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Chia-Wen Hsu, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Ruili Huang, Dirk Pijnenburg, Thai Khuc, Jon Hamm, Jinghua Zhao, Caitlin Lynch, Rinie van Beuningen, Xiaoqing Chang, Rene Houtman, Menghang Xia
Chemicals that alter normal function of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) have been shown to affect the homeostasis of bile acids, glucose, and lipids. Several structural classes of environmental chemicals and drugs that modulated FXR transactivation were previously identified by quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of the Tox21 10K chemical collection. In the present study, we validated the FXR antagonist activity of selected structural classes, including avermectin anthelmintics, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, 1,3-indandione rodenticides, and pyrethroid pesticides, using in vitro assay and quantitative structural-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis approaches...
October 20, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
H N Lynch, C T Loftus, J M Cohen, L E Kerper, E M Kennedy, J E Goodman
Research suggests that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) may be associated with lung cancer; however, no mode of action (MoA) for this has been established. We applied a weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to evaluate recent evidence from four realms of research (controlled human exposure, epidemiology, animal, and in vitro) to determine whether the overall evidence supports one or more MoAs by which PM could cause lung cancer. We evaluated three general MoAs: DNA damage and repair; other genotoxic effects, including mutagenicity and clastogenicity; and gene expression, protein expression, and DNA methylation...
October 17, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Thiago Lopes Rocha, Nélia C Mestre, Simone Maria Teixeira Sabóia-Morais, Maria João Bebianno
Despite the wide application of quantum dots (QDs) in electronics, pharmacy and nanomedicine, limited data is available on their environmental health risk. To advance our current understanding of the environmental impact of these engineered nanomaterials, the aim of this review is to give a detailed insight on the existing information concerning the behaviour, transformation and fate of QDs in the aquatic environment, as well as on its mode of action (MoA), ecotoxicity, trophic transfer and biomagnification at various trophic levels (micro-organisms, aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates)...
October 13, 2016: Environment International
Nadia Amanzougaghene, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Florence Fenollar, Shir Alfi, Gonca Yesilyurt, Didier Raoult, Oleg Mediannikov
The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is subdivided into several significantly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups, each with particular geographical distributions. Historically, they are among the oldest human parasites, representing an excellent marker for tracking older events in human evolutionary history. In this study, ancient DNA analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), combined with conventional PCR, was applied to the remains of twenty-four ancient head lice and their eggs from the Roman period which were recovered from Israel...
2016: PloS One
Xiao Chen, Yin Kwan Wong, Jigang Wang, Jianbin Zhang, Yew-Mun Lee, Han-Ming Shen, Qingsong Lin, Zi-Chun Hua
As many small bioactive molecules fulfill their functions through interacting with protein targets, the identification of such targets is crucial in understanding their mechanisms of action (MOA) and side effects. With technological advancements in target identification, it has become possible to accurately and comprehensively study the MOA and side effects of small molecules. While small molecules with therapeutic potential were derived solely from nature in the past, the remodeling and synthesis of such molecules have now been made possible...
October 10, 2016: Proteomics
Yang Song, Ruiqing Fan, Jizhuang Fan, Kai Xing, Xi Du, Ping Wang, Yulin Yang
Three novel metal-organic assemblies (MOAs), namely, [Ag(2,4'-Hpdc)(4,4'-bpy)]n (1), [Ag(2,2'-Hpdc)(4,4'-bpy)0.5]n (2), and [Cu(2,2'-Hpdc)2(1,4-bib)]n (3) [2,4'-H2pdc = 2,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid; 2,2'-H2pdc = 2,2'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid; 4,4'-bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine; 1,4-bib = 1,4-bis(1-imidazolyl)benzene] have been hydrothermally synthesized by using mixed ligands and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared (IR), elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The crystal structures of the three compounds indicate that the hydrogen bonding (C-HO and C-Hπ) and ππ stacking interactions play critical roles in the formation of an extended supramolecular array...
October 18, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Chong-Jing Zhang, Jigang Wang, Jianbin Zhang, Yew Mun Lee, Guangxue Feng, Teck Kwang Lim, Han-Ming Shen, Qingsong Lin, Bin Liu
Understanding the mechanism of action (MOA) of bioactive natural products will guide endeavor to improve their cellular activities. Artemisinin and its derivatives inhibit cancer cell proliferation, yet with much lower efficiencies than their roles in killing malaria parasites. To improve their efficacies on cancer cells, we studied the MOA of artemisinin using chemical proteomics and found that free heme could directly activate artemisinin. We then designed and synthesized a derivative, ART-TPP, which is capable of targeting the drug to mitochondria where free heme is synthesized...
