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Kun Wang, Wenhang Wang, Ran Ye, Jingdong Xiao, Yaowei Liu, Junsheng Ding, Shaojing Zhang, Anjun Liu
BACKGROUND: In order to obtain new reinforcing bio-fillers to improve the physicochemical properties of gelatin based film, three types of maize starches: waxy maize starch (Ap), normal starch (Ns), and high amylose starch (Al), were incorporated into the gelatin films, and their properties were investigated, focusing on the impact of amylose content. RESULTS: The thickness, opacity and roughness of gelatin films increased depending upon amylose content along with the concentration of starch...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Induck Choi, Chon-Sik Kang, Choon-Kee Lee, Sun-Lim Kim
Whole grain wheat flour (WGWF) is the entire grain (bran, endosperm, and germ) milled to make flour. The WGWF of 31 Korean wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were analyzed for the chemical compositions, and classified into groups by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCL). The average composition values showed a substantial variation among wheat varieties due to different wheat varieties. Wheat cv. Shinmichal1 (waxy wheat) had the highest ash, lipid, and total dietary fiber contents of 1.76, 3.14, and 15.49 g/100 g, respectively...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Richard E Boyles, Brian K Pfeiffer, Elizabeth A Cooper, Bradley L Rauh, Kelsey J Zielinski, Matthew T Myers, Zachary Brenton, William L Rooney, Stephen Kresovich
Coordinated association and linkage mapping identified 25 grain quality QTLs in multiple environments, and fine mapping of the Wx locus supports the use of high-density genetic markers in linkage mapping. There is a wide range of end-use products made from cereal grains, and these products often demand different grain characteristics. Fortunately, cereal crop species including sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] contain high phenotypic variation for traits influencing grain quality. Identifying genetic variants underlying this phenotypic variation allows plant breeders to develop genotypes with grain attributes optimized for their intended usage...
December 27, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Katja Lorber, Gina Zeh, Johanna Regler, Andrea Buettner
(Z)-3-Unsaturated volatile acids, alcohols, and aldehydes are commonly found in foods and other natural sources, playing a vital role in the attractiveness of foods but also as compounds with chemo-communicative function in entomology. However, a systematic investigation of their smell properties, especially regarding humans, has not been carried out until today. To close this gap, the odor thresholds in air and odor qualities of homologous series of (Z)-3-alken-1-ols, (Z)-3-alkenals, and (Z)-3-alkenoic acids were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yunlong Pang, Jauhar Ali, Xiaoqian Wang, Neil Johann Franje, Jastin Edrian Revilleza, Jianlong Xu, Zhikang Li
A total of 787 non-waxy rice lines- 116 hybrids and 671 inbreds-were used to study the apparent amylose content (AAC), gelatinization temperature (GT), and rapid visco analyzer (RVA) pasting viscosity properties of rice starch to understand their importance in breeding better rice varieties. The investigated traits showed a wide range of diversity for both hybrid (HG) and inbred (IG) groups. The combinations of the different categories of AAC and GT were random in HG but were non-random in IG. For inbred lines, the high level of AAC tended to combine with the low level of GT, the intermediate level of AAC tended to have high or intermediate GT, and the low level of AAC tended to have high or low GT...
2016: PloS One
Hisfazilah Saari, Catalina Fuentes, Malin Sjöö, Marilyn Rayner, Marie Wahlgren
The aim of this study was to investigate non-solvent precipitation of starch to produce nanoparticles that could be used in Pickering emulsions. The material used was waxy maize, modified with octenyl succinic anhydride. Different methods of non-solvent precipitation were investigated, and a method based on direct mixing of an 8% starch solution and ethanol (ratio 1:1) was found to produce the smallest particles. The particle size was measured using AFM and AF4, and was found to be in the range 100-200nm. However, both larger particles and aggregates of nanoparticles were observed...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Byung-Hoo Lee, Bruce R Hamaker
α-Amylase first hydrolyzes starch structures to linear maltooligosaccharides and branched α-limit dextrins, then complete hydrolysis to glucose takes place through the mucosal α-glucosidases. In this study, we hydrolyzed waxy corn starch (WCS) by human pancreatic α-amylase to determine the digestion and structural properties of different size fractions of the branched α-limit dextrins. The α-amylolyzed WCS was separated by size exclusion chromatography, and the analyzed chromatograms showed four main hydrolyzate fractions...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Adriana Pulido Díaz, Denis Lourdin, Guy Della Valle, Alejandro Fernández Quintero, Hernán Ceballos, Thierry Tran, Dominique Dufour
The aim of this study was to determine and compare the melting (Tm), glass transition (Tg) and mechanical relaxation (Tα) temperatures of a new waxy cassava starch. Thermal transitions measurements were obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamical Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). The experimental data showed a high correlation between water volume fraction and melting temperature (Tm) indicating that the Flory-Huggins theory can be used to describe the thermal behavior of this starch...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Pingping Gao, Feng Wang, Fengying Gu, Jiying Ning, Jun Liang, Ningbo Li, Richard D Ludescher
A new method of preparing films from zein thermo-modified starch was presented. According to data of micro-visco-amylography and rheometer, dry heating with zein significantly decreased the pasting properties of waxy corn starch and distarch phosphate, the values of G' and G″ of starches dry heated with zein decreased, while the loss tangent increased as a function of heating time. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the surfaces of starch granules became rough after dry heating with zein, suggesting interactions between zein and the granule surface...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Marie Sylvianne Rabodoarivelo, Maarten Aerts, Peter Vandamme, Juan Carlos Palomino, Voahangy Rasolofo, Anandi Martin
A critical step in proteomic analyses comprises the implementation of a reliable cell lysis method with high yields of qualitative proteins. In Mycobacteria, the protein extraction step is often hampered by the thick waxy cell wall which is rich in mycolic acids. Harsh disruption techniques to release proteins from the cells are thus required. Here, we demonstrate an optimized protein extraction procedure for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mbt) that results in protein extracts that are useful for all currently used proteomics platforms, including gel and LC-MS based strategies...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
C M Andre, S Legay, S Charton, J Renaut, J F Hausman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
M A Newman, Q Zebeli, K Velde, D Grüll, T Molnar, W Kandler, B U Metzler-Zebeli
Aside from being used as stabilizing agents in many processed foods, chemically modified starches may act as functional dietary ingredients. Therefore, development of chemically modified starches that are less digestible in the upper intestinal segments and promote fermentation in the hindgut receives considerable attention. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on nutrient flow, passage rate, and bacterial activity at ileal and post-ileal level. Eight ileal-cannulated growing pigs were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy cornstarch as control) in a cross-over design for 10 d, followed by a 4-d collection of feces and 2-d collection of ileal digesta...
