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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330322/de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-in-monsonia-burkeana-revealed-putative-genes-for-key-metabolic-pathways-involved-in-tea-quality-and-medicinal-value
#1
Adugna A Woldesemayat, Khayalethu Ntushelo, David M Modise
Monsonia (Monsonia burkeana Planch. ex Harv) is one of the most valuable tea and traditional medicinal plants used in Southern Africa. In spite of this, there is no sequence information regarding this plant in literature. To provide understanding of the naturally occurring tea and drug-specific products and the key pathways for the biosynthesis of these molecules, we sequenced the leaf transcriptome using Illumina MiSeq platform and generated 2,590,652 paired-end reads that were assembled de novo into 45,450 high-quality transcripts...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330318/brevibacillus-borstelensis-and-streptomyces-albogriseolus-have-roles-to-play-in-degradation-of-herbicide-sulfosulfuron
#2
Ridhima Arya, Navnit Kumar Mishra, Anil K Sharma
Use of herbicides, in particular sulfosulfuron, at more than recommended doses has raised major concerns about the health hazards for animals and humans. In the present study, isolation of sulfosulfuron-degrading Brevibacillus borstelensis and Streptomyces albogriseolus from the field soils in the northwestern region of India was carried out where the use of sulfosulfuron is predominant, and further assessed for their potential to degrade sulfosulfuron individually and together in a consortium form under lab conditions...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330307/effect-of-particle-size-moisture-content-and-supplements-on-selective-pretreatment-of-cotton-stalks-by-daedalea-flavida-and-enzymatic-saccharification
#3
Harmanpreet Meehnian, Asim K Jana, Mithu Maiti Jana
A large amount of cotton stalk waste biomass with high cellulose content are incinerated by the farmers causing air pollution. The high cellulose content of cotton stalks can be converted to fermentable sugars by fungal delignification pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and enzymatic saccharification. The effect of particle size, moisture content, and media supplements was studied for delignification of cotton stalks by Daedalea flavida MTCC 145 (DF-2) in solid-state fermentation. The highest lignolytic enzyme activities, optimal lignin degradation 29...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330301/evaluation-of-p-cresol-degradation-with-polyphenol-oxidase-ppo-immobilized-in-various-matrices
#4
Vijayalakshmi A Edalli, Sikandar I Mulla, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Gurumurthy D Mahadevan, Rohit Sharma, Yogesh Shouche, Chandrappa M Kamanavalli
p-Cresol is an environmental pollutant due to its vast use, toxicity and persistence, nevertheless, its degradation in an enzyme is unclear. In this study, we used Pleurotus sp. isolate VLECK02 polyphenol oxidase (PPO) for the determination of p-cresol degradation. On the basis of UV, FT-IR and chromatographic (HPLC and GC-MS) analysis, 4-methylcatechol was identified as the main metabolite of p-cresol catabolism. In addition, batch and semi-continuous degradation of p-cresol (10 and 20 mM) were studied and compared by free and immobilized PPO in different matrices like sodium alginate (SA), sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (SA-PVA) and sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol-silver nanoparticles (SA-PVA-AgNPs)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330298/biodegradation-of-used-engine-oil-by-novel-strains-of-ochrobactrum-anthropi-hm-1-and-citrobacter-freundii-hm-2-isolated-from-oil-contaminated-soil
#5
Haytham M M Ibrahim
Used engine oil (UEO) constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the difficulty of disposal off or reuse. Ten bacterial strains with biodegradation potential were isolated from UEO-contaminated soil sample using enrichment technique. Two strains which exhibited the highest degradation %, 51 ± 1.2 and 48 ± 1.5, respectively, were selected. Based on the morphological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, they were identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi HM-1 (accession no: KR360745) and Citrobacter freundii HM-2 (accession no: KR360746)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330297/differential-expression-and-characterization-of-cypermethrin-degrading-potential-proteins-in-bacillus-thuringiensis-strain-sg4
#6
Pankaj, Geeta Negi, Saurabh Gangola, Priyanka Khati, Govind Kumar, Anjana Srivastava, Anita Sharma
A cypermethrin-degrading bacterium (SG4) was isolated from the pesticide-contaminated soil in the agricultural field of the crop research centre of the University, and characterized as Bacillus thuringiensis strain, SG4. The bacterium degraded 78.9 % of cypermethrin (50 ppm) in 15 days when grown in a minimal medium. To understand the functional proteins of cypermethrin degradation in Bacillus thuringiensis strain SG4, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in the presence/absence of cypermethrin after 5 days of incubation in minimal medium...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330272/biodegradation-of-endocrine-disruptor-dibutyl-phthalate-dbp-by-a-newly-isolated-methylobacillus-sp-v29b-and-the-dbp-degradation-pathway
#7
Vinay Kumar, S S Maitra