October 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
You Song, Jan Thomas Rundberget, Linn Mari Evenseth, Li Xie, Tânia Gomes, Tore Høgåsen, Taisen Iguchi, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Emamectin benzoate (EMB) is an anti-sea lice chemical widely used in the aquaculture that may also unintentionally affect non-target crustaceans in the environment. Although the adverse effects of this compound are well documented in various species, the full modes of action (MoAs) are still not well characterized. The current study was therefore conducted to characterize the MoAs of EMB and link perturbations of key toxicological pathways to adverse effects in the model freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Andrew L Lin, Michael White, Michelle M Miller-Thomas, Robert S Fulton, Christina I Tsien, Keith M Rich, Robert E Schmidt, David D Tran, Sonika Dahiya
During the 6 month period following chemoradiotherapy, gliomas frequently develop new areas of contrast enhancement, which are due to treatment effect rather than tumor progression. We sought to characterize this phenomenon in oligodendrogliomas (OG) and mixed oligoastrocytomas (MOA). We reviewed the imaging findings from 143 patients with a WHO grade II or III OG or MOA for evidence of pseudoprogression (PsP) or early tumor progression. We characterized these cases for 1p/19q codeletions by FISH, IDH1 R132H mutation by immunohistochemistry, and TP53, ATRX, and EGFR mutations by next generation sequencing...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Peter Tyrer, Jessica Nagar, Rosie Evans, Patricia Oliver, Paul Bassett, Natalie Liedtka, Aris Tarabi
BACKGROUND: Challenging behaviour, especially in intellectual disability, covers a wide range that is in need of further evaluation. AIMS: To develop a short but comprehensive instrument for all aspects of challenging behaviour. METHOD: In the first part of a two-stage enquiry, a 28-item scale was constructed to examine the components of challenging behaviour. Following a simple factor analysis this was developed further to create a new short scale, the Problem Behaviour Checklist (PBCL)...
January 2016: BJPsych Open
C Raina MacIntyre, Abela Mahimbo, Aye M Moa, Michelle Barnes
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Influenza is one of the leading infectious causes of morbidity and mortality globally, and evidence is accumulating that it can precipitate acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This is thought to be due to a range of factors including inflammatory release of cytokines, disruption of atherosclerotic plaques and thrombogenesis, which may acutely occlude a coronary artery. There is a large body of observational and clinical trial evidence that shows that influenza vaccine protects against AMI...
September 29, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Raffaella Corvi, Mireia Vilardell, Jiri Aubrecht, Aldert Piersma
The field of transcriptomics has expanded rapidly during the last decades. This methodology provides an exceptional framework to study not only molecular changes underlying the adverse effects of a given compound, but also to understand its Mode of Action (MoA). However, the implementation of transcriptomics-based tests within the regulatory arena is not a straightforward process. One of the major obstacles in their regulatory implementation is still the interpretation of this new class of data and the judgment of the level of confidence of these tests...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
B J Hughes, J Thomas, A M Lynch, S J Borghoff, S Green, T Mensing, S S Sarang, M J LeBaron
In a National Toxicology Program (NTP) chronic inhalation study with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), increases in hepatocellular adenomas and hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas (combined) were observed in male and female B6C3F1 mice at 1800 ppm. A DNA reactive Mode-of-Action (MOA) for this liver tumor response is not supported by the evidence as MIBK and its major metabolites lack genotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) nuclear receptor-mediated activation has been hypothesized as the MOA for MIBK-induced mouse liver tumorigenesis...
September 21, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Ralph E Parchment, James H Doroshow
Analyzing the molecular interplay between malignancies and therapeutic agents is rarely a straightforward process, but we hope that this special issue of Seminars has highlighted the clinical value of such endeavors as well as the relevant theoretical and practical considerations. Here, we conclude with both an overview of the various high-value applications of clinical pharmacodynamics (PD) in developmental therapeutics and an outline of the framework for incorporating PD analyses into the design of clinical trials...
