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Mariana Perez Herrera, Thava Vasanthan
Commercial interest on the application of starch nanoparticles (SNP) in food is rapidly growing. Since gums are commonly used in food processing for their texturizing functionality, it is important to understand the influence of SNP on gum rheology. λ-Carrageenan and xanthan gum were selected in this study due to their wide range of applications in food systems. SNP isolated from waxy (0% amylose) and high amylose maize (71% amylose) were used. Binary blends consisting of 0.5% (w/v) gum and different concentrations of SNP were prepared and their flow behaviors evaluated using a rheometer...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Kawinchaya Saikaew, Kamol Lertrat, Mutita Meenune, Ratchada Tangwongchai
High-pressure processing (HPP) at 250-700 MPa for 30-45 min affects the colour parameters, phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities of purple waxy corn kernels (p < 0.05). The higher pressure-level, the lower L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), C(∗) and h(o) (p < 0.05). However, pressure-treated kernels at 700 MPa showed a similar colour profile to steam-treated kernels. HPP caused a loss in the total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activities. The pressure-treated kernels had a higher phytochemical content than the steam-treated kernels...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Sami Boufi, Sihem Bel Haaj, Albert Magnin, Frédéric Pignon, Marianne Impéror-Clerc, Gérard Mortha
In this paper, the disintegration of starch (waxy and standard starch) granules into nanosized particles under the sole effect of high power ultrasonication treatment in water/isopropanol is investigated, by using wide methods of analysis. The present work aims at a fully characterization of the starch nanoparticles produced by ultrasonication, in terms of size, morphology and structural properties, and the proposition of a possible mechanism explaining the top-down generation of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) via high intensity ultrasonication...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Li Guo
Entanglement concentration (ce, w/v) means the onset of overlap and interpenetration of random-coil chains in a macromolecule solution. The effects of ce on the dynamic viscoelasticity and film-forming property of cereal starches were investigated. The results showed that ce affected significantly the ratio of crystalline to amorphous regions of normal rice starch, waxy rice starch, normal maize starch and wheat starch because the absorbance ratio (1047cm(-1)/1022cm(-1)) increased more obviously at concentrations increasing from 0...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Patrick O Emanuel, Sharad P Paul
Follicular urate-like crystals were first described in Necrotizing Infundibular Crystalline Folliculitis (NICF), a rare cutaneous disorder with multiple waxy folliculocentric papules. Similar crystal accumulation may be seen within follicular infundibulae as an incidental finding. We describe a case showing identical crystals occurring within the horn-like crusts of a patient with erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp (EPDS), a condition which due to its presentation can often be mistaken for nonmelanoma skin cancer...
2017: Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine
Rocío Deanna, Gloria E Barboza, Carolina Carrizo García
Deprea is the genus with the second highest species richness in tribe Physalideae (Solanaceae) and comprises 50 species that are mainly distributed in the Andes of South America. The taxonomy of Deprea has been unstable after controversial hypotheses about its position and circumscription. Additionally, biogeographical inferences are only based on observations of the restricted area of distribution of some species and no ancestral area estimation have been performed. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis and an ancestral area reconstruction of Deprea in order to establish its circumscription, resolve its position within Physalideae, and reconstruct its biogeographical history...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Limin Dai, Changwei Li, Jun Zhang, Fang Cheng
Waxy maize starch was mechanically treated with a planetary ball mill. X-ray diffraction analysis was employed to determine the optimal ball milling time. After ball milling, the pretreated starch was hydrolyzed with H2SO4. The hydrolysates were obtained and their relative crystallinity, morphology, and particle size were estimated by X-ray diffraction analysis, atomic force microscopy, and nanoparticle size analyzer, respectively. The results revealed that it is possible to obtain starch nanocrystals (SNCs) after a combination of ball milling and 3days of H2SO4 hydrolysis with a yield of 19...