2016: PloS One
B U Metzler-Zebeli, R Ertl, D Grüll, T Molnar, Q Zebeli
Dietary effects on the host are mediated via modulation of the intestinal mucosal responses. The present study investigated the effect of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) product on the mucosal expression of genes related to starch digestion, sugar and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption and incretins in the jejunum and cecum in growing pigs. Moreover, the impact of the EMS on hepatic expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, and postprandial serum metabolites were assessed. Barrows (n=12/diet; initial BW 29 kg) were individually fed three times daily with free access to a diet containing either EMS or waxy corn starch as control (CON) for 10 days...
December 8, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Jie Yang, Ranran Chang, Shengju Ge, Mei Zhao, Caifeng Liang, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
The objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) prepared from waxy maize, potato, normal corn, and tapioca starches on the activity of tyrosinase. As a main polyphenol oxidase, tyrosinase not only induces fruit and vegetable browning but also causes skin diseases by overproducing melanin. Herein, for the first time, we evaluated the inhibitory kinetics of SNPs on tyrosinase. It turned out that SNPs inhibited tyrosinase activity reversibly. The IC50 values of hollow nanoparticles, amylopectin nanoparticles, corn starch nanoparticles, and tapioca starch nanoparticles were 0...
December 7, 2016: Food & Function
Hao Zhang, Xing Zhou, Jian He, Tao Wang, Xiaohu Luo, Li Wang, Ren Wang, Zhengxing Chen
Recombinant amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea was utilized to modify native and acid-thinned starches. The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of modified starches were investigated. Acid-thinned starch displayed much lower viscosity after gelatinization than did the native starch. However, the enzyme exhibited similar catalytic efficiency for both forms of starch. The modified starches had higher proportions of long (DP>33) and intermediate chains (DP 13-33), and X-ray diffraction showed a B-type crystalline structure for all modified starches...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Shaimaa Elsharif, Andrea Buettner
Despite being isomers having the same citrus-like, floral odor, geraniol 1 and nerol 3, show different odor thresholds. To date, no systematic studies are at hand elucidating the structural features required for their specific smell properties. Therefore, starting from these two base structures and their corresponding esters, namely geranyl acetate 2 and neryl acetate 4, a total of 12 oxygenated compounds was synthesized and characterized regarding retention indices (RI), mass spectrometric (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hongju Zhou, Lijun Wang, Guifu Liu, Xiangbing Meng, Yanhui Jing, Xiaoli Shu, Xiangli Kong, Jian Sun, Hong Yu, Steven M Smith, Dianxing Wu, Jiayang Li
Changes in human lifestyle and food consumption have resulted in a large increase in the incidence of type-2 diabetes, obesity, and colon disease, especially in Asia. These conditions are a growing threat to human health, but consumption of foods high in resistant starch (RS) can potentially reduce their incidence. Strategies to increase RS in rice are limited by a lack of knowledge of its molecular basis. Through map-based cloning of a RS locus in indica rice, we have identified a defective soluble starch synthase gene (SSIIIa) responsible for RS production and further showed that RS production is dependent on the high expression of the Waxy(a) (Wx(a)) allele, which is prevalent in indica varieties...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jason C Sluzevich, Paul M Hoesly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Li Guo, Juanjuan Zhang, Jian Hu, Xianfeng Du, Bo Cui
BACKGROUND: The hydrodynamic properties of four cereal starches in dilute and semi-dilute aqueous solutions were investigated using a Ubbelohde viscometer, a transmission electron microscope and steady shear rheological measurements. RESULTS: The results indicated that the starch solutions showed the non-linear shape of the ηsp /c versus c curves in dilute solutions, followed by a linear increase to different extents thereafter. The intrinsic viscosity might be positively correlated with the entanglement concentration (ce )...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Pakkawat Detchewa, Masubon Thongngam, Jay-Lin Jane, Onanong Naivikul
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soy protein isolate on functional properties and consumer acceptance of gluten-free rice spaghetti (GFRS) made from rice flour. Dry-milled high-amylose (Chai Nat 1) rice flour was premixed with dry-milled waxy (RD 6) rice flour at a ratio of 90:10 (w/w) with the soy protein isolate (SPI) concentration varying between 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 %, db. The GFRS formulation was processed using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder up to 95 °C with a screw speed of 220 rpm, 32 % moisture content, and then dried at 40 °C...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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