August 2016: Seminars in Oncology
M Aaboud, G Aad, B Abbott, J Abdallah, O Abdinov, B Abeloos, R Aben, O S AbouZeid, N L Abraham, H Abramowicz, H Abreu, R Abreu, Y Abulaiti, B S Acharya, L Adamczyk, D L Adams, J Adelman, S Adomeit, T Adye, A A Affolder, T Agatonovic-Jovin, J Agricola, J A Aguilar-Saavedra, S P Ahlen, F Ahmadov, G Aielli, H Akerstedt, T P A Åkesson, A V Akimov, G L Alberghi, J Albert, S Albrand, M J Alconada Verzini, M Aleksa, I N Aleksandrov, C Alexa, G Alexander, T Alexopoulos, M Alhroob, B Ali, M Aliev, G Alimonti, J Alison, S P Alkire, B M M Allbrooke, B W Allen, P P Allport, A Aloisio, A Alonso, F Alonso, C Alpigiani, M Alstaty, B Alvarez Gonzalez, D Álvarez Piqueras, M G Alviggi, B T Amadio, K Amako, Y Amaral Coutinho, C Amelung, D Amidei, S P Amor Dos Santos, A Amorim, S Amoroso, G Amundsen, C Anastopoulos, L S Ancu, N Andari, T Andeen, C F Anders, G Anders, J K Anders, K J Anderson, A Andreazza, V Andrei, S Angelidakis, I Angelozzi, P Anger, A Angerami, F Anghinolfi, A V Anisenkov, N Anjos, A Annovi, C Antel, M Antonelli, A Antonov, F Anulli, M Aoki, L Aperio Bella, G Arabidze, Y Arai, J P Araque, A T H Arce, F A Arduh, J-F Arguin, S Argyropoulos, M Arik, A J Armbruster, L J Armitage, O Arnaez, H Arnold, M Arratia, O Arslan, A Artamonov, G Artoni, S Artz, S Asai, N Asbah, A Ashkenazi, B Åsman, L Asquith, K Assamagan, R Astalos, M Atkinson, N B Atlay, K Augsten, G Avolio, B Axen, M K Ayoub, G Azuelos, M A Baak, A E Baas, M J Baca, H Bachacou, K Bachas, M Backes, M Backhaus, P Bagiacchi, P Bagnaia, Y Bai, J T Baines, O K Baker, E M Baldin, P Balek, T Balestri, F Balli, W K Balunas, E Banas, Sw Banerjee, A A E Bannoura, L Barak, E L Barberio, D Barberis, M Barbero, T Barillari, M-S Barisits, T Barklow, N Barlow, S L Barnes, B M Barnett, R M Barnett, Z Barnovska, A Baroncelli, G Barone, A J Barr, L Barranco Navarro, F Barreiro, J Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, R Bartoldus, A E Barton, P Bartos, A Basalaev, A Bassalat, R L Bates, S J Batista, J R Batley, M Battaglia, M Bauce, F Bauer, H S Bawa, J B Beacham, M D Beattie, T Beau, P H Beauchemin, P Bechtle, H P Beck, K Becker, M Becker, M Beckingham, C Becot, A J Beddall, A Beddall, V A Bednyakov, M Bedognetti, C P Bee, L J Beemster, T A Beermann, M Begel, J K Behr, C Belanger-Champagne, A S Bell, G Bella, L Bellagamba, A Bellerive, M Bellomo, K Belotskiy, O Beltramello, N L Belyaev, O Benary, D Benchekroun, M Bender, K Bendtz, N Benekos, Y Benhammou, E Benhar Noccioli, J Benitez, D P Benjamin, J R Bensinger, S Bentvelsen, L Beresford, M Beretta, D Berge, E Bergeaas Kuutmann, N Berger, J Beringer, S Berlendis, N R Bernard, C Bernius, F U Bernlochner, T Berry, P Berta, C Bertella, G Bertoli, F Bertolucci, I A Bertram, C Bertsche, D Bertsche, G J Besjes, O Bessidskaia Bylund, M Bessner, N Besson, C Betancourt, A Bethani, S Bethke, A J Bevan, R M Bianchi, L Bianchini, M Bianco, O Biebel, D Biedermann, R Bielski, N V Biesuz, M Biglietti, J Bilbao De Mendizabal, T R V Billoud, H Bilokon, M Bindi, S Binet, A Bingul, C Bini, S Biondi, T Bisanz, D M Bjergaard, C W Black, J E Black, K M Black, D Blackburn, R E Blair, J-B Blanchard, T Blazek, I Bloch, C Blocker, W Blum, U Blumenschein, S Blunier, G J Bobbink, V S Bobrovnikov, S S Bocchetta, A Bocci, C Bock, M Boehler, D Boerner, J A Bogaerts, D Bogavac, A G Bogdanchikov, C Bohm, V Boisvert, P Bokan, T Bold, A S Boldyrev, M Bomben, M Bona, M Boonekamp, A Borisov, G Borissov, J Bortfeldt, D Bortoletto, V Bortolotto, K Bos, D Boscherini, M Bosman, J D Bossio Sola, J Boudreau, J Bouffard, E V Bouhova-Thacker, D Boumediene, C Bourdarios, S K Boutle, A Boveia, J Boyd, I R Boyko, J Bracinik, A Brandt, G Brandt, O Brandt, U Bratzler, B Brau, J E Brau, H M Braun, W D