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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931206/metabolic-engineering-a-yeast-to-produce-astaxanthin
#1
Yu-Ju Lin, Jui-Jen Chang, Hao-Yeh Lin, Caroline Thia, Yi-Ying Kao, Chieh-Chen Huang, Wen-Hsiung Li
In this study, an astaxanthin-biosynthesis Kluyveromyces marxianus strain Sm23 was first constructed, which could produce 31µg/g DCW astaxanthin. Then, repeated genome integration of the key astaxanthin biosynthesis genes Hpchyb and bkt was done to increase gene copy number and astaxanthin yield. Four improved strains were obtained and the yield of astaxanthin and the total yield of carotenoids in a strain increased with the copy numbers of Hpchyb and bkt. To improve the yield further, the gene Hpchyb from Haematococcus pluvialis was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to increase the enzyme efficiency or/and to prevent the heterologous protein degradation by ubiquitination...
July 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931009/ndfip-allows-nedd4-nedd4l-induced-aqp2-ubiquitination-and-degradation
#2
Christiane Trimpert, Daniel Wesche, Theun de Groot, Martha M Pimentel Rodriguez, Victoria Wong, Dennis T M van den Berg, Lydie Cheval, Carolina A Ariza, Alain Doucet, Igor Stagljar, Peter M T Deen
Regulation of our water homeostasis is fine-tuned by dynamic translocation of Aquaporin-2 (AQP2)-bearing vesicles to and from the plasma membrane of renal principal cells. Whereas binding of vasopressin to its type-2 receptor initiates a cAMP-protein kinase A cascade and AQP2 translocation to the apical membrane, this is counteracted by protein kinase C-activating hormones, resulting in ubiquitination-dependent internalization of AQP2. The proteins targeting AQP2 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930985/visualizing-angiogenesis-by-multiphoton-microscopy-in-vivo-in-genetically-modified-3d-plga-nhap-scaffold-for-calvarial-critical-bone-defect-repair
#3
Jian Li, Holger Jahr, Wei Zheng, Pei-Gen Ren
The reconstruction of critically sized bone defects remains a serious clinical problem because of poor angiogenesis within tissue-engineered scaffolds during repair, which gives rise to a lack of sufficient blood supply and causes necrosis of the new tissues. Rapid vascularization is a vital prerequisite for new tissue survival and integration with existing host tissue. The de novo generation of vasculature in scaffolds is one of the most important steps in making bone regeneration more efficient, allowing repairing tissue to grow into a scaffold...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930963/role-of-autophagy-and-its-molecular-mechanisms-in-mice-intestinal-tract-after-severe-burn
#4
Duan Y Zhang, Wei Qiu, PeiS Jin, Peng Wang, Yong Sun
BACKGROUND: Severe burn can lead to hypoxia/ischemia of intestinal mucosa. Autophagy is the process of intracellular degradation, which is essential for cell survival under stresses, such as hypoxia/ischemia and nutrient deprivation. The present study was designed to investigate whether there were changes in intestinal autophagy after severe burn in mice and further to explore the effect and molecular mechanisms of autophagy on intestinal injury. METHODS: This study includes three experiments...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930694/identification-of-biphenyl-2-3-dioxygenase-and-its-catabolic-role-for-phenazine-degradation-in-sphingobium-yanoikuyae-b1
#5
Qiang Zhao, Muhammad Bilal, Shengjie Yue, Hongbo Hu, Wei Wang, Xuehong Zhang
Phenazines are important nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites that display a range of biological functionalities. However, these compounds have shown lethal effects on humans and, the fate of phenazine in the ecosystem remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated that Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 could utilize phenazine as a sole carbon source for growth. Intermediate produced during phenazine degradation was purified and identified as 1, 2-dihydrogen 1, 2-dihydroxy phenazine. Biphenyl 2, 3-dioxygenase was determined to be the initial dioxygenase for phenazine degradation through gene cloning and whole cell transformation techniques...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930693/managing-military-training-related-environmental-disturbance
#6
Rick Zentelis, Sam Banks, J Dale Roberts, Stephen Dovers, David Lindenmayer
Military Training Areas (MTAs) cover at least 2 percent of the Earth's terrestrial surface and occur in all major biomes. These areas are potentially important for biodiversity conservation. The greatest challenge in managing MTAs is balancing the disturbance associated with military training and environmental values. These challenges are unique as no other land use is managed for these types of anthropogenic disturbances in a natural setting. We investigated how military training-related disturbance is best managed on MTAs...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930682/chemically-induced-degradation-of-the-oncogenic-transcription-factor-bcl6
#7