January 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Chi-Wah Yeung, Hubert Rein
Hot-melt extruded sugar-starch pellets are an alternative for commercial sugar spheres, but their coating properties remain to be studied. Both the European Pharmcopoeia 8.6 and the United States Pharmacopoeia 40 specify the composition of sugar-starch pellets without giving requirements for the manufacturing process. Due to various fabrication techniques, the physicochemical properties of pellets may differ. Therefore, the adhesion energies of three coating dispersions (sustained, enteric and immediate release) on different types of pellets were investigated...
November 6, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Hye Won Kang, Won-Chul Lim, Jin-Kyu Lee, Jin-Nyoung Ho, Eun-Jeong Lim, Hong-Yon Cho
This study aimed to examine the anti-diabetic effect of germinated waxy black rice (GWBR) using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, GWBR supplementation for 8 weeks reduced plasma blood glucose concentrations, improved glucose clearance and prevented diabetes-induced weight loss. Rats with STZ-induced diabetes who received GWBR supplementation exhibited decreased expression of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 genes and proteins in the small intestine via decreases in hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1α, HNF-1β, and HNF-4α, transcriptional factors that are involved in the regulation of SGLT1 and GLUT2, compared with the rats with STZ-induced diabetes that did not receive GWBR supplements...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Isabelle Luchsinger, Jérôme Coulombe, Franco Rongioletti, Marc Haspeslagh, Anne Dompmartin, Isabelle Melki, Rawane Dagher, Brigitte Bader-Meunier, Sylvie Fraitag, Christine Bodemer
BACKGROUND: Self-healing juvenile cutaneous mucinosis (SHJCM) is a rare disorder and the pathogenesis and long-term prognosis are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the clinical and histopathologic characteristics, pathogenesis and outcome in patients with SHJCM. METHODS: Retrospective study of 9 patients with SHCJM. To complement initial findings, data collection forms were sent to the referring physicians. RESULTS: All patients had an acute onset of firm nodules...
October 21, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Xiaoxian Han, Ji Kang, Yanjie Bai, Meng Xue, Yong-Cheng Shi
Pyrodextrins were prepared by heating waxy maize starch at 170°C and pH 3.0 for 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4h. Structural changes of pyrodextrins were determined by gel permeation chromatography and (1)H NMR. Gelatinization and retrogradation of pyrodextrins were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The water solubility of pyrodextrins increased from 48.9 to 99.4% as heating time increased from 0.5 to 4h. The molecular size, melting enthalpy of pyrodextrin, and the degree of retrogradation decreased as pyrodextrin solubility increased...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Long Chen, Yaoqi Tian, Binghua Sun, Canxin Cai, Rongrong Ma, Zhengyu Jin
Concerns regarding increased dietary oil uptake have prompted efforts to investigate the oil absorption and distribution in fried starchy foods. In the present study, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, together with a chloroform-methanol method, was used to analyze the external and internal oil contents in fried starchy samples. The micromorphology of fried starchy samples was further investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), polarized light microscope (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Andrés Felipe Pérez-González, Mariana Espinola-Nadurille, Jesús Ramírez-Bermúdez
INTRODUCTION: Catatonia and delirium are two different and independent syndromes. Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome associated with a variety of diseases of different medical causes and is characterised by lack of activity, induction of passive postures against gravity, opposition or absence of response to external stimuli, waxy flexibility, stereotypies, mannerisms and echophenomena. Delirium is characterised by consciousness and cognitive alterations, mainly attention and orientation and usually of acute onset, which tend to fluctuate during the day and with evidence that the alteration is a direct physiological consequence of a disease, intoxication or substance withdrawal...
