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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934726/application-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-to-u-s-epa-s-endocrine-disruptor-screening-program
#1
REVIEW
Patience Browne, Pamela D Noyes, Warren M Casey, David J Dix
BACKGROUND: The U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) screens and tests environmental chemicals for potential effects in estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone pathways, and it is one of the only regulatory programs designed around chemical mode of action. OBJECTIVES: This review describes the EDSP's use of adverse outcome pathway (AOP) and toxicity pathway frameworks to organize and integrate diverse biological data for evaluating the endocrine activity of chemicals...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934499/co-produced-natural-ketolides-methymycin-and-pikromycin-inhibit-bacterial-growth-by-preventing-synthesis-of-a-limited-number-of-proteins
#2
Mashal M Almutairi, Maxim S Svetlov, Douglas A Hansen, Nelli F Khabibullina, Dorota Klepacki, Han-Young Kang, David H Sherman, Nora Vázquez-Laslop, Yury S Polikanov, Alexander S Mankin
Antibiotics methymycin (MTM) and pikromycin (PKM), co-produced by Streptomyces venezuelae, represent minimalist macrolide protein synthesis inhibitors. Unlike other macrolides, which carry several side chains, a single desosamine sugar is attached to the macrolactone ring of MTM and PKM. In addition, the macrolactone scaffold of MTM is smaller than in other macrolides. The unusual structure of MTM and PKM and their simultaneous secretion by S. venezuelae bring about the possibility that two compounds would bind to distinct ribosomal sites...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934314/mode-of-action-of-plectasin-derived-peptides-against-gas-gangrene-associated-clostridium-perfringens-type-a
#3
Xueling Zheng, Xiumin Wang, Da Teng, Ruoyu Mao, Ya Hao, Na Yang, Lifen Zong, Jianhua Wang
NZ2114 and MP1102 are novel plectasin-derived peptides with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial characteristics and mechanism of NZ2114 and MP1102 against gas gangrene-associated Clostridium perfringens were studied for the first time. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of NZ2114 and MP1102 against resistant C. perfringens type A strain CVCC 46 were 0.91 μM. Based on the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) result, an additive or synergic effect was observed between NZ2114 (FICI = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934090/adipogenic-effects-and-gene-expression-profiling-of-firemaster%C3%A2-550-components-in-human-primary-preadipocytes
#4
Emily W Y Tung, Vian Peshdary, Remi Gagné, Andrea Rowan-Carroll, Carole L Yauk, Adéle Boudreau, Ella Atlas
BACKGROUND: Exposure to flame retardants has been associated with negative health outcomes including metabolic effects. As polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants were pulled from commerce, human exposure to new flame retardants such as Firemaster® 550 (FM550) has increased. Although previous studies in murine systems have shown that FM550 and its main components increase adipogenesis, the effects of FM550 in human models have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine if FM550 and its components are active in human preadipocytes, and to further investigate their mode of action...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933660/vaccination-among-polish-university-students-knowledge-beliefs-and-anti-vaccination-attitudes
#5
Michał Konrad Zarobkiewicz, Aleksandra Zimecka, Tomasz Zuzak, Dominika Cieślak, Jacek Roliński, Ewelina Grywalska
Anti-vaccination movement has existed as long as the vaccines themselves, but its mode of action and social influences evolved over time. Such attitude with no doubt has negative impact on vaccination rates and eradication of infectious diseases. In this study, we used an online survey to examine vaccination attitudes of Polish university students of various degree and specialties. A total of 1,386 questionnaires were completed, among them 617 from students attending medical schools and 769 from students of non-medical schools...
September 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932951/structure-elucidation-and-in-silico-docking-studies-of-a-novel-furopyrimidine-antibiotics-synthesized-by-endolithic-bacterium-actinomadura-sp-al2
#6
Kaushik Bhattacharjee, Shakti Kumar, Narasinga Rao Palepu, Pradeep Kumar Patra, Kollipara Mohan Rao, Santa Ram Joshi
On screening of endolithic actinobacteria from a granite rock sample of Meghalaya for antibacterial compound, a novel antibacterial compound CCp1 was isolated from the fermentation broth of Actinomadura sp. AL2. On purification of the compound based on chromatographic techniques followed by characterization with FT-IR, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry, the molecular formula of the compound was generated as C20H17N3O2, a furopyrimidine derivative. In vitro antibacterial activity of the compound was evaluated against both Gram positive and negative bacteria by agar well diffusion assay...