Nina Kerres, Steffen Steurer, Stefanie Schlager, Gerd Bader, Helmut Berger, Maureen Caligiuri, Christian Dank, John R Engen, Peter Ettmayer, Bernhard Fischerauer, Gerlinde Flotzinger, Daniel Gerlach, Thomas Gerstberger, Teresa Gmaschitz, Peter Greb, Bingsong Han, Elizabeth Heyes, Roxana E Iacob, Dirk Kessler, Heike Kölle, Lyne Lamarre, David R Lancia, Simon Lucas, Moriz Mayer, Katharina Mayr, Nikolai Mischerikow, Katja Mück, Christoph Peinsipp, Oliver Petermann, Ulrich Reiser, Dorothea Rudolph, Klaus Rumpel, Carina Salomon, Dirk Scharn, Renate Schnitzer, Andreas Schrenk, Norbert Schweifer, Diane Thompson, Elisabeth Traxler, Roland Varecka, Tilman Voss, Alexander Weiss-Puxbaum, Sandra Winkler, Xiaozhang Zheng, Andreas Zoephel, Norbert Kraut, Darryl McConnell, Mark Pearson, Manfred Koegl
The transcription factor BCL6 is a known driver of oncogenesis in lymphoid malignancies, including diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Disruption of its interaction with transcriptional repressors interferes with the oncogenic effects of BCL6. We used a structure-based drug design to develop highly potent compounds that block this interaction. A subset of these inhibitors also causes rapid ubiquitylation and degradation of BCL6 in cells. These compounds display significantly stronger induction of expression of BCL6-repressed genes and anti-proliferative effects than compounds that merely inhibit co-repressor interactions...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930681/parkin-independent-mitophagy-controls-chemotherapeutic-response-in-cancer-cells
#8
Elodie Villa, Emma Proïcs, Camila Rubio-Patiño, Sandrine Obba, Barbara Zunino, Jozef P Bossowski, Romain M Rozier, Johanna Chiche, Laura Mondragón, Joel S Riley, Sandrine Marchetti, Els Verhoeyen, Stephen W G Tait, Jean-Ehrland Ricci
Mitophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that selectively targets impaired mitochondria for degradation. Defects in mitophagy are often associated with diverse pathologies, including cancer. Because the main known regulators of mitophagy are frequently inactivated in cancer cells, the mechanisms that regulate mitophagy in cancer cells are not fully understood. Here, we identified an E3 ubiquitin ligase (ARIH1/HHARI) that triggers mitophagy in cancer cells in a PINK1-dependent manner. We found that ARIH1/HHARI polyubiquitinates damaged mitochondria, leading to their removal via autophagy...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930637/sodium-hypochlorite-and-sodium-bromide-individualized-and-stabilized-carbon-nanotubes-in-water
#9
Xuezhu Xu, Jian Zhou, Veronica Colombo, Yangyang Xin, Ran Tao, Gilles Lubineau
Aggregation is a major problem for hydrophobic carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in water because it reduces the effective particle concentrations, prevents particles from entering the medium and leads to unstable electronic device performances when a colloidal solution is used. Molecular ligands such as surfactants can help the particles to disperse, but they tend to degrade the electrical properties of CNTs. Therefore, self-dispersed particles without the need for surfactant are highly desirable...
September 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930611/biomass-breakdown-a-review-on-pretreatment-instrumentations-and-methods
#10
Preeti Vyas, Ashwani Kumar, Suren Singh
Enzymatic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass for liquid fuel production is a viable alternative to fossil fuels, due to its renewable and environmental friendly nature. Naturally, plants protect their cell wall polysaccharides by giving limited access to the cell wall degrading enzymes. Lignocellulose breakdown requires proper pretreatments that disrupt the close inter-component association between the constituents of the plant cell wall. For efficient biomass conversion, the choice of the correct pretreatment is important for removing the barriers to enhance access to microbial enzymes...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930597/the-store-operated-calcium-channels-in-cancer-metastasis-from-cell-migration-invasion-to-metastatic-colonization
#11
Pingli Mo, Shengyu Yang
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is the predominant calcium entry mechanism in most cancer cells. SOCE is mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor STIMs (STIM1 and 2) and plasma membrane channel forming unit Orais (Orai 1-3). In recent years there is increasing evidence indicating that SOCE in cancer cells is dysregulated to promote cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. The overexpression of STIM and Orai proteins has been reported to correlate with the metastatic progression of various cancers...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930594/lipid-metabolism-and-transport-define-longevity-of-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#12
Darya Mitrofanova, Pamela Dakik, Melissa McAuley, Younes Medkour, Karamat Mohammad, Vladimir I Titorenko
Emergent evidence indicates that certain aspects of lipid synthesis, degradation and interorganellar transport play essential roles in modulating the pace of cellular aging in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the vital roles of lipid metabolism and transport in defining yeast longevity have begun to emerge. The scope of this review is to critically analyze recent progress in understanding such mechanisms.