October 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Lisa K Oberding, Lisa M Gieg
Paraffinic n-alkanes (> C17) that are solid at ambient temperature comprise a large fraction of many crude oils. The comparatively low water solubility and reactivity of these long-chain alkanes can lead to their persistence in the environment following fuel spills, and pose serious problems for crude oil recovery operations by clogging oil production wells. However, the degradation of waxy paraffins under the anoxic conditions characterizing contaminated groundwater environments and deep subsurface energy reservoirs is poorly understood...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yang Li, Junyan Ren, Jia Liu, Lu Sun, Yinglan Wang, Bingjie Liu, Caiming Li, Zhaofeng Li
Granular corn starch, waxy corn starch, potato starch and tapioca starch were modified using the α-D-glucan branching enzyme (1,4-α-D-glucan:1,4-α-D-glucan 6-α-D-(1,4-α-D-glucano)-transferase, GBE, EC from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans. The GBE-catalyzed modification caused a time-dependent increase in the ratios of α-1,6 linkages to total glycosidic linkages, as well as reductions in the average chain length and relative crystallinity. These modifications lowered the in vitro digestibility of the starch...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Matthew R Jensen, Brandon R Goblirsch, James K Christenson, Morgan A Esler, Fatuma A Mohamed, Lawrence P Wackett, Carrie M Wilmot
In the interest of decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis pathways are being studied for renewable, tailored production of specialty chemicals and biofuels. One candidate is long-chain olefin biosynthesis, a widespread bacterial pathway that produces waxy hydrocarbons. Found in three- and four-gene clusters, oleABCD encodes the enzymes necessary to produce cis-olefins that differ by alkyl chain length, degree of unsaturation, and alkyl chain branching. The first enzyme in the pathway, OleA, catalyzes the Claisen condensation of two fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) molecules to form a β-keto acid...
November 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
Sylvain Legay, Emmanuelle Cocco, Christelle M André, Cédric Guignard, Jean-Francois Hausman, Gea Guerriero
Russeting is characterized by a particular rough and brown phenotype, which is mainly due to the accumulation of suberin in the inner part of the epidermal cell walls. In our previous bulk transcriptomic analysis, comparing fully russeted, and waxy apple varieties, showed, in apple fruit skin, a massive decreased expression of cutin, wax and some pentacyclic triterpene biosynthesis genes in the russeted varieties, with an expected concomitant enhanced expression of the suberin biosynthetic genes. In the present work, we performed a deep investigation of the aliphatic composition of the cutin, suberin, waxes, and triterpenes in the waxy and russeted patches of the semi-russeted apple variety "Cox Orange Pippin...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
XianMei Cao, HuiYan Sun, ChunGe Wang, XiaoJia Ren, HongFei Liu, ZuJian Zhang
BACKGROUND: With the rapid development of modern agriculture, high-quality rice production and consumption has become the current urgent demand for the development of rice production. RESULT: In this paper, the effects of late-stage nitrogen fertilizer application on rice quality were studied under the same genetic background, Wx near-isogenic lines were used as test materials to study the starch composition, amylopectin structure, and cooking quality of rice. Results showed that rice amylose content and gel consistency significantly differed when different Wx genes were tranformed into waxy rice, the law of apparent amylose content in rice is Wx(a) >Wx(in) >Wx(b) >wx at the same nitrogen level, while the trend of gel consistency was opposite to that of apparent amylose content, presenting obvious characteristics of Indica and Japonica varieties...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Xudong Zhang, Jiaojiao Feng, Heng Wang, Jianchu Zhu, Yuyue Zhong, Linsan Liu, Shutu Xu, Renhe Zhang, Xinghua Zhang, Jiquan Xue, Dongwei Guo
Particle-size distribution, granular structure, and composition significantly affect the physicochemical properties, rheological properties, and nutritional function of starch. Flow cytometry and flow sorting are widely considered convenient and efficient ways of classifying and separating natural biological particles or other substances into subpopulations, respectively, based on the differential response of each component to stimulation by a light beam; the results allow for the correlation analysis of parameters...
October 4, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Hafiz Rizwan Sharif, Shabbar Abbas, Hamid Majeed, Waseem Safdar, Muhammad Shamoon, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Muhammad Shoaib, Husnain Raza, Junaid Haider
Preparation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions has emerged as a subject of interest for the encapsulation of lipophilic functional ingredients to increase their stability and activity. In this study, black cumin essential oil nanoemulsions (BCO-NE) using different ratios of essential oil with canola and flax seed oils (ripening inhibitors) were formulated and stabilized with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified waxy maize starch. The nanoemulsions exhibited monomodal size distributions with mean droplet diameter below 200 nm and zeta potential above -30, indicating a strong electrostatic repulsion between the dispersed oil droplets...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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