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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930566/homeostatic-regulation-of-plasma-amino-acid-concentrations
#1
Shengfa F Liao, Naresh Regmi, Guoyao Wu
One major goal of nutrition is to maximize the rate of muscle protein gain via provision of amino acids (AAs) through blood plasma. Comparing the plasma AA concentrations with the growth performance data can help to elucidate the metabolic mechanisms regulating plasma AA homeostasis, nutrient utilization, and intracellular protein turnover. Knowledge about the homeostatic regulation of plasma AA profile can aid in predicting dietary AA availabilities, the order of limiting AAs, and the whole body protein metabolism...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930524/hypertension-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#2
Ivan Tasic, Dragan Lovic
Hypertension has  a central role in cardiometabolic disease and is usually associated with  metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Hyperinsulinemia may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk through its promotion of hypertension, which is possibly a result of chronic enhancement of sympathetic nervous system activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, modulating cation transport, or inducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928419/the-histone-deacetylase-sirt6-blocks-myostatin-expression-and-development-of-muscle-atrophy
#3
Sadhana A Samant, Abhinav Kanwal, Vinodkumar B Pillai, Riyue Bao, Mahesh P Gupta
Muscle wasting, also known as cachexia, is associated with many chronic diseases, which worsens prognosis of primary illness leading to enhanced mortality. Molecular basis of this metabolic syndrome is not yet completely understood. SIRT6 is a chromatin-bound member of the sirtuin family, implicated in regulating many cellular processes, ranging from metabolism, DNA repair to aging. SIRT6 knockout (SIRT6-KO) mice display loss of muscle, fat and bone density, typical characteristics of cachexia. Here we report that SIRT6 depletion in cardiac as well as skeletal muscle cells promotes myostatin (Mstn) expression...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926123/isotopic-and-chemical-characteristics-of-mercury-in-organs-and-tissues-of-fish-in-a-mercury-polluted-lake-evidence-for-fractionation-of-mercury-isotopes-by-physiological-processes
#4
Togwell A Jackson
Organs and tissues of whitefish and trout from mercury (Hg)-polluted Lake Ontario were analysed for Hg isotopes, methylmercury (CH3 Hg(+) ), and inorganic Hg to investigate possible mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes by physiological processes of the fish. Isotope signatures of different body parts were defined by δ-values of (198) Hg/(202) Hg, (199) Hg/(202) Hg, (200) Hg/(202) Hg, and (201) Hg/(202) Hg ratios and by Δ-values representing effects of MIF on (199) Hg/(202) Hg and (201) Hg/(202) Hg ratios...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926107/fenofibrate-reverses-changes-induced-by-high-fat-diet-on-metabolism-in-mice-muscle-and-visceral-adipocytes
#5
Flávia de Toledo Frias, Karina Cunha E Rocha, Mariana de Mendonça, Gilson Massahiro Murata, Hygor Nunes Araujo, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de Sousa, Érica de Souza, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Nayara de Carvalho Leite, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Rui Curi, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Alice Cristina Rodrigues
The effect of fenofibrate on the metabolism of skeletal muscle and visceral white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice was investigated. C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a control or high-fat diet for eight weeks. Fenofibrate (50 mg/Kg b.w., daily) was administered by oral gavage during the last two weeks of the experimental period. Insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in soleus muscles, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, indirect calorimetry, lipolysis of visceral white adipose tissue, expression of miR-103-3p in adipose tissue and miR-1a, miR-133a/b, miR-206, let7b-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-29-3p, miR-143-3p in soleus muscle, genes related to glucose and fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue and soleus muscle, and proteins (phospho-AMPKα2, Pgc1α, Cpt1b), intramuscular lipid staining, and activities of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in skeletal muscle were investigated...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926063/methylglyoxal-attenuates-insulin-signaling-and-downregulates-the-enzymes-involved-in-cholesterol-biosynthesis
#6
Arati B Deshmukh, Shakuntala Bai, Aarthy T, Rubina S Kazi, Reema Banarjee, Rajeshwari Rathore, Vijayakumar Mv, Thulasiram Hv, Manoj Kumar Bhat, Kulkarni Mj
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl known to be elevated under the hyperglycemic conditions of diabetes and is implicated in the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, the current study investigates the role of MG in exacerbating insulin resistance at the insulin signaling level, as well as its effect on the global proteomic level. By using insulin sensitive rat muscle cells (L6) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the insulin receptor (IR) and a glucose transporter fused with green fluorescent protein (GLUT4-GFP), we have observed that MG impairs insulin signaling, inhibits GLUT4 translocation and reduces glucose uptake...