Bacteria of the genus Methylobacillus are methanotrophs, a metabolic feature that is widespread in the phylum Proteobacteria. The study demonstrates the isolation and characterization of a newly isolated Methylobacillus sp. V29b. which grows on methanol, protocatechuate, monobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, dioctyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate. Methylobacillus sp. V29b was characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Gram staining, antibiotics sensitivity tests and biochemical characterization...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330265/isolation-and-characterization-of-plant-synergistic-bacteria-capable-of-degrading-xenobiotics-from-oil-spillage-sites
#8
Indranil De, Sarika Gupta
Oil spillage sites primarily contain various types of hydrocarbons, such as linear chain, polycyclic, and aromatic compounds, posing several detrimental effects on plants. Results from our previous study showed an alteration of various metabolomic parameters, indirectly resulting in an observable decline of growth in the mung seedlings upon incubation with phenol, toluene, xylene, and hexane. This study evaluates the role of these compounds upon plant growth and focusses to mitigate the effect of the same, using some isolated plant synergistic bacteria...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330263/multi-substrate-biodegradation-of-chlorophenols-by-defined-microbial-consortium
#9
Bhishma P Patel, Arvind Kumar
In the present study, a defined mixed microbial consortium was investigated for their ability to utilize three different monochlorophenols (MCPs) and 2,4-DCP individually and in the mixture. None of the individual strains were able to utilize 3-CP and 4-CP, but when they were mixed to form defined consortium, they have shown great potential and degradation of high concentration of 3-CP and 4-CP. Spectrophotometric analysis of metabolites during MCPs degradation establishes the presence of 2-chloromaleylacetate...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330262/biodegradation-of-isoproturon-by-pseudoxanthomonas-sp-isolated-from-herbicide-treated-wheat-fields-of-tarai-agro-ecosystem-pantnagar
#10
Krishna Giri, Shailseh Pandey, Rajesh Kumar, J P N Rai
A gram-negative, rod-shaped, isoproturon (IPU) utilizing bacterium was isolated from herbicide-applied wheat fields of Tarai agro-ecosystem, Pantnagar. The phylogenetic sequence analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence revealed that the isolate could be a distinct species within the genus Pseudomonas. The isolate was a close relative of Pseudoxanthomonas japonensis (95 % similarity) and designated as K2. The bacterial isolate showed positive reaction for oxidase, catalase, and 20 carbohydrates using KB009 Part A and B HiCarbohydrate™ Kit...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330251/stenotrophomonas-sp-rzs-7-a-novel-phb-degrader-isolated-from-plastic-contaminated-soil-in-shahada-maharashtra-western-india
#11
S J Wani, S S Shaikh, B Tabassum, R Thakur, A Gulati, R Z Sayyed
This paper reports an isolation and identification of novel poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) degrading bacterium Stenotrophomonas sp. RZS 7 and studies on its extracellular PHB degrading depolymerase enzyme. The bacterium isolated from soil samples of plastic contaminated sites of municipal area in Shahada, Maharashtra, Western India. It was identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. RZS 7 based on polyphasic approach. The bacterium grew well in minimal salt medium (MSM) and produced a zone (4.2 mm) of PHB hydrolysis on MSM containing PHB as the only source of nutrient...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330246/microbial-enzymes-industrial-progress-in-21st-century
#12
REVIEW
Rajendra Singh, Manoj Kumar, Anshumali Mittal, Praveen Kumar Mehta
Biocatalytic potential of microorganisms have been employed for centuries to produce bread, wine, vinegar and other common products without understanding the biochemical basis of their ingredients. Microbial enzymes have gained interest for their widespread uses in industries and medicine owing to their stability, catalytic activity, and ease of production and optimization than plant and animal enzymes. The use of enzymes in various industries (e.g., food, agriculture, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals) is increasing rapidly due to reduced processing time, low energy input, cost effectiveness, nontoxic and eco-friendly characteristics...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330245/co-metabolism-of-thiocyanate-and-free-cyanide-by-exiguobacterium-acetylicum-and-bacillus-marisflavi-under-alkaline-conditions
#13
Lukhanyo Mekuto, Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Maxwell Mewa Ngongang, John Baptist Mudumbi, Enoch A Akinpelu
The continuous discharge of cyanide-containing effluents to the environment has necessitated for the development of environmentally benign treatment processes that would result in complete detoxification of the cyanide-containing wastewaters, without producing additional environmental toxicants. Since biological detoxification of hazardous chemical compounds has been renowned for its robustness and environmental-friendliness, the ability of the Exiguobacterium acetylicum (GenBank accession number KT282229) and Bacillus marisflavi (GenBank accession number KR016603) to co-metabolise thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and free cyanide (CN(-)) under alkaline conditions was evaluated...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330227/statistical-modeling-and-optimization-of-culture-conditions-by-response-surface-methodology-for-2-4-and-2-6-dinitrotoluene-biodegradation-using-rhodococcus-pyridinivorans-nt2
#14
Debasree Kundu, Chinmay Hazra, Ambalal Chaudhari
