treatment
#15
William M Southern, Anna S Nichenko, Daniel D Shill, Corey C Spencer, Nathan T Jenkins, Kevin K McCully, Jarrod A Call
We tested the hypothesis that a 6-week regimen of simvastatin would attenuate skeletal muscle adaptation to low-intensity exercise. Male C57BL/6J wildtype mice were subjected to 6-weeks of voluntary wheel running or normal cage activities with or without simvastatin treatment (20 mg/kg/d, n = 7-8 per group). Adaptations in in vivo fatigue resistance were determined by a treadmill running test, and by ankle plantarflexor contractile assessment. The tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and plantaris muscles were evaluated for exercised-induced mitochondrial adaptations (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207859/differential-effects-of-silencing-crustacean-hyperglycemic-hormone-gene-expression-on-the-metabolic-profiles-of-the-muscle-and-hepatopancreas-in-the-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#16
Wenfeng Li, Kuo-Hsun Chiu, Yi-Chun Tien, Shih-Fu Tsai, Li-Jane Shih, Chien-Hsun Lee, Jean-Yves Toullec, Chi-Ying Lee
In order to functionally characterize the metabolic roles of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), gene expression of CHH in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) was knocked down by in vivo injection of CHH double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), followed by metabolomic analysis of 2 CHH target tissues (the muscle and hepatopancreas) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Compared to the levels in untreated and saline-injected (SAI) animals, levels of CHH transcript, but not those of molt-inhibiting hormone (a CHH-family peptide), in the eyestalk ganglia of CHH dsRNA-injected (DSI) animals were significantly decreased at 24, 48, and 72 hour post injection (hpi), with concomitant changes in levels of CHH peptide in the sinus gland (a neurohemal organ) and hemolymph...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207742/narciclasine-attenuates-diet-induced-obesity-by-promoting-oxidative-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#17
Sofi G Julien, Sun-Yee Kim, Reinhard Brunmeir, Joanna R Sinnakannu, Xiaojia Ge, Hongyu Li, Wei Ma, Jadegoud Yaligar, Bhanu Prakash Kn, Sendhil S Velan, Pia V Röder, Qiongyi Zhang, Choon Kiat Sim, Jingyi Wu, Marta Garcia-Miralles, Mahmoud A Pouladi, Wei Xie, Craig McFarlane, Weiping Han, Feng Xu
Obesity develops when caloric intake exceeds metabolic needs. Promoting energy expenditure represents an attractive approach in the prevention of this fast-spreading epidemic. Here, we report a novel pharmacological strategy in which a natural compound, narciclasine (ncls), attenuates diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice by promoting energy expenditure. Moreover, ncls promotes fat clearance from peripheral metabolic tissues, improves blood metabolic parameters in DIO mice, and protects these mice from the loss of voluntary physical activity...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204901/the-effect-of-hydration-status-on-the-measurement-of-lean-tissue-mass-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#18
Clodagh M Toomey, William G McCormack, Phil Jakeman
PURPOSE: Athletes cycle between exercise and recovery. Exercise invokes changes in total body water from thermal sweating, muscle and hepatic glycogen depletion and metabolic water loss. Recovery from exercise results in rehydration, substrate repletion, and possible glycogen supercompensation. Such changes may corrupt the measurement of hydrated tissues, such as lean tissue mass (LTM), by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise and thermal dehydration and subsequent glycogen supercompensation on DXA-based measurement of body composition...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202999/-changes-of-productions-of-energy-metabolism-in-masseter-of-rats-induced-by-occlusal-interference
#19
X X Xu, Y Cao, K Y Fu, Q F Xie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of occlusal interference on the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle by studying the changes of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), inosine monophosphate (IMP), phosphocreatine, creatine, lactate and pH level in masseter muscles of rats after occlusal interference. METHODS: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into experimental group (n=40) and control group (n=10). In experimental group, 0...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202686/simvastatin-pre-treatment-improves-survival-and-mitochondrial-function-in-a-three-day-fluid-resuscitated-rat-model-of-sepsis
#20
Jerome Morel, Iain Hargreaves, David Brealey, Viruna Neergheen, Janne T Backman, Sandro Lindig, Marcus Bläss, Michael Bauer, Daniel F McAuley, Mervyn Singer
Statins may offer protective effects in sepsis through anti-inflammatory, mitochondrial protection and other actions. We thus evaluated the effects of simvastatin on survival, organ and mitochondrial function, tissue and plasma ubiquinone levels and liver transcriptomics in a 3-day rat model of sepsis. Comparisons of rat plasma simvastatin and ubiquinone levels were made against levels sampled in blood from patients with acute lung injury (ALI) enrolled into a trial of statin therapy. Animals received simvastatin by gavage either pre- or post-induction of faecal peritonitis...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
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