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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353455/the-interplay-between-apolipoprotein-e4-and-the-autophagic-endocytic-lysosomal-axis
#1
REVIEW
E Schmukler, D M Michaelson, R Pinkas-Kramarski
Since its discovery as a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, the APOE4 allele has been linked to the majority of the pathological findings associated with the disease progression. These include abnormalities of the endocytic, autophagic, and lysosomal machineries, which begin at the most early stages of Alzheimer's disease development. Considering that these three vesicular systems share common features and, in fact, comprise an interconnected cargo-trafficking and degradation network, some of the effects of APOE4 are interrelated, while others are system-specific...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353449/blastulation-timing-is-associated-with-differential-mitochondrial-content-in-euploid-embryos
#2
Jacqueline R Ho, Nabil Arrach, Katherine Rhodes-Long, Wael Salem, Lynda K McGinnis, Karine Chung, Kristin A Bendikson, Richard J Paulson, Ali Ahmady
PURPOSE: Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) and assessment of mitochondrial content (MC) are current methods for selection of the best embryos for transfer. Studies suggest that time-lapse morphokinetics (TLM) may also be helpful for selecting embryos more likely to implant. In our study, we sought to examine the relationship between TLM parameters and MC to determine if they could be used adjunctively in embryo selection. We also examined the relationship between MC with ploidy and blastulation...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353420/properties-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-isolated-from-onsite-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-relation-to-biofilm-formation
#3
Łukasz Jałowiecki, Joanna Żur, Joanna Chojniak, Helene Ejhed, Grażyna Płaza
The aim of the present study was to determine some properties of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains isolated from onsite wastewater technology in relation to biofilm formation, e.g., autoaggregation and motility. Additionally, biosurfactant production by the isolates was also evaluated. The ability of selected strains to develop a biofilm was assessed by using the crystal violet method, which allows to indirectly quantify the attached bacterial biomass (live, dead cells, and polysaccharides as well). Obtained results showed that 19 of the analyzed strains were able to produce biofilm after 72 h of incubation...
January 20, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353346/singleplex-quantitative-real-time-pcr-for-the-assessment-of-human-mitochondrial-dna-quantity-and-quality
#4
Corey Goodwin, Denice Higgins, Shanan S Tobe, Jeremy Austin, Andrew Wotherspoon, Michelle E Gahan, Dennis McNevin
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can provide a means for forensic identity testing when genotyping of nuclear DNA (nuDNA) targets is not possible due to degradation or lack of template. For degraded samples, an indication of the quantity and quality of mtDNA is essential to allow selection of appropriately sized targets for hypervariable region (HVR) analysis, which may conserve sample and resources. Three human-specific mtDNA targets of increasing length (86, 190 and 452 base pairs) were amplified by singleplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), capable of providing an index of mtDNA degradation from fragment length information...
January 20, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353311/effects-of-wrist-tendon-vibration-and-eye-movements-on-manual-aiming
#5
Ann Lavrysen, Oron Levin, Matthieu P Boisgontier, Digby Elliott, Werner F Helsen
In the present study, we investigated whether visual information mediates a proprioceptive illusion effect induced by muscle tendon vibration in manual aiming. Visual information was gradually degraded from a situation in which the targets were present and participants (n = 20; 22.3 ± 2.7 years) were permitted to make saccadic eye movements to designated target positions, to a condition in which the targets were not visible and participants were required to perform cyclical aiming while fixating a point between the two target positions...
January 20, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353307/characterization-of-an-%C3%AE-agarase-from-thalassomonas-sp-ld5-and-its-hydrolysate
#6
Weibin Zhang, Jingnan Xu, Dan Liu, Huan Liu, Xinzhi Lu, Wengong Yu
It has been a long time since the first α-agarase was discovered. However, only two α-agarases have been cloned and partially characterized so far and the study of α-agarases has lagged far behind that of β-agarases. Here, we report an α-agarase, AgaD, cloned from marine bacterium Thalassomonas sp. LD5. Its cDNA consists of 4401 bp, encoding a protein of 1466 amino acids. Based on amino acid similarity, AgaD is classified into glycoside hydrolase (GH) family GH96. The recombinant enzyme gave a molecular weight of about 180 kDa on SDS-PAGE and 360 kDa on Native-PAGE indicating it acted as a dimer...
January 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353135/copper-induces-expression-and-methylation-changes-of-early-development-genes-in-crassostrea-gigas-embryos
#7
Rossana Sussarellu, Morgane Lebreton, Julien Rouxel, Farida Akcha, Guillaume Rivière
Copper contamination is widespread along coastal areas and exerts adverse effects on marine organisms such as mollusks. In the Pacific oyster, copper induces severe developmental abnormalities during early life stages; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aims to better understand whether the embryotoxic effects of copper in Crassostrea gigas could be mediated by alterations in gene expression, and the putative role of DNA methylation, which is known to contribute to gene regulation in early embryo development...