September 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925890/the-use-of-hemodynamic-and-cerebral-monitoring-to-study-pharmacodynamics-in-neonates
#7
A Smits, L Thewissen, A Dereymaeker, E Dempsey, A Caicedo, Gunnar Naulaers
BACKGROUND: Drugs acting on the cardiovascular and central nervous system often display relatively fast clinical responses, which may differ in neonates compared to children and adults. Introduction of bedside monitoring tools might be of additional value in the pharmacodynamic (PD) assessment of such drugs in neonates. METHODS: We aim to provide an overview of the frequently used monitoring tools to assess drug effects on the hemodynamic status as well as the cerebral circulation, oxygenation and cerebral metabolism in neonates...
September 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925476/late-onset-pompe-disease-in-a-54-year-old-sportsman-with-an-episode-of-syncope-a-case-report
#8
M Walczak-Galezewska, D Skrypnik, M Szulinska, K Musialik, K Skrypnik, P Bogdanski
Pompe disease is an extra-rare metabolic storage disease with deficiency of acid-alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity, which leads to the pathologic accumulation of glycogen in target tissues (skeletal muscles, heart, brain). Clinical features and severity vary by the age of onset, rate of extent of organ involvement. In the late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) form, essential cardiomyopathy seems to be uncommon. Muscles weakness and respiratory failure are the main symptoms of adult patient with Pompe disease...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925163/-proteomics-research-of-intervention-effect-of-qi-enriching-herbs-on-qi-deficiency-rats-based-on-technology-of-nanolc-ltq-orbitrap
#9
Yin-Fang Chen, Ying-Jun Fu, Chao Liu, Min Hou, Guo-Liang Xu, Ri-Yue Yu, Hong-Ning Liu, Li-Ping Huang
Proteomics method, based on NanoLC-LTQ-Orbitrap technology, was applied to explore the biological basis of intervention effect of "Qi enriching" herbs on "Qi deficiency" rats. The "Qi deficiency" rat model was established with caloric restriction combined with excessive swimming. Muscle proteins of vastus lateralis from the blank group, the model group and the ginseng group were detected by NanoLC-LTQ-Orbitrap system. The data were imported into Protein Discovery software to identify the proteins and all the raw datum were analyzed by SIEVE software...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924503/biochemical-and-structural-characterization-of-a-novel-arginine-kinase-from-the-spider-polybetes-pythagoricus
#10
Aldana Laino, Alonso A Lopez-Zavala, Karina D Garcia-Orozco, Jesus S Carrasco-Miranda, Marianela Santana, Vivian Stojanoff, Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo, Carlos Fernando Garcia
Energy buffering systems are key for homeostasis during variations in energy supply. Spiders are the most important predators for insects and therefore key in terrestrial ecosystems. From biomedical interest, spiders are important for their venoms and as a source of potent allergens, such as arginine kinase (AK, EC 2.7.3.3). AK is an enzyme crucial for energy metabolism, keeping the pool of phosphagens in invertebrates, and also an allergen for humans. In this work, we studied AK from the Argentininan spider Polybetes pythagoricus (PpAK), from its complementary DNA to the crystal structure...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924252/comprehensive-analysis-of-lncrnas-and-mrnas-in-skeletal-muscle-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-exposed-to-estradiol
#11
Jian Wang, Prasanthi P Koganti, Jianbo Yao, Shuo Wei, Beth Cleveland
Estradiol (E2) is a steroid hormone that negatively affects muscle growth in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but the mechanisms directing with this response are not fully understood. To better characterize the effects of E2 in muscle, we identified differentially regulated mRNAs and lncRNAs in juvenile rainbow trout exposed to E2. Here, we performed next-generation RNA sequencing and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses to characterize the transcriptome profiles, including mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), in skeletal muscle of rainbow trout injected with E2...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924247/low-level-activity-thresholds-for-changes-in-nmr-biomarkers-and-genes-in-high-risk-subjects-for-type-2-diabetes
#12
Karl-Heinz Herzig, Juhani Leppäluoto, Jari Jokelainen, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Sandra Pesenti, Harri Selänne, Kari A Mäkelä, Riikka Ahola, Timo Jämsä, Hubert Vidal, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Our objectives were to determine if there are quantitative associations between amounts and intensities of physical activities (PA) on NMR biomarkers and changes in skeletal muscle gene expressions in subjects with high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) performing a 3-month PA intervention. We found that PA was associated with beneficial biomarker changes in a factor containing several VLDL and HDL subclasses and lipids in principal component analysis (P = <0.01). Division of PA into quartiles demonstrated significant changes in NMR biomarkers in the 2nd - 4th quartiles compared to the 1st quartile representing PA of less than 2850 daily steps (P = 0...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923342/total-mercury-concentrations-in-liver-and-muscle-of-european-whitefish-coregonus-lavaretus-l-in-a-subarctic-lake-assessing-the-factors-driving-year-round-variation
#13
Ossi Keva, Brian Hayden, Chris Harrod, Kimmo K Kahilainen
Subarctic lakes are characterised by extreme seasonal variation in light and temperature which influences growth, maturation, condition and resource use of fishes. However, our understanding of how seasonal changes affect mercury concentrations of fishes is limited. We conducted a year-round study (3 ice-covered months, 3 open-water months) with open-water inter-annual aspect (3 years: samples from August/September), focusing on total mercury (THg) concentrations and ecological characteristics of a common freshwater fish, European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923171/potential-early-biomarkers-of-sarcopenia-among-independent-older-adults