To improve biodegradability (% biodegradation) and specific growth rate of Rhodococcus pyridinivorans NT2, culture medium and environmental parameters were screened and optimized using the statistical design techniques of Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology. Of the process variables screened, DNTs (2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT), MgSO4·7H2O, temperature and inoculum size (O.D.) were selected as the most important (P value <0.05) factors. In multiresponse analysis of central composite design, medium formulation consisting of 474/470 mg l(-1) 2,4-DNT/2,6-DNT, 0...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330218/bacterial-carrageenases-an-overview-of-production-and-biotechnological-applications
#15
REVIEW
Prakram Singh Chauhan, Arunika Saxena
Carrageenan, one of the phycocolloids is a sulfated galactan made up of linear chains of galactose and 3,6-anhydrogalactose with alternating α-(1 → 3) and β-(1 → 4) linkages and further classified based on the number and the position of sulfated ester(s); κ-, ι- and λ-carrageenan. Enzymes which degrade carrageenans are called k-, ι-, and λ-carrageenases. They all are endohydrolases that cleave the internal β-(1-4) linkages of carrageenans yielding products of the oligo-carrageenans. These enzymes are produced only by bacteria specifically gram negative bacteria...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330217/sulfitolytic-and-keratinolytic-potential-of-chryseobacterium-sp-rbt-revealed-hydrolysis-of-melanin-containing-feathers
#16
Ranjit G Gurav, Jingchun Tang, Jyoti P Jadhav
In black feathers, melanin is embedded in keratin matrix that makes feather more resistance to the microbial degradation. Chryseobacterium sp. RBT previously isolated from the poultry waste disposable site revealed strong sulfitolytic and keratinolytic activities. Maximum keratinase activity was observed at 48 h (89.12 U ml(-1)) showed 83 % of native black feather degradation. The concentration of free sulfhydryl groups released during degradation was 0.648 × 10(-4) M (12 h), 2.144 × 10(-4) M (96 h), and however, declined on prolong incubation to 1...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330215/bioremediation-of-high-strength-agricultural-wastewater-using-ochrobactrum-sp-strain-sz1
#17
Chin Hong Neoh, Chi Yong Lam, Suriati Mat Ghani, Ismail Ware, Siti Hajar Mat Sarip, Zaharah Ibrahim
The biggest agricultural sector that contributes to the Malaysian economy is the oil palm industry. The effluent generated during the production of crude palm oil known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME undergoes anaerobic treatment that requires long retention time and produces large amount of methane that consequently contributes to global warming. In this study, an isolated bacteria was selected based on its ability to degrade kraft lignin (KL) and identified as Ochrobactrum sp. The bacteria were able to treat POME (from anaerobic pond) under the aerobic condition without addition of nutrient, resulting in a significant chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 71 %, removal rate of 1385 mg/l/day, and 12...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330213/biodegradation-of-butyronitrile-and-demonstration-of-its-mineralization-by-rhodococcus-sp-mtb5
#18
Ismailsab Mukram, Masarbo Ramesh, T R Monisha, Anand S Nayak, T B Karegoudar
A nitrile utilizing bacterium Rhodococcus sp. MTB5 was previously isolated in our laboratory by the enrichment culture technique. It is able to utilize butyronitrile as sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. Maximum butyronitrile degrading property of this strain has been investigated. Results reveal that 100, 98, and 88 % degradation was achieved for 2, 2.5, and 3 % butyronitrile, respectively. The strain is capable of growing in as high as 5 % butyronitrile concentration. A two-step pathway involving nitrile hydratase (NHase) and amidase was observed for the biodegradation of butyronitrile...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330212/paper-wasp-nest-mediated-biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-for-antimicrobial-catalytic-anticoagulant-and-thrombolytic-applications
#19
Agbaje Lateef, Monsurat A Akande, Sunday A Ojo, Bolaji I Folarin, Evariste B Gueguim-Kana, Lorika S Beukes
Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using nest extract of paper wasp (Polistes sp) was investigated in this work. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, dye degradation, blood anticoagulation, and blood clot dissolution (thrombolytic) activities. The crystalline polydispersed AgNPs with size range of 12.5-95.55 nm absorbed maximally at 428 nm and showed anisotropic structures of sphere, triangle, hexagon, rod, and rhombus...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330209/biodegradation-of-real-petroleum-wastewater-by-immobilized-hyper-phenol-tolerant-strains-of-bacillus-cereus-in-a-fluidized-bed-bioreactor
#20
Aditi Banerjee, Aloke K Ghoshal
Microbial bioremediation of petroleum wastewater by phenol-degrading-bacteria holds promise in circumventing the issue of petroleum-spill related pollution. Herein, biodegradation of petroleum wastewater samples collected from oil refinery site was carried out in a fluidized bed bioreactor by Ca-alginate immobilized biomass of phenol-degrading strains of Bacillus cereus (AKG1 MTCC9817 and AKG2 MTCC9818). Degradation performance of the system was evaluated by measuring the changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and level of phenolic compounds in the wastewater samples during the microbial treatment...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
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