September 20, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932824/factor-viia-interaction-with-epcr-modulates-the-hemostatic-effect-of-rfviia-in-hemophilia-therapy-mode-of-its-action
#7
Shiva Keshava, Jagan Sundaram, Anuradha Rajulapati, Charles Esmon, Usha Pendurthi, L Vijaya Mohan Rao
Recent studies established that clotting factor VIIa (FVIIa) binds endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR). It has been speculated that FVIIa interaction with EPCR might augment the hemostatic effect of rFVIIa in therapeutic conditions. The present study is carried out to investigate the mechanism by which FVIIa interaction with EPCR contributes to the hemostatic effect of rFVIIa in hemophilia therapy. Active-site inhibited FVIIa, which is capable of binding to EPCR but has no ability to activate factor X, reduced the concentration of rFVIIa required to correct the bleeding following the saphenous vein injury in mouse hemophilia model systems...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932428/a-one-dimensional-coordination-polymer-catena-poly-n-ethyl-n-pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl-di-thio-carbamato-%C3%AE%C2%BA-2-s-s-zinc-ii-%C3%AE-2-n-ethyl-n-pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl-di-thio-carbamato-%C3%AE%C2%BA-3-s-s-n-4-methyl-pyridine-hemisolvate
#8
Pavel Poplaukhin, Hadi D Arman, Edward R T Tiekink
The title compound, {[Zn(C9H11N2S2)2]·0.5C6H7N} n , comprises two independent, but chemically similar, Zn[S2CN(Et)CH2py]2 residues and a 4-methyl-pyridine solvent mol-ecule in the asymmetric unit. The Zn-containing units are connected into a one-dimensional coordination polymer (zigzag topology) propagating in the [010] direction, with one di-thio-carbamate ligand bridging in a μ2-κ(3) mode, employing one pyridyl N and both di-thio-carbamate S atoms, while the other is κ(2)-chelating. In each case, the resultant ZnNS4 coordination geometry approximates a square pyramid, with the pyridyl N atom in the apical position...
July 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930695/metabolomics-assessment-of-the-effects-of-diclofenac-exposure-on-mytilus-galloprovincialis-potential-effects-on-osmoregulation-and-reproduction
#9
Bénilde Bonnefille, Elena Gomez, Mellis Alali, David Rosain, Hélène Fenet, Frédérique Courant
The presence of pharmaceutically active compounds in aquatic environments has become a major concern over the past 20years. Elucidation of their mode of action and effects in non-target organisms is thus now a major ecotoxicological challenge. Diclofenac (DCF) is among the pharmaceutical compounds of interest based on its inclusion in the European Union Water Framework Directive Watch List. In this study, our goal was to investigate the potential of a metabolomic approach to acquire information without any a priori hypothesis about diclofenac effects on marine mussels...
September 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930516/new-targeted-therapies-and-diagnostic-methods-for-iron-overload-diseases
#10
Annita Kolnagou, Christina N Kontoghiorghe, George John Kontoghiorghes
Millions of people worldwide suffer from iron overload toxicity diseases such as transfusional iron overload in thalassaemia and hereditary haemochromatosis. The accumulation and presence of toxic focal iron deposits causing tissue damage can also be identified in Friedreich's ataxia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, renal and other diseases. Different diagnostic criteria of toxicity and therapeutic interventions apply to each disease of excess or misplaced iron. Magnetic resonance imaging relaxation times T2 and T2* for monitoring iron deposits in organs and iron biomarkers such as serum ferritin and transferrin iron saturation have contributed in the elucidation of iron toxicity mechanisms and pathways, and also the evaluation of the efficacy and mode of action of chelating drugs in the treatment of diseases related to iron overload, toxicity and metabolism...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930281/the-genus-artemisia-a-2012-2017-literature-review-on-chemical-composition-antimicrobial-insecticidal-and-antioxidant-activities-of-essential-oils
#11
REVIEW
Abhay K Pandey, Pooja Singh
Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012-2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia...
September 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930170/resistance-management-for-asian-citrus-psyllid-diaphorina-citri-kuwayama-in-florida
#12
Xue Dong Chen, Lukasz L Stelinski
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayma, is one of the most important pests in citrus production. The objective of this study was to evaluate D. citri resistance management with three insecticide rotations and compare them with no rotation and an untreated check. The different insecticides (modes of action) tested were: dimethoate, imidacloprid, diflubenzuron, abamectin 3% + thiamethoxam 13.9%, and fenpropathrin. Eggs, nymph, and adult psyllids were counted weekly. Five insecticide applications were made in 2016...
September 20, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928673/revisiting-theories-of-humidity-transduction-a-focus-on-electrophysiological-data
#13
Harald Tichy, Maria Hellwig, Wolfgang Kallina
Understanding the mechanism of humidity transduction calls for experimental data and a theory to interpret the data and design new experiments. A comprehensive theory of humidity transduction must start with agreement on what humidity parameters are measured by hygroreceptors and processed by the brain. Hygroreceptors have been found in cuticular sensilla of a broad range of insect species. Their structural features are far from uniform. Nevertheless, these sensilla always contain an antagonistic pair of a moist cell and a dry cell combined with a thermoreceptive cold cell...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927750/the-challenge-of-the-application-of-omics-technologies-in-chemicals-risk-assessment-background-and-outlook
#14
Ursula G Sauer, Lize Deferme, Laura Gribaldo, Jörg Hackermüller, Tewes Tralau, Ben van Ravenzwaay, Carole Yauk, Alan Poole, Weida Tong, Timothy W Gant
This survey by the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) highlights that 'omics technologies are generally not yet applied to meet standard information requirements during regulatory hazard assessment. While they are used within weight-of-evidence approaches to investigate substances' modes-of-action, consistent approaches for the generation, processing and interpretation of 'omics data are not applied. To date, no 'omics technology has been standardised or validated. Best practices for performing 'omics studies for regulatory purposes (e...