Breaden Madden, K Brendlinger, A J Brennan, L Brenner, R Brenner, S Bressler, T M Bristow, D Britton, D Britzger, F M Brochu, I Brock, R Brock, G Brooijmans, T Brooks, W K Brooks, J Brosamer, E Brost, J H Broughton, P A Bruckman de Renstrom, D Bruncko, R Bruneliere, A Bruni, G Bruni, L S Bruni, B H Brunt, M Bruschi, N Bruscino, P Bryant, L Bryngemark, T Buanes, Q Buat, P Buchholz, A G Buckley, I A Budagov, F Buehrer, M K Bugge, O Bulekov, D Bullock, H Burckhart, S Burdin, C D Burgard, B Burghgrave, K Burka, S Burke, I Burmeister, J T P Burr, E Busato, D Büscher, V Büscher, P Bussey, J M Butler, C M Buttar, J M Butterworth, P Butti, W Buttinger, A Buzatu, A R Buzykaev, S Cabrera Urbán, D Caforio, V M Cairo, O Cakir, N Calace, P Calafiura, A Calandri, G Calderini, P Calfayan, G Callea, L P Caloba, S Calvente Lopez, D Calvet, S Calvet, T P Calvet, R Camacho Toro, S Camarda, P Camarri, D Cameron, R Caminal Armadans, C Camincher, S Campana, M Campanelli, A Camplani, A Campoverde, V Canale, A Canepa, M Cano Bret, J Cantero, R Cantrill, T Cao, M D M Capeans Garrido, I Caprini, M Caprini, M Capua, R Caputo, R M Carbone, R Cardarelli, F Cardillo, I Carli, T Carli, G Carlino, L Carminati, S Caron, E Carquin, G D Carrillo-Montoya, J R Carter, J Carvalho, D Casadei, M P Casado, M Casolino, D W Casper, E Castaneda-Miranda, R Castelijn, A Castelli, V Castillo Gimenez, N F Castro, A Catinaccio, J R Catmore, A Cattai, J Caudron, V Cavaliere, E Cavallaro, D Cavalli, M Cavalli-Sforza, V Cavasinni, F Ceradini, L Cerda Alberich, B C Cerio, A S Cerqueira, A Cerri, L Cerrito, F Cerutti, M Cerv, A Cervelli, S A Cetin, A Chafaq, D Chakraborty, S K Chan, Y L Chan, P Chang, J D Chapman, D G Charlton, A Chatterjee, C C Chau, C A Chavez Barajas, S Che, S Cheatham, A Chegwidden, S Chekanov, S V Chekulaev, G A Chelkov, M A Chelstowska, C Chen, H Chen, K Chen, S Chen, S Chen, X Chen, Y Chen, H C Cheng, H J Cheng, Y Cheng, A Cheplakov, E Cheremushkina, R Cherkaoui El Moursli, V Chernyatin, E Cheu, L Chevalier, V Chiarella, G Chiarelli, G Chiodini, A S Chisholm, A Chitan, M V Chizhov, K Choi, A R Chomont, S Chouridou, B K B Chow, V Christodoulou, D Chromek-Burckhart, J Chudoba, A J Chuinard, J J Chwastowski, L Chytka, G Ciapetti, A K Ciftci, D Cinca, V Cindro, I A Cioara, C Ciocca, A Ciocio, F Cirotto, Z H Citron, M Citterio, M Ciubancan, A Clark, B L Clark, M R Clark, P J Clark, R N Clarke, C Clement, Y Coadou, M Cobal, A Coccaro, J Cochran, L Colasurdo, B Cole, A P Colijn, J Collot, T Colombo, G Compostella, P Conde Muiño, E Coniavitis, S H Connell, I A Connelly, V Consorti, S Constantinescu, G Conti, F Conventi, M Cooke, B D Cooper, A M Cooper-Sarkar, K J R Cormier, T Cornelissen, M Corradi, F Corriveau, A Corso-Radu, A Cortes-Gonzalez, G Cortiana, G Costa, M J Costa, D Costanzo, G Cottin, G Cowan, B E Cox, K Cranmer, S J Crawley, G Cree, S Crépé-Renaudin, F Crescioli, W A Cribbs, M Crispin Ortuzar, M Cristinziani, V Croft, G Crosetti, A Cueto, T Cuhadar Donszelmann, J Cummings, M Curatolo, J Cúth, H Czirr, P Czodrowski, G D'amen, S D'Auria, M D'Onofrio, M J Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, C Da Via, W Dabrowski, T Dado, T Dai, O Dale, F Dallaire, C Dallapiccola, M Dam, J R Dandoy, N P Dang, A C Daniells, N S Dann, M Danninger, M Dano Hoffmann, V Dao, G Darbo, S Darmora, J Dassoulas, A Dattagupta, W Davey, C David, T Davidek, M Davies, P Davison, E Dawe, I Dawson, R K Daya-Ishmukhametova, K De, R de Asmundis, A De Benedetti, S De Castro, S De Cecco, N De Groot, P de Jong, H De la Torre, F De Lorenzi, A De Maria, D De Pedis, A De Salvo, U De Sanctis, A De Santo, J B De Vivie De Regie, W J Dearnaley, R Debbe, C Debenedetti, D V Dedovich, N Dehghanian, I Deigaard, M Del Gaudio, J Del Peso, T Del Prete, D