January 3, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353105/biomimetic-and-enzyme-responsive-dynamic-hydrogels-for-studying-cell-matrix-interactions-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#8
Hung-Yi Liu, Murray Korc, Chien-Chi Lin
The tumor microenvironment (TME) governs all aspects of cancer progression and in vitro 3D cell culture platforms are increasingly developed to emulate the interactions between components of the stromal tissues and cancer cells. However, conventional cell culture platforms are inadequate in recapitulating the TME, which has complex compositions and dynamically changing matrix mechanics. In this study, we developed a dynamic gelatin-hyaluronic acid hybrid hydrogel system through integrating modular thiol-norbornene photopolymerization and enzyme-triggered on-demand matrix stiffening...
January 8, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353086/ruthenium-dendrimers-as-carriers-for-anticancer-sirna
#9
Sylwia Michlewska, Maksim Ionov, Marta Maroto-Díaz, Aleksandra Szwed, Aliaksei Ihnatsyeu-Kachan, Svetlana Loznikova, Dzmitry Shcharbin, Marek Maly, Rafael Gomez Ramirez, Francisco Javier de la Mata, Maria Bryszewska
Dendrimers, which are considered as one of the most promising tools in the field of nanobiotechnology due to their structural organization, showed a great potential in gene therapy, drug delivery, medical imaging and as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. This article is devoted to study interactions between new carbosilane-based metallodendrimers containing ruthenium and anti-cancer small interfering RNA (siRNA). Formation of complexes between anti-cancer siRNAs and Ru-based carbosilane dendrimers was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism and fluorescence...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353077/classification-of-heterogeneous-genetic-variations-of-microrna-regulome-in-cancer
#10
Karin Hrovatin, Tanja Kunej
Genetic variations and differential expression of miRNA regulome components are associated with cancer. Thus miRNA based diagnosis and treatments have been proposed. However, to better explore these options, the molecular changes in miRNA regulome must be understood. MicroRNAs can be involved in regulation of oncogenes and tumour suppressors. As each miRNA targets broad range of genes, minor changes in miRNAs can have great effects, contributing to cell transformation. Many genetic variants of miRNA regulome have been reported to be associated with cancer, but this information needs to be systematized...
January 15, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353005/cryptotanshinone-inhibits-prostaglandin-e2-production-and-cox-2-expression-via-suppression-of-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-lps-stimulated-caco-2-cells
#11
Shu-Guang Cao, Hui Wang, Li-Miao Lin, Xuan-Ping Xia, Hao Wu
Crytotanshinone (CTN), one of the main constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been known to exhibit antioxdative, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CTN on prostaglandin E2 and COX-2 production in LPS-stimulated human intestinal cells (Caco-2 cells). Caco-2 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of CTN. The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was detected by ELISA. The expression of COX-2 was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot...
January 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352975/pinocembrin-from-penthorum-chinense-pursh-suppresses-hepatic-stellate-cells-activation-through-a-unified-sirt3-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathway
#12
Fayang Zhou, Anqi Wang, Dan Li, Yitao Wang, Ligen Lin
The inactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) has been verified to be an effective therapeutic strategy for treatment of liver fibrosis. Penthorum chinense Pursh has been widely used to protect liver in China; while, the role of P. chinense Pursh in treatment of liver fibrosis is still unexplored. In the current study, the aqueous extract of P. chinense Pursh (PCE) was found to suppress the expressions of fibrotic markers, including collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), in human HSCs (LX-2); and its major active constituent, pinocembrin (PIN), was discovered to inhibit the expressions of fibrotic markers in LX-2 cells and rat HSCs (HSC-T6)...
January 15, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352962/improved-systemic-metabolism-and-adipocyte-biology-in-mir-150-knockout-mice
#13
Minsung Kang, Xiaobing Liu, Yuchang Fu, W Timothy Garvey
INTRODUCTION: Short non-coding micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional factors that directly regulate protein expression by degrading or inhibiting target mRNAs; however, the role of miRNAs in obesity and cardiometabolic disease remains unclarified. Based on our earlier study demonstrating that miR-150 influences lipid metabolism, we have studied effects of miR-150 on systemic metabolism and adipocyte biology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Metabolic phenotypes including body weight, food intake, body composition, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were assessed in WT and global miR-150 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet...