September 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927606/application-mode-of-action-and-in-vivo-activity-of-chitosan-and-its-micro-and-nanoparticles-as-antimicrobial-agents-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Zhengxin Ma, Alejandro Garrido-Maestu, Kwangcheol Casey Jeong
Chitosan is widely used as an antimicrobial agent due to its biodegradability, nontoxicity, and antimicrobial properties. Although in vitro antimicrobial activity of chitosan and its derivatives were reviewed recently, its in vivo activity is not recapitulated sufficiently. This review will focus on recent studies of in vivo antimicrobial activity of chitosan and its micro- and nanoparticles to enhance food safety and animal diseases treatment. Three major factors affecting the antimicrobial activity include microbial, intrinsic, and environmental factors are discussed...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927457/p53-key-conductor-of-all-anti-acne-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik
This review based on translational research predicts that the transcription factor p53 is the key effector of all anti-acne therapies. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) enhance p53 expression. Tetracyclines and macrolides via inhibiting p450 enzymes attenuate ATRA degradation, thereby increase p53. Benzoyl peroxide and hydrogen peroxide elicit oxidative stress, which upregulates p53. Azelaic acid leads to mitochondrial damage associated with increased release of reactive oxygen species inducing p53...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926954/evidence-for-complex-formation-of-the-bacillus-cereus-haemolysin-bl-components-in-solution
#17
Franziska Tausch, Richard Dietrich, Kristina Schauer, Robert Janowski, Dierk Niessing, Erwin Märtlbauer, Nadja Jessberger
Haemolysin BL is an important virulence factor regarding the diarrheal type of food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus. However, the pathogenic importance of this three-component enterotoxin is difficult to access, as nearly all natural B. cereus culture supernatants additionally contain the highly cytotoxic Nhe, the second three-component toxin involved in the aetiology of B. cereus-induced food-borne diseases. To better address the toxic properties of the Hbl complex, a system for overexpression and purification of functional, cytotoxic, recombinant (r)Hbl components L₂, L₁ and B from E...
September 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926803/distribution-of-chromosome-breakpoints-in-benzene-exposed-and-unexposed-aml-patients
#18
Patrick J Kerzic, Richard D Irons
Results of laboratory studies and investigations of occupationally exposed healthy individuals have been used to develop a mode of action for benzene-induced leukemia that mirrors disease following treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Recently we have described series of AML and MDS cases with benzene exposure history, and have provided cytogenetic, molecular, and pathologic evidence that these cases differ significantly in many features from therapy-related disease. Here we have extended this work, and describe chromosome breakpoints across 441 identifiable regions, in terms of gains or losses, in 710 AML cases collected during the Shanghai Health Study, which include 75 with a history of benzene exposure...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926763/synthesis-and-2d-qsar-studies-of-neolignan-based-diaryl-tetrahydrofuran-and-furan-analogues-with-remarkable-activity-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-assessment-of-the-trypanothione-reductase-activity
#19
Ana Paula Hartmann, Marcelo Rodrigues de Carvalho, Lilian Sibelle Campos Bernardes, Milena Hoehr de Moraes, Eduardo Borges de Melo, Carla Duque Lopes, Mario Steindel, João Santana da Silva, Ivone Carvalho
Two series of diaryl-tetrahydrofuran and -furan were synthesised and screened for anti-trypanosomal activity against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Based on evidence that modification of a natural product may result in a more effective drug than the natural product itself, and using known neolignan inhibitors veraguensin 1 and grandisin 2 as templates to synthesise simpler analogues, remarkable anti-trypanosomal activity and selectivity were found for 3,5-dimethoxylated diaryl-furan 5c and 2,4-dimethoxylated diaryl-tetrahydrofuran 4e analogues with EC50 0...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926584/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-molecular-anthelmintic-effects-of-procyanidins-in-c-elegans
#20
Verena Spiegler, Andreas Hensel, Jochen Seggewiß, Milena Lubisch, Eva Liebau
Worldwide, more than 1 billion people are affected by infestations with soil-transmitted helminths and also in veterinary medicine helminthiases are a severe threat to livestock due to emerging resistances against the common anthelmintics. Proanthocyanidins have been increasingly investigated for their anthelmintic properties, however, except for an interaction with certain proteins of the nematodes, not much is known about their mode of action. To investigate the anthelmintic activity on a molecular level, a transcriptome analysis was performed in Caenorhabditis elegans after treatment with purified and fully characterized oligomeric procyanidins (OPC)...
2017: PloS One
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