Delgove, F Deliot, C M Delitzsch, A Dell'Acqua, L Dell'Asta, M Dell'Orso, M Della Pietra, D Della Volpe, M Delmastro, P A Delsart, D A DeMarco, S Demers, M Demichev, A Demilly, S P Denisov, D Denysiuk, D Derendarz, J E Derkaoui, F Derue, P Dervan, K Desch, C Deterre, K Dette, P O Deviveiros, A Dewhurst, S Dhaliwal, A Di Ciaccio, L Di Ciaccio, W K Di Clemente, C Di Donato, A Di Girolamo, B Di Girolamo, B Di Micco, R Di Nardo, A Di Simone, R Di Sipio, D Di Valentino, C Diaconu, M Diamond, F A Dias, M A Diaz, E B Diehl, J Dietrich, S Diglio, A Dimitrievska, J Dingfelder, P Dita, S Dita, F Dittus, F Djama, T Djobava, J I Djuvsland, M A B do Vale, D Dobos, M Dobre, C Doglioni, J Dolejsi, Z Dolezal, M Donadelli, S Donati, P Dondero, J Donini, J Dopke, A Doria, M T Dova, A T Doyle, E Drechsler, M Dris, Y Du, J Duarte-Campderros, E Duchovni, G Duckeck, O A Ducu, D Duda, A Dudarev, A Chr Dudder, E M Duffield, L Duflot, M Dührssen, M Dumancic, M Dunford, H Duran Yildiz, M Düren, A Durglishvili, D Duschinger, B Dutta, M Dyndal, C Eckardt, K M Ecker, R C Edgar, N C Edwards, T Eifert, G Eigen, K Einsweiler, T Ekelof, M El Kacimi, V Ellajosyula, M Ellert, S Elles, F Ellinghaus, A A Elliot, N Ellis, J Elmsheuser, M Elsing, D Emeliyanov, Y Enari, O C Endner, J S Ennis, J Erdmann, A Ereditato, G Ernis, J Ernst, M Ernst, S Errede, E Ertel, M Escalier, H Esch, C Escobar, B Esposito, A I Etienvre, E Etzion, H Evans, A Ezhilov, F Fabbri, L Fabbri, G Facini, R M Fakhrutdinov, S Falciano, R J Falla, J Faltova, Y Fang, M Fanti, A Farbin, A Farilla, C Farina, E M Farina, T Farooque, S Farrell, S M Farrington, P Farthouat, F Fassi, P Fassnacht, D Fassouliotis, M Faucci Giannelli, A Favareto, W J Fawcett, L Fayard, O L Fedin, W Fedorko, S Feigl, L Feligioni, C Feng, E J Feng, H Feng, A B Fenyuk, L Feremenga, P Fernandez Martinez, S Fernandez Perez, J Ferrando, A Ferrari, P Ferrari, R Ferrari, D E Ferreira de Lima, A Ferrer, D Ferrere, C Ferretti, A Ferretto Parodi, F Fiedler, A Filipčič, M Filipuzzi, F Filthaut, M Fincke-Keeler, K D Finelli, M C N Fiolhais, L Fiorini, A Firan, A Fischer, C Fischer, J Fischer, W C Fisher, N Flaschel, I Fleck, P Fleischmann, G T Fletcher, R R M Fletcher, T Flick, A Floderus, L R Flores Castillo, M J Flowerdew, G T Forcolin, A Formica, A Forti, A G Foster, D Fournier, H Fox, S Fracchia, P Francavilla, M Franchini, D Francis, L Franconi, M Franklin, M Frate, M Fraternali, D Freeborn, S M Fressard-Batraneanu, F Friedrich, D Froidevaux, J A Frost, C Fukunaga, E Fullana Torregrosa, T Fusayasu, J Fuster, C Gabaldon, O Gabizon, A Gabrielli, A Gabrielli, G P Gach, S Gadatsch, S Gadomski, G Gagliardi, L G Gagnon, P Gagnon, C Galea, B Galhardo, E J Gallas, B J Gallop, P Gallus, G Galster, K K Gan, J Gao, Y Gao, Y S Gao, F M Garay Walls, C García, J E García Navarro, M Garcia-Sciveres, R W Gardner, N Garelli, V Garonne, A Gascon Bravo, K Gasnikova, C Gatti, A Gaudiello, G Gaudio, L Gauthier, I L Gavrilenko, C Gay, G Gaycken, E N Gazis, Z Gecse, C N P Gee, Ch Geich-Gimbel, M Geisen, M P Geisler, C Gemme, M H Genest, C Geng, S Gentile, C Gentsos, S George, D Gerbaudo, A Gershon, S Ghasemi, H Ghazlane, M Ghneimat, B Giacobbe, S Giagu, P Giannetti, B Gibbard, S M Gibson, M Gignac, M Gilchriese, T P S Gillam, D Gillberg, G Gilles, D M Gingrich, N Giokaris, M P Giordani, F M Giorgi, F M Giorgi, P F Giraud, P Giromini, D Giugni, F Giuli, C Giuliani, M Giulini, B K Gjelsten, S Gkaitatzis, I Gkialas, E L Gkougkousis, L K Gladilin, C Glasman, J Glatzer, P C F Glaysher, A Glazov, M Goblirsch-Kolb, J Godlewski, S Goldfarb, T Golling, D Golubkov, A Gomes, R Gonçalo, J Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, G Gonella, L Gonella, A Gongadze, S González de la Hoz, G Gonzalez Parra, S Gonzalez-Sevilla, L Goossens, P A Gorbounov, H A Gordon, I Gorelov, B Gorini, E Gorini, A Gorišek, E Gornicki, A T Goshaw, C Gössling, M I Gostkin, C R Goudet, D Goujdami, A G Goussiou, N Govender, E Gozani, L Graber, I Grabowska-Bold, P O J Gradin, P Grafström, J Gramling, E Gramstad, S Grancagnolo, V Gratchev, P M Gravila, H M Gray, E Graziani, Z D Greenwood, C Grefe, K Gregersen, I M Gregor, P Grenier, K Grevtsov, J Griffiths, A A Grillo, K Grimm, S Grinstein, Ph Gris, J-F Grivaz, S Groh, J P Grohs, E Gross, J Grosse-Knetter, G C Grossi, Z J Grout, L Guan, W Guan, J Guenther, F Guescini, D Guest, O Gueta, E Guido, T Guillemin, S Guindon, U Gul, C Gumpert, J Guo, Y Guo, R Gupta, S Gupta, G Gustavino, P Gutierrez, N G Gutierrez Ortiz, C Gutschow, C Guyot, C Gwenlan, C B Gwilliam, A Haas, C Haber, H K Hadavand, N Haddad, A Hadef, S Hageböck, Z Hajduk, H Hakobyan, M Haleem, J Haley, G Halladjian, G D Hallewell, K Hamacher, P Hamal, K Hamano, A Hamilton, G N Hamity, P G Hamnett, L Han, K Hanagaki, K Hanawa, M Hance, B Haney, S Hanisch, P Hanke, R Hanna, J B Hansen, J D Hansen, M C Hansen, P H Hansen, K Hara, A S Hard, T Harenberg, F Hariri, S Harkusha, R D Harrington, P F Harrison, F Hartjes, N M Hartmann, M Hasegawa, Y Hasegawa, A Hasib, S Hassani, S Haug, R Hauser, L Hauswald, M Havranek, C M Hawkes, R J Hawkings, D Hayakawa, D Hayden, C P Hays, J M Hays, H S Hayward, S J Haywood, S J Head, T Heck, V Hedberg, L Heelan, S Heim, T Heim, B Heinemann, J J Heinrich, L Heinrich, C Heinz, J Hejbal, L Helary, S Hellman, C Helsens, J Henderson, R C W Henderson, Y Heng, S Henkelmann, A M Henriques Correia, S Henrot-Versille, G H Herbert, V Herget, Y Hernández Jiménez, G Herten, R Hertenberger, L Hervas, G G Hesketh, N P Hessey, J W Hetherly, R Hickling, E Higón-Rodriguez, E Hill, J C Hill, K H Hiller, S J Hillier, 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J Taenzer, A Taffard, R Tafirout, N Taiblum, H Takai, R Takashima, T Takeshita, Y Takubo, M Talby, A A Talyshev, K G Tan, J Tanaka, M Tanaka, R Tanaka, S Tanaka, B B Tannenwald, S Tapia Araya, S Tapprogge, S Tarem, G F Tartarelli, P Tas, M Tasevsky, T Tashiro, E Tassi, A Tavares Delgado, Y Tayalati, A C Taylor, G N Taylor, P T E Taylor, W Taylor, F A Teischinger, P Teixeira-Dias, K K Temming, D Temple, H Ten Kate, P K Teng, J J Teoh, F Tepel, S Terada, K Terashi, J Terron, S Terzo, M Testa, R J Teuscher, T Theveneaux-Pelzer, J P Thomas, J Thomas-Wilsker, E N Thompson, P D Thompson, A S Thompson, L A Thomsen, E Thomson, M Thomson, M J Tibbetts, R E Ticse Torres, V O Tikhomirov, Yu A Tikhonov, S Timoshenko, P Tipton, S Tisserant, K Todome, T Todorov, S Todorova-Nova, J Tojo, S Tokár, K Tokushuku, E Tolley, L Tomlinson, M Tomoto, L Tompkins, K Toms, B Tong, E Torrence, H Torres, E Torró Pastor, J Toth, F Touchard, D R Tovey, T Trefzger, A Tricoli, I M Trigger, S Trincaz-Duvoid, M F Tripiana, W Trischuk, B Trocmé, A Trofymov, C Troncon, M Trottier-McDonald, M Trovatelli, L Truong, M Trzebinski, A Trzupek, J C-L Tseng, P V Tsiareshka, G Tsipolitis, N Tsirintanis, S Tsiskaridze, V Tsiskaridze, E G Tskhadadze, K M Tsui, I I Tsukerman, V Tsulaia, S Tsuno, D Tsybychev, Y Tu, A Tudorache, V Tudorache, A N Tuna, S A Tupputi, S Turchikhin, D Turecek, D Turgeman, R Turra, A J Turvey, P M Tuts, M Tyndel, G Ucchielli, I Ueda, M Ughetto, F Ukegawa, G Unal, A Undrus, G Unel, F C Ungaro, Y Unno, C Unverdorben, J Urban, P Urquijo, P Urrejola, G Usai, A Usanova, L Vacavant, V Vacek, B Vachon, C Valderanis, E Valdes Santurio, N Valencic, S Valentinetti, A Valero, L Valery, S Valkar, J A Valls Ferrer, W Van Den Wollenberg, P C Van Der Deijl, H van der Graaf, N van Eldik, P van Gemmeren, J Van Nieuwkoop, I van Vulpen, M C van Woerden, M Vanadia, W Vandelli, R Vanguri, A Vaniachine, P Vankov, G Vardanyan, R Vari, E W Varnes, T Varol, D Varouchas, A Vartapetian, K E Varvell, J G Vasquez, F Vazeille, T Vazquez Schroeder, J Veatch, V Veeraraghavan, L M Veloce, F Veloso, S Veneziano, A Ventura, M Venturi, N Venturi, A Venturini, V Vercesi, M Verducci, W Verkerke, J C Vermeulen, A Vest, M C Vetterli, O Viazlo, I Vichou, T Vickey, O E Vickey Boeriu, G H A Viehhauser, S Viel, L Vigani, M Villa, M Villaplana Perez, E Vilucchi, M G Vincter, V B Vinogradov, C Vittori, I Vivarelli, S Vlachos, M Vlasak, M Vogel, P Vokac, G Volpi, M Volpi, H von der Schmitt, E von Toerne, V Vorobel, K Vorobev, M Vos, R Voss, J H Vossebeld, N Vranjes, M Vranjes Milosavljevic, V Vrba, M Vreeswijk, R Vuillermet, I Vukotic, Z Vykydal, P Wagner, W Wagner, H Wahlberg, S Wahrmund, J Wakabayashi, J Walder, R Walker, W Walkowiak, V Wallangen, C Wang, C Wang, F Wang, H Wang, H Wang, J Wang, J Wang, K Wang, R Wang, S M Wang, T Wang, T Wang, W Wang, X Wang, C Wanotayaroj, A Warburton, C P Ward, D R Wardrope, A Washbrook, P M Watkins, A T Watson, M F Watson, G Watts, S Watts, B M Waugh, S Webb, M S Weber, S W Weber, J S Webster, A R Weidberg, B Weinert, J Weingarten, C Weiser, H Weits, P S Wells, T Wenaus, T Wengler, S Wenig, N Wermes, M Werner, M D Werner, P Werner, M Wessels, J Wetter, K Whalen, N L Whallon, A M Wharton, A White, M J White, R White, D Whiteson, F J Wickens, W Wiedenmann, M Wielers, P Wienemann, C Wiglesworth, L A M Wiik-Fuchs, A Wildauer, F Wilk, H G Wilkens, H H Williams, S Williams, C Willis, S Willocq, J A Wilson, I Wingerter-Seez, F Winklmeier, O J Winston, B T Winter, M Wittgen, J Wittkowski, T M H Wolf, M W Wolter, H Wolters, S D Worm, B K Wosiek, J Wotschack, M J Woudstra, K W Wozniak, M Wu, M Wu, S L Wu, X Wu, Y Wu, T R Wyatt, B M Wynne, S Xella, D Xu, L Xu, B Yabsley, S Yacoob, D Yamaguchi, Y Yamaguchi, A Yamamoto, S Yamamoto, T Yamanaka, K Yamauchi, Y Yamazaki, Z Yan, H Yang, H Yang, Y Yang, Z Yang, W-M Yao, Y C Yap, Y Yasu, E Yatsenko, K H Yau Wong, J Ye, S Ye, I Yeletskikh, A L Yen, E Yildirim, K Yorita, R Yoshida, K Yoshihara, C Young, C J S Young, S Youssef, D R Yu, J Yu, J M Yu, J Yu, L Yuan, S P Y Yuen, I Yusuff, B Zabinski, R Zaidan, A M Zaitsev, N Zakharchuk, J Zalieckas, A Zaman, S Zambito, L Zanello, D Zanzi, C Zeitnitz, M Zeman, A Zemla, J C Zeng, Q Zeng, K Zengel, O Zenin, T Ženiš, D Zerwas, D Zhang, F Zhang, G Zhang, H Zhang, J Zhang, L Zhang, R Zhang, R Zhang, X Zhang, Z Zhang, X Zhao, Y Zhao, Z Zhao, A Zhemchugov, J Zhong, B Zhou, C Zhou, L Zhou, L Zhou, M Zhou, N Zhou, C G Zhu, H Zhu, J Zhu, Y Zhu, X Zhuang, K Zhukov, A Zibell, D Zieminska, N I Zimine, C Zimmermann, S Zimmermann, Z Zinonos, M Zinser, M Ziolkowski, L Živković, G Zobernig, A Zoccoli, M Zur Nedden, L Zwalinski
A search for the decays of the Higgs and Z bosons to a ϕ meson and a photon is performed with a pp collision data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7  fb^{-1} collected at sqrt[s]=13  TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. No significant excess of events is observed above the background, and 95% confidence level upper limits on the branching fractions of the Higgs and Z boson decays to ϕγ of 1.4×10^{-3} and 8.3×10^{-6}, respectively, are obtained.
September 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Ikuo Miyahisa, Hideo Suzuki, Atsushi Mizukami, Yukiya Tanaka, Midori Ono, Mark S Hixon, Junji Matsui
Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) catalyzes the conversion from dihomo-gamma linoleic acid (DGLA) to arachidonic acid (AA). DGLA and AA are common precursors of anti- and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively, making D5D an attractive drug target for inflammatory-related diseases. Despite several reports on D5D inhibitors, their biochemical mechanisms of action (MOAs) remain poorly understood, primarily due to the difficulty in performing quantitative enzymatic analysis. Herein, we report a radioligand binding assay to overcome this challenge and characterized T-3364366, a thienopyrimidinone D5D inhibitor, by use of the assay...
September 8, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Kerry L Dearfield, B Bhaskar Gollapudi, Jeffrey C Bemis, R Daniel Benz, George R Douglas, Rosalie K Elespuru, George E Johnson, David J Kirkland, Matthew J LeBaron, Albert P Li, Francesco Marchetti, Lynn H Pottenger, Emiel Rorije, Jennifer Y Tanir, Veronique Thybaud, Jan van Benthem, Carole L Yauk, Errol Zeiger, Mirjam Luijten
For several decades, regulatory testing schemes for genetic damage have been standardized where the tests being utilized examined mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal damage. This has served the genetic toxicity community well when most of the substances being tested were amenable to such assays. The outcome from this testing is usually a dichotomous (yes/no) evaluation of test results, and in many instances, the information is only used to determine whether a substance has carcinogenic potential or not...
September 21, 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Aye M Moa, David J Muscatello, Robin M Turner, Chandini R MacIntyre
BACKGROUND: Influenza B is characterised by two antigenic lineages: B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. These lineages circulate together with influenza A during influenza seasons, with varying incidence from year to year and by geographic region. OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology of influenza B relative to influenza A in Australia. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed influenza notifications between 2001 and 2014 in Australia were obtained from the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System...
September 21, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Vinayak Singh, Valerie Mizrahi
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global epidemic associated increasingly with resistance to first- and second-line antitubercular drugs. The magnitude of this global health threat underscores the urgent need to discover new antimycobacterial agents that have novel mechanisms of action (MOA). In this review, we highlight some of the key advances that have enabled the strengths of target-led and phenotypic approaches to TB drug discovery to be harnessed both independently and in combination. Critically, these promise to fuel the front-end of the TB drug pipeline with new, pharmacologically validated drug targets together with lead compounds that act on these targets...
September 17, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Zengrui Wu, Weiqiang Lu, Dang Wu, Anqi Luo, Hanping Bian, Jie Li, Weihua Li, Guixia Liu, Jin Huang, Feixiong Cheng, Yun Tang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Deciphering chemical mechanism-of-action (MoA) enables the development of novel therapeutics (e.g. drug repositioning) and evaluation of drug side effects. Development of novel computational methods for chemical MoA assessment under systems pharmacology framework would accelerate drug discovery and development with high efficiency and low cost. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In this study, we proposed an improved network-based inference method, namely balanced substructure-drug-target network-based inference (bSDTNBI), to predict MoA for old drugs, clinical failed drugs, and new chemical entities...
September 20, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
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