January 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352946/redox-enzyme-sensitive-chondroitin-sulfate-based-self-assembled-nanoparticles-loading-docetaxel-for-the-inhibition-of-metastasis-and-growth-of-melanoma
#14
Mengrui Liu, Hongliang Du, Abdur Rauf Khan, Jianbo Ji, Aihua Yu, Guangxi Zhai
In this report, redox/enzyme responsive chondroitin sulfate-ss-deoxycholic acid (CSCD) conjugates were synthesized using cystamine as the linkage which could self-assemble to form self-assembled nanoparticles (175.6 + 5.2 nm) in the aqueous environment. Docetaxel (DTX) was loaded in nanoparticles with desired loading efficiency for the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis of melanoma. Interestingly, nanoparticles were demonstrated to respond to hyaluronidase-1 (Hyal-1) which could degrade chondroitin sulfate (CS) backbones...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352939/paenibacillus-panacisoli-enhances-growth-of-lactobacillus-spp-by-producing-xylooligosaccharides-in-corn-stover-ensilages
#15
Zhenshang Xu, Susu Zhang, Yingli Mu, Jian Kong
The knowledge about the association of lignocellulosic biomass-degrading microbes with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in ensilages is still limited. Paenibacillus strains are important microbes in sustainable agriculture. Here, P. panacisoli SDMCC050309 was isolated from ensiled corn stover and used as an example to investigate the effects on LAB. This strain produced at least 7 xylanases, and two of them were purified and characterized. Temperature and pH optima were determined to be 55 °C and 8.0 for Xyn10 and 40 °C and 7...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352938/dmtmm-mediated-amidation-of-alginate-oligosaccharides-aimed-at-modulating-their-interaction-with-proteins
#16
Flavien Labre, Sophie Mathieu, Patricia Chaud, Pierre-Yves Morvan, Romuald Vallée, William Helbert, Sébastien Fort
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) with a weight average molecular weight of 5 kDa were efficiently amidated with amino acids and carbohydrates in aqueous media in the presence of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM). Here, alanine, leucine, serine, as well as mannose and rhamnose, were amidated at high yields with a good control of the degree of substitution (DS). Amino acid- and carbohydrate-grafted AOS showed improved stability against degradation by alginate lyases having different specificities...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352930/an-efficient-approach-to-prepare-sulfated-polysaccharide-and-evaluation-of-anti-tumor-activities-in-vitro
#17
Junlong Wang, Aijuan Bao, Xinhua Meng, Hongyun Guo, Yongdong Zhang, Yali Zhao, Weibao Kong, Junyu Liang, Jian Yao, Ji Zhang
Use of microwave radiation is one of the most potential techniques in polysaccharide derivatives synthesis due to its advantages such as higher yields, milder reaction conditions and shorter reaction times. This study was aimed at producing sulfated polysaccharides by microwave irradiation using polar reagents and solvent. Six sulfated Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide derivatives (SPAS) were obtained by using chlorosulfuric acid/pyridine method in the reaction duration range of 15-300 min at a fixed microwave power of 100W...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352925/influence-of-hydrothermal-treatment-on-the-structural-modification-of-spent-grain-specific-carbohydrates-and-the-formation-of-degradation-products-using-model-compounds
#18
J Steiner, K Franke, M Kießling, S Fischer, S Töpfl, V Heinz, T Becker
Brewer's spent grain (BSG) constitutes various valuable carbohydrates that may contribute to a healthy diet. These components may be obtained from BSG via hydrothermal treatment (HT), a procedure for dissolving water-inextricable carbohydrates. The objective of this study was to investigate HT as an environmentally friendly technology for extracting high-molecular-weight fiber with proven beneficial effects on human health. Cellulose, β-glucan, and arabinoxylan (AX) served as model substances and were subjected to auto-hydrolysis at different temperatures and reaction times...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352916/effect-of-punica-granatum-peel-extracts-on-antimicrobial-properties-in-walnut-shell-cellulose-reinforced-bio-thermoplastic-starch-films-from-cashew-nut-shells
#19
K Harini, C Chandra Mohan, K Ramya, S Karthikeyan, M Sukumar
The main aim of the present study is to extract and characterize cashew nut shell (CNS) starch and walnut shell cellulose (WNC) for development of cellulose reinforced starch films. Moreover, the extraction and characterization of pomegranate peel extract, for incorporation with CNS-WNC films, was investigated. CNS starch was examined to be a moderate amylose starch with 26.32 ± 0.43% amylose content. Thermal degradation temperature of CNS starch was found to be 310 °C. Walnut shell cellulose was found to have high crystallinity index of 72%, with two thermal degradation temperatures of 319 °C and 461 °C...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352914/silica-in-situ-enhanced-pva-chitosan-biodegradable-films-for-food-packages
#20
Zhen Yu, Baoqiang Li, Jiayu Chu, Peifeng Zhang
Non-degradable plastic food packages threaten the security of environment. The cost-effective and biodegradable polymer films with good mechanical properties and low permeability are very important for food packages. Among of biodegradable polymers, PVA/chitosan (CS) biodegradable films have attracted considerable attention because of feasible film forming ability. However, PVA/CS biodegradable films suffered from poor mechanical properties. To improve mechanical properties of PVA/CS biodegradable films, we developed SiO2in situ to enhance PVA/CS biodegradable films via hydrolysis of sodium metasilicate in presence of PVA and chitosan solution...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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