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930587/prenylcysteine-oxidase-1-a-pro-oxidant-enzyme-of-low-density-lipoproteins
#13
Luis V Herrera-Marcos, Jose M Lou-Bonafonte, Maria V Martinez-Gracia, Carmen Arnal, María A Navarro, Jesus Osada
Elevated levels of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic disease, and proteomic analyses have found that these lipoproteins are endowed with prenylcysteine lyase. This systematic review summarizes current understanding of this enzyme, now known as prenylcysteine oxidase 1 (PCYOX1), which hydrolyzes the thioether bond of prenylcysteines in the final step in the degradation of prenylated proteins, releasing hydrogen peroxide, cysteine and the isoprenoid aldehyde. Despite the high variability of the PCYOX1 gene, no polymorphism has yet been associated with any disease...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930550/strategies-for-reducing-inflammation-and-promoting-bone-repair-in-arthritis
#14
Manoel Figueiredo Neto, Hiroki Yokota, Marxa L Figueiredo
Chronic forms of arthritis encompass many joint inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and osteoarthritis (OA), typically a 'wear and tear' condition that is now known to also have an inflammatory etiology. The impact of inflammation in the disease prognosis and joint degradation due to impaired repair mechanisms has long been recognized for RA, and now also for OA. Both forms of arthritis are prevalent chronic health conditions, and despite recent advances, their treatment still represents an unmet medical need because of safety and efficacy concerns with currently prescribed drugs...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930548/l-name-improves-doxycycline-and-ml-7-cardioprotection-from-oxidative-stress
#15
Iwona Bil-Lula, Anna Krzywonos-Zawadzka, Jolanta Sawicka, Dariusz Bialy, Magdalena Wawrzynska, Mieczyslaw Wozniak, Grzegorz Sawicki
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mediated degradation of myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) and troponin I (TnI) contributes to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Modifications of MLC1 triggered by oxidative stress are mediated by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and MMP-2. Previous studies have shown that inhibiting both MLCK and MMP-2 protects against I/R injury. Here, we hypothesized that the addition of NOS inhibitor (L-NAME) at subprotective concentration to the mixture of subprotective concentrations of ML-7 and doxycycline (Doxy), will increase a synergistic cardioprotection of Doxy and ML-7 during I/R...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930488/the-impact-of-repeated-freeze-thaw-cycles-on-the-quality-of-biomolecules-in-four-different-tissues
#16
Xiaoli Ji, Min Wang, Lingling Li, Fang Chen, Yanyang Zhang, Qian Li, Junmei Zhou
High-quality biosamples are valuable resources for biomedical research. However, some tissues are stored without being sectioned into small aliquots and have to undergo repeated freeze-thaw cycles throughout prolonged experimentation. Little is known regarding the effects of repeated freeze-thaw cycles on the quality of biomolecules in tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of repeated freeze-thaw (at room temperature or on ice) cycles on biomolecules and gene expression in four different types of tissues...
September 20, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930432/injectable-stem-cell-laden-open-porous-microgels-that-favour-adipogenesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#17
Pengfei Xia, Kunxi Zhang, Yan Gong, Guifei Li, Shifeng Yan, Jingbo Yin
Microgels, with large surface area per volume, show great advantages in adipose tissue engineering due to their injectability and similarity with natural extracellular matrix. However, to date, no studies have tried applying microgels to adipose tissue regeneration. Herein, based on double bonded poly-(L-glutamic acid)-g-2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PLGA-g-HEMA) and maleic anhydride-modified chitosan (MCS), an open porous microgel with high hydrophilicity and great injectability is successfully prepared (microgels diameter of 200-300 μm, pore diameter of 38 μm, and porosity of 88...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930429/mapping-protein-targets-of-bioactive-small-molecules-using-lipid-based-chemical-proteomics
#18
Kenneth M Lum, Yoshiaki Sato, Brittney A Beyer, Warren C Plaisted, Justin L Anglin, Luke L Lairson, Benjamin F Cravatt
Lipids play critical roles in cell biology, often through direct interactions with proteins. We recently described the use of photoreactive lipid probes combined with quantitative mass spectrometry to globally map lipid-protein interactions, and the effects of drugs on these interactions, in cells. Here, we investigate the broader potential of lipid-based chemical proteomic probes for determining the cellular targets of biologically active small molecules, including natural product derivatives and repurposed drugs of ill-defined mechanisms...
September 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930272/antimicrobial-activity-of-some-essential-oils-present-status-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Sonam Chouhan, Kanika Sharma, Sanjay Guleria
Extensive documentation on the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and their constituents has been carried out by several workers. Although the mechanism of action of a few essential oil components has been elucidated in many pioneering works in the past, detailed knowledge of most of the compounds and their mechanism of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important for the determination of the effect of essential oils on different microorganisms, how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds, and their interaction with food matrix components...
August 8, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930154/autophagy-and-inflammatory-response-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#20
REVIEW
Daniel Ngabire, Gun-Do Kim
Cell death is the last fate of the life cycle of cells. Different pathways involved in cell death are known to date, and are mostly represented by apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Autophagy is one of the most preserved cell death pathways, characterized by the elimination of large parts of cytoplasmic components after being consumed by a double-membraned vesicle called an autophagosome. The formed autophagosome then fuses with a lysosome containing degrading enzymes and leads to the digestion of the autophagosome content...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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