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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344498/investigation-of-the-in-vitro-performance-difference-of-drug-soluplus%C3%A2-and-drug-peg-6000-dispersions-when-prepared-using-spray-drying-or-lyophilization
#1
Mohammad A Altamimi, Steven H Neau
PURPOSE: To evaluate the physicochemical and in vitro characteristics of solid dispersions using BCS II model drugs with Soluplus® and one of its component homopolymers, PEG 6000. METHODS: Nifedipine (NIF) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) of 99.3% and 99.5% purity, respectively, were selected as BCS II model drugs, such that an improved dissolution rate and concentration in the gastrointestinal tract should increase oral bioavailability. Soluplus® is an amorphous, tri-block, graft co-polymer with polyvinyl caprolactam, polyvinyl acetate, and polyethylene glycol (PCL:PVAc:PEG6000) in the ratio 57:30:13...
March 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325324/influence-of-fatty-chain-length-and-starch-composition-on-structure-and-properties-of-fully-substituted-fatty-acid-starch-esters
#2
Audrey Vanmarcke, Lise Leroy, Gregory Stoclet, Lucie Duchatel-Crépy, Jean-Marc Lefebvre, Nicolas Joly, Valérie Gaucher
A series of almost fully substituted Fatty Acid Starch Esters (FASEs) has been obtained in a homogeneous LiCl/DMAc medium by grafting octanoyl (C8), lauroyl (C12) and palmitoyl (C16) chlorides onto 3 starch species: Amylo-Maize, Potato and Waxy Maize. Structure-property relationships of FASEs are investigated as a function of both fatty acid chain length and amylose/amylopectin ratio of the starch. The structural study has revealed a layered type organization in which starch chain planes are separated by fatty chains...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323890/establishment-of-transient-gene-expression-systems-in-protoplasts-from-liriodendron-hybrid-mesophyll-cells
#3
Ailing Huo, Zhenyu Chen, Pengkai Wang, Liming Yang, Guangping Wang, Dandan Wang, Suchan Liao, Tielong Cheng, Jinhui Chen, Jisen Shi
Liriodendron is a genus of the magnolia family comprised of two flowering tree species that produce hardwoods of great ecological and economic value. However, only a limited amount of genetic research has been performed on the Liriodendron genus partly because transient or stable transgenic trees have been difficult to produce. In general, transient expression systems are indispensable for rapid, high-throughput screening and systematic characterization of gene functions at a low cost; therefore, development of such a system for Liriodendron would provide a necessary step forward for research on Magnoliaceae and other woody trees...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314934/transposon-insertion-resulted-in-the-silencing-of-wx-b1n-in-chinese-wheat-landraces
#4
Ling-Ling Zhang, Hu Chen, Mi Luo, Xiao-Wei Zhang, Mei Deng, Jian Ma, Peng-Fei Qi, Ji-Rui Wang, Guo-Yue Chen, Ya-Xi Liu, Zhi-En Pu, Wei Li, Xiu-Jin Lan, Yu-Ming Wei, You-Liang Zheng, Qian-Tao Jiang
A novel Wx-B1 allele was characterized; a transposon insertion resulted in the loss of its function, which is different from the previously reported gene silencing mechanisms at the Wx-B1 locus. The waxy protein composition of 53 Chinese wheat landraces was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; of these, 10 did not show the expression of Wx-A1 (four accession) or Wx-B1 (six accessions) protein. The results of molecular marker detection revealed that the Wx-B1 allele (Wx-B1n) showed normal expression, inconsistent with the findings of SDS-PAGE for the Xiaobaipi accession...
March 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300770/transglycosylated-starch-improves-insulin-response-and-alters-lipid-and-amino-acid-metabolome-in-a-growing-pig-model
#5
Monica A Newman, Qendrim Zebeli, Eva Eberspächer, Dietmar Grüll, Timea Molnar, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Due to the functional properties and physiological effects often associated with chemically modified starches, significant interest lies in their development for incorporation in processed foods. This study investigated the effect of transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS) on blood glucose, insulin, and serum metabolome in the pre- and postprandial phase in growing pigs. Eight jugular vein-catheterized barrows were fed two diets containing 72% purified starch (waxy cornstarch (CON) or TGS). A meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood sampling for glucose, insulin, lipids, and metabolome profiling...
