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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789711/does-growth-restriction-increase-the-vulnerability-to-acute-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-in-newborn-lambs-implications-for-future-health-and-disease
#1
B J Allison, S B Hooper, E Coia, G Jenkin, A Malhotra, V Zahra, A Sehgal, M Kluckow, A W Gill, T Yawno, G R Polglase, M Castillo-Melendez, S L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth are frequent co-morbidities, both are independent risks for brain injury. However, few studies have examined the mechanisms by which preterm FGR increases the risk of adverse neurological outcomes. We aimed to determine the effects of prematurity and mechanical ventilation (VENT) on the brain of FGR and appropriately grown (AG, control) lambs. We hypothesized that FGR preterm lambs are more vulnerable to ventilation-induced acute brain injury. FGR was surgically induced in fetal sheep (0...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783802/association-of-neonatal-glycemia-with-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-at-4-5-years
#2
Christopher J D McKinlay, Jane M Alsweiler, Nicola S Anstice, Nataliia Burakevych, Arijit Chakraborty, J Geoffrey Chase, Gregory D Gamble, Deborah L Harris, Robert J Jacobs, Yannan Jiang, Nabin Paudel, Ryan J San Diego, Benjamin Thompson, Trecia A Wouldes, Jane E Harding
Importance: Hypoglycemia is common during neonatal transition and may cause permanent neurological impairment, but optimal intervention thresholds are unknown. Objective: To test the hypothesis that neurodevelopment at 4.5 years is related to the severity and frequency of neonatal hypoglycemia. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Children With Hypoglycemia and Their Later Development (CHYLD) Study is a prospective cohort investigation of moderate to late preterm and term infants born at risk of hypoglycemia...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762235/fluid-supplementation-for-neonatal-unconjugated-hyperbilirubinaemia
#3
REVIEW
Nai Ming Lai, Azanna Ahmad Kamar, Yao Mun Choo, Juin Yee Kong, Chin Fang Ngim
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia is a common problem which carries a risk of neurotoxicity. Certain infants who have hyperbilirubinaemia develop bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus which may lead to long-term disability. Phototherapy is currently the mainstay of treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Among the adjunctive measures to compliment the effects of phototherapy, fluid supplementation has been proposed to reduce serum bilirubin levels. The mechanism of action proposed includes direct dilutional effects of intravenous (IV) fluids, or enhancement of peristalsis to reduce enterohepatic circulation by oral fluid supplementation...
August 1, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759410/health-services-use-by-late-preterm-and-term-infants-from-infancy-to-adulthood-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Tetsuya Isayama, Anne-Mary Lewis-Mikhael, Daria O'Reilly, Joseph Beyene, Sarah D McDonald
CONTEXT: Late-preterm infants born at 34 to 36 weeks' gestation have increased risks of various health problems. Health service utilization (HSU) of late-preterm infants has not been systematically summarized before. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the published literature on short- and long-term HSU by late-preterm infants versus term infants from infancy to adulthood after initial discharge from the hospital. DATA SOURCES: We searched Medline, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735557/long-term-effects-of-prematurity-cumulative-medical-risk-and-proximal-and-distal-social-forces-on-individual-differences-in-diurnal-cortisol-at-young-adulthood
#5
Suzy B Winchester, Mary C Sullivan, Mary B Roberts, Crystal I Bryce, Douglas A Granger
This study examined the effects of prematurity, cumulative medical risk, and proximal and distal social forces on individual differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in young adulthood. A prospective sample of 149 infants born healthy preterm (PT; n = 22), sick PT ( n = 93, medical illness, neurological illness, small for gestational age), and full term ( n = 34) was recruited from a Level III neonatal intensive care unit in southern New England between 1985 and 1989 and followed to age 23 years...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734731/postnatal-corticosteroids-to-prevent-or-treat-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-who-might-benefit
#6
REVIEW
Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Y Cheong
Newborn infants born very preterm are at high risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, which is associated with not only mortality but also adverse long-term neurological and respiratory outcomes in survivors. Postnatal corticosteroids might reduce the risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or reduce its severity. However, it is important to minimize exposure to the potentially harmful effects of corticosteroids, particularly on the developing brain. Systemic corticosteroids started after the first week of life have shown the most benefit in infants at highest risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, whereas inhaled corticosteroids have little effect in children with established lung disease...
July 19, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733619/maternal-dendrimer-based-therapy-for-inflammation-induced-preterm-birth-and-perinatal-brain-injury
#7
Jun Lei, Jason M Rosenzweig, Manoj K Mishra, Wael Alshehri, Flavia Brancusi, Mike McLane, Ahmad Almalki, Rudhab Bahabry, Hattan Arif, Rayyan Rozzah, Ghada Alyousif, Yahya Shabi, Nader Alhehaily, Wenyu Zhong, Andrea Facciabene, Sujatha Kannan, Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Irina Burd
Preterm birth is a major risk factor for adverse neurological outcomes in ex-preterm children, including motor, cognitive, and behavioral disabilities. N-acetyl-L-cysteine therapy has been used in clinical studies; however, it requires doses that cause significant side effects. In this study, we explore the effect of low dose N-acetyl-L-cysteine therapy, delivered using a targeted, systemic, maternal, dendrimer nanoparticle (DNAC), in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation. Our results demonstrated that intraperitoneal maternal DNAC administration significantly reduced the preterm birth rate and altered placental immune profile with decreased CD8(+) T-cell infiltration...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729888/social-brain-circuitry-and-social-cognition-in-infants-born-preterm
#8
REVIEW
Angela Fenoglio, Michael K Georgieff, Jed T Elison
Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of adverse neurologic, psychiatric, and cognitive outcomes. The brain circuits involved in processing social information are critical to all of these domains, but little work has been done to examine whether and how these circuits may be especially sensitive to prematurity. This paper contains a brief summary of some of the cognitive, psychiatric, and social outcomes associated with prematurity, followed by a description of findings from the modest body of research into social-cognitive development in infants and children born preterm...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728548/social-brain-circuitry-and-social-cognition-in-infants-born-preterm
#9
REVIEW
Angela Fenoglio, Michael K Georgieff, Jed T Elison
Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of adverse neurologic, psychiatric, and cognitive outcomes. The brain circuits involved in processing social information are critical to all of these domains, but little work has been done to examine whether and how these circuits may be especially sensitive to prematurity. This paper contains a brief summary of some of the cognitive, psychiatric, and social outcomes associated with prematurity, followed by a description of findings from the modest body of research into social-cognitive development in infants and children born preterm...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724325/use-and-timing-of-surfactant-administration-impact-on-neonatal-outcomes-in-extremely-low-gestational-age-infants-born-in-canadian-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#10
Amelie Stritzke, Khorshid Mohammad, Prakesh S Shah, Xiang Y Ye, Vineet Bhandari, Albert Akierman, Adele Harrison, Valerie Bertelle, Abhay Lodha
BACKGROUND: Use, timing and doses of surfactant in preterm infants are variable in practice in modern NICUs. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between use and timing of surfactant administration and common neonatal adverse outcomes in preterm infants with gestational age (GA) < 28 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Neonates admitted to a participating Canadian Neonatal Network NICU between 2013 and 2015 were studied. Infants were divided into three groups based on surfactant administration: None, early (within 30 minutes of life), and late surfactant (> 30 minutes)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710882/mid-trimester-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-pprom-etiology-diagnosis-classification-international-recommendations-of-treatment-options-and-outcome
#11
REVIEW
Michael Tchirikov, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, James Maher, Jörg Buchmann, Yuri Naberezhnev, Andreas S Winarno, Gregor Seliger
Mid-trimester preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), defined as rupture of fetal membranes prior to 28 weeks of gestation, complicates approximately 0.4%-0.7% of all pregnancies. This condition is associated with a very high neonatal mortality rate as well as an increased risk of long- and short-term severe neonatal morbidity. The causes of the mid-trimester PPROM are multifactorial. Altered membrane morphology including marked swelling and disruption of the collagen network which is seen with PPROM can be triggered by bacterial products or/and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660484/therapeutic-strategies-for-leukodystrophic-disorders-resulting-from-perinatal-asphyxia-focus-on-myelinating-oligodendrocytes
#12
REVIEW
Justyna Janowska, Joanna Sypecka
Perinatal asphyxia results from the action of different risk factors like complications during pregnancy, preterm delivery, or long and difficult labor. Nowadays, it is still the leading cause of neonatal brain injury known as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and resulting neurological disorders. A temporal limitation of oxygen, glucose, and trophic factors supply results in alteration of neural cell differentiation and functioning and/or leads to their death. Among the affected cells are oligodendrocytes, responsible for myelinating the central nervous system (CNS) and formation of white matter...
June 28, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658720/enteral-lactoferrin-supplementation-for-prevention-of-sepsis-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants
#13
REVIEW
Mohan Pammi, Gautham Suresh
BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin, a normal component of human colostrum and milk, can enhance host defenses and may be effective for prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective 1. To assess the safety and effectiveness of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds for prevention of sepsis and NEC in preterm neonates Secondary objectives 1. To determine the effects of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds to prevent neonatal sepsis and/or NEC on duration of positive-pressure ventilation, development of chronic lung disease (CLD) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), length of hospital stay to discharge among survivors, and adverse neurological outcomes at two years of age or later2...
June 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#14
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615158/somatosensory-modulation-of-salivary-gene-expression-and-oral-feeding-in-preterm-infants-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Steven Michael Barlow, Jill Lamanna Maron, Gil Alterovitz, Dongli Song, Bernard Joseph Wilson, Priya Jegatheesan, Balaji Govindaswami, Jaehoon Lee, Austin Oder Rosner
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous medical advances in the care of at-risk preterm neonates, oral feeding still represents one of the first and most advanced neurological challenges facing this delicate population. Objective, quantitative, and noninvasive assessment tools, as well as neurotherapeutic strategies, are greatly needed in order to improve feeding and developmental outcomes. Pulsed pneumatic orocutaneous stimulation has been shown to improve nonnutritive sucking (NNS) skills in preterm infants who exhibit delayed or disordered nipple feeding behaviors...
June 14, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613398/fetal-and-umbilical-doppler-ultrasound-in-high-risk-pregnancies
#16
REVIEW
Zarko Alfirevic, Tamara Stampalija, Therese Dowswell
BACKGROUND: Abnormal blood flow patterns in fetal circulation detected by Doppler ultrasound may indicate poor fetal prognosis. It is also possible that false positive Doppler ultrasound findings could lead to adverse outcomes from unnecessary interventions, including preterm delivery. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of Doppler ultrasound used to assess fetal well-being in high-risk pregnancies on obstetric care and fetal outcomes...
June 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603716/optimizing-nutrition-in-preterm-low-birth-weight-infants-consensus-summary
#17
REVIEW
R Kishore Kumar, Atul Singhal, Umesh Vaidya, Saswata Banerjee, Fahmina Anwar, Shashidhar Rao
Preterm birth survivors are at a higher risk of growth and developmental disabilities compared to their term counterparts. Development of strategies to lower the complications of preterm birth forms the rising need of the hour. Appropriate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of preterm infants. Early administration of optimal nutrition to preterm birth survivors lowers the risk of adverse health outcomes and improves cognition in adulthood. A group of neonatologists, pediatricians, and nutrition experts convened to discuss and frame evidence-based recommendations for optimizing nutrition in preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587527/comparison-of-intergrowth-21-and-fenton-growth-standards-to-assess-size-at-birth-and-extrauterine-growth-in-very-preterm-infants
#18
Funda Tuzun, Ebru Yucesoy, Bora Baysal, Abdullah Kumral, Nuray Duman, Hasan Ozkan
AIM: This study aimed to compare the recently published prescriptive INTERGROWTH-21st standards with commonly used intrauterine based Fenton growth standards in terms of birth size classification and extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) incidence in a sample of very preterm infants. METHODS: The anthropometric measures of preterm infants born before 32 weeks of gestation at the Dokuz Eylul University Hospital during the period from January 2012 to February 2016 were obtained at birth, at the 36th gestational weeks or at the time of discharge...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586709/the-motor-repertoire-in-3-to-5-month-old-infants-with-down-syndrome
#19
Dafne Herrero, Christa Einspieler, Carolina Y Panvequio Aizawa, Akmer Mutlu, Hong Yang, Alice Nogolová, Jasmin Pansy, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Peter B Marschik
BACKGROUND: Even though Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal cause of intellectual disability, studies on early development are scarce. AIM: To describe movements and postures in 3- to 5-month-old infants with Down syndrome and assess the relation between pre- and perinatal risk factors and the eventual motor performance. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Exploratory study; 47 infants with Down syndrome (26 males, 27 infants born preterm, 22 infants with congenital heart disease) were videoed at 10-19 weeks post-term (median=14 weeks)...
August 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583603/influence-of-prenatal-maternal-corticosteroid-therapy-on-clinical-and-metabolic-features-and-pulmonary-function-of-preterm-newborn-puppies
#20
F M Regazzi, L C G Silva, C F Lúcio, G A L Veiga, D S R Angrimani, D Kishi, M M M Barbosa, C I Vannucchi
Although the effects of antenatal corticosteroid therapy in clinical improvement and pulmonary maturation in preterm have been described, little is known on premature newborn puppies. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal administration of a single dose of prenatal betamethasone on lung function of preterm newborn puppies in the first hours of life, especially from the clinical point of view and acid-base balance. A prospective study was conducted involving 21 puppies allocated into three experimental groups: Term Group (63 days post-ovulation), Preterm-Treated Group (57 days post-ovulation and maternal administration of a single dose of 0...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
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