#14
Ana Coto Montes, José Antonio Boga, Carlos Bermejo Millo, Adrián Rubio González, Yaiza Potes Ochoa, Ignacio Vega Naredo, Marta Martínez Reig, Luis Romero Rizos, Pedro Manuel Sánchez Jurado, Juan Jose Solano, Pedro Abizanda, Beatriz Caballero
OBJECTIVES: There are no tools or biomarkers for a quantitative analysis of sarcopenia. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of the diagnosis of sarcopenia in 200 independent adults aged 70 years or over. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sarcopenia was defined as loss of muscle mass together with low strength and/or loss of physical performance. We considered different clinical parameters and assayed potential blood biomarkers (cell energetic metabolism, muscle performance, inflammation, infection and oxidative stress)...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921743/exercise-training-dose-differentially-alters-muscle-and-heart-capillary-density-and-metabolic-functions-in-an-obese-rat-with-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Marcus Vinicius Machado, Aline Bomfim Vieira, Fabiana Gomes da Conceição, Alessandro Rodrigues Nascimento, Antonio Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega, Eduardo Tibirica
We evaluated the effect of frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome (MS). Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a either standard commercial diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or 8 different exercise groups that varied by the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, body composition, aerobic capacity, hemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated...
September 17, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920922/g%C3%AE-13-ablation-reprograms-myofibers-to-oxidative-phenotype-and-enhances-whole-body-metabolism
#16
Ja Hyun Koo, Tae Hyun Kim, Shi-Young Park, Min Sung Joo, Chang Yeob Han, Cheol Soo Choi, Sang Geon Kim
Skeletal muscle is a key organ in energy homeostasis owing to its high requirement for nutrients. Heterotrimeric G proteins converge signals from cell-surface receptors to potentiate or blunt responses against environmental changes. Here, we show that muscle-specific ablation of Gα13 in mice promotes reprogramming of myofibers to the oxidative type, with resultant increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular respiration. Mechanistically, Gα13 and its downstream effector RhoA suppressed nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), a chief regulator of myofiber conversion, by increasing Rho-associated kinase 2-mediated (Rock2-mediated) phosphorylation at Ser243...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919880/non-mammalian-vertebrates-distinct-models-to-assess-the-role-of-ion-gradients-in-energy-expenditure
#17
REVIEW
Caroline E Geisler, Kyle P Kentch, Benjamin J Renquist
Animals store metabolic energy as electrochemical gradients. At least 50% of mammalian energy is expended to maintain electrochemical gradients across the inner mitochondrial membrane (H(+)), the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca(++)), and the plasma membrane (Na(+)/K(+)). The potential energy of these gradients can be used to perform work (e.g., transport molecules, stimulate contraction, and release hormones) or can be released as heat. Because ectothermic species adapt their body temperature to the environment, they are not constrained by energetic demands that are required to maintain a constant body temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919865/coping-with-salt-water-habitats-metabolic-and-oxidative-responses-to-salt-intake-in-the-rufous-collared-sparrow
#18
Pablo Sabat, Cristóbal Narváez, Isaac Peña-Villalobos, Carolina Contreras, Karin Maldonado, Juan C Sanchez-Hernandez, Seth D Newsome, Roberto Nespolo, Francisco Bozinovic
Many physiological adjustments occur in response to salt intake in several marine taxa, which manifest at different scales from changes in the concentration of individual molecules to physical traits of whole organisms. Little is known about the influence of salinity on the distribution, physiological performance, and ecology of passerines; specifically, the impact of drinking water salinity on the oxidative status of birds has been largely ignored. In this study, we evaluated whether experimental variations in the salt intake of a widely-distributed passerine (Zontotrichia capensis) could generate differences in basal (BMR) and maximum metabolic rates (Msum), as well as affect metabolic enzyme activity and oxidative status...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#19
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919067/impact-of-iron-deficiency-diagnosis-using-hepcidin-mass-spectrometry-dosage-methods-on-hospital-stay-and-costs-after-a-prolonged-icu-stay-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-single-blinded-medico-economic-trial
#20
Sigismond Lasocki, Hervé Puy, Grégoire Mercier, Sylvain Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency (ID) is frequent but difficult to diagnose in critically ill patients. ID may be responsible for prolonged post-ICU hospital stays, since it results in fatigue, muscle weakness and anaemia. Hepcidin, the key iron metabolism hormone, may be a good marker of ID in these patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether using mass spectrometry hepcidin determination to diagnose (and treat) ID after prolonged ICU stays may reduce patients' subsequent hospital stays and costs in comparison with conventional (ferritin) methods...
September 14, 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
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