March 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298535/resistant-starch-but-not-enzymatically-modified-waxy-maize-delays-development-of-diabetes-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#6
Mette Skou Hedemann, Kjeld Hermansen, Sven Pedersen, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen
Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, and nutritional management of circulating glucose may be a strategic tool in the prevention of T2D.Objective: We studied whether enzymatically modified waxy maize with an increased degree of branching delayed the onset of diabetes in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats.Methods: Forty-eight male ZDF rats, aged 5 wk, were divided into 4 groups and fed experimental diets for 9 wk that contained 52.95% starch: gelatinized corn starch (S), glucidex (GLU), resistant starch (RS), or enzymatically modified starch (EMS)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285516/investigation-on-key-molecules-of-huanglongbing-hlb-induced-orange-juice-off-flavor
#7
Johannes Kiefl, Birgit Kohlenberg, Anja Hartmann, Katja Obst, Susanne Paetz, Gerhard Krammer, Stephan Trautzsch
Orange fruits from huanglongbing (HLB)-infected trees do not fully mature and show a severe off-flavor described as bitter-harsh, metallic, and less juicy and fruity. The investigation of juice from HLB-infected (HLBOJ) and healthy control oranges (COJ) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed higher concentrations of fruity esters, such as ethyl butyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and soapy-waxy alkanals, such as octanal and decanal, in the COJ, whereas the HLBOJ showed higher concentrations of green aldehydes such as hexanal and degradation compounds of limonene and linalool such as α-terpineol...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275821/metabolic-engineering-of-microorganisms-for-the-production-of-structurally-diverse-esters
#8
REVIEW
Simón Menendez-Bravo, Santiago Comba, Hugo Gramajo, Ana Arabolaza
Conventional petroleum-based chemical industry, although economically still thriving, is now facing great socio-political challenges due to the increasing concerns on climate change and limited availability of fossil resources. In this context, microbial production of fuels and commodity oleochemicals from renewable biomass is being considered a promising sustainable alternative. The increasing understanding of cellular systems has enabled the redesign of microbial metabolism for the production of compounds present in many daily consumer products such as esters, waxes, fatty acids (FA) and fatty alcohols...
March 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274435/octenylsuccinate-starch-spherulites-as-a-stabilizer-for-pickering-emulsions
#9
Chan Wang, Xiong Fu, Chuan-He Tang, Qiang Huang, Bin Zhang
This study investigated structure and morphology of starch spherulites prepared from debranched waxy maize and waxy potato starches. Debranched waxy potato starch favored the formation of B-type crystals with longer branch chains (average chain length, 26.14), whereas A-type polymorphic aggregates were generated from debranched waxy maize under same recrystallization condition. Spherulites had smaller particle size distribution (D[3,2], ∼3.7μm), higher dissociation temperature (80-120°C) and crystallinity (80∼90%), compared to native waxy starches...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274129/-utility-of-the-rapid-staining-with-the-use-of-microwave-for-detection-of-genus-mycobacterium
#10
Yumiko Funashima, Kyohei Kato, Taeko Narita, Hiroki Hanaiwa, Makoto Akiwa, Jun-Ichiro Sekiguchi, Zenzo Nagasawa, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Hiroshi Miyamoto
Recently, many laboratories use fluorescence microscopy for rapid screening of clinical specimens for detection of Genus Mycobacterium. The success of the stain depends on the staining temperature at which the fluorescent dye could uniformly penetrate the cell wall through waxy lipid barrier of the mycobacterial organism. Therefore, this process requires a precise heating control. In this study, to control the temperature during fluorescent auramine- rhodamine staining, we explored the potential use of microwave...
March 22, 2017: JARMAM: Journal of the Association for Rapid Method and Automation in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251299/variations-in-chemical-sexual-signals-of-psammodromus-algirus-lizards-along-an-elevation-gradient-may-reflect-altitudinal-variation-in-microclimatic-conditions
#11
José Martín, Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho, Senda Reguera, Pilar López, Gregorio Moreno-Rueda
Chemical signals used in intraspecific communication are expected to evolve or to show phenotipic plasticity to maximize efficacy in the climatic conditions of a given environment. Elevational environmental gradients in mountains provide a good opportunity to test this hypothesis by examining variation in characteristics of signals in species found across different elevations with different climatic conditions. We analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) the lipophilic fraction of the femoral gland secretions of male lizards Psammodromus algirus (Fam...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241316/clinic-based-study-on-meibomian-gland-dysfunction-in-japan
#12
Shiro Amano, Kenji Inoue
Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in the Japanese population. Methods: We undertook a clinical study on the prevalence of MGD in Japan using the same diagnostic criteria as a previous population-based study conducted in Spanish Caucasians. The participants were consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery at Inouye Eye Hospital. All participants were aged 50 years or older. Patients completed a symptoms questionnaire and underwent a comprehensive slit-lamp examination...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241110/molecular-structure-and-physicochemical-properties-of-starches-from-rice-with-different-amylose-contents-resulting-from-modification-of-osgbssi-activity
#13
Changquan Zhang, Shengjie Chen, Xinyu Ren, Yan Lu, Derui Liu, Xiuling Cai, Qianfeng Li, Jiping Gao, Qiaoquan Liu
OsGBSSI, encoded by the Waxy (Wx) gene, is the key enzyme in the synthesis of amylose chains. Transgenic rice lines with various GBSSI activities were previously developed via site-directed mutagenesis of the Wx gene in the glutinous cultivar Guanglingxiangnuo (GLXN). In this study, grain morphology, molecular structure, and physicochemical properties were investigated in four transgenic lines with modified OsGBSSI activity and differences in amylose content. A milky opaque appearance was observed in low- and non-amylose rice grains due to air spaces in the starch granules...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219413/effect-of-waxy-barley-kirarimochi-consumption-on-bowel-movements-of-late-stage-elderly-residents-at-roken-nursing-home
#14
Keiko Taniguchi, Kozo Komae, Asuka Takahashi, Toji Yoshioka, Yoshiaki Sone
BACKGROUND: It is very important for the late-stage elderly to have the least stressful bowel movements for maintaining a good quality of life. It is generally accepted that consuming adequate dietary fiber is a promising method for the prevention and management of stressful bowel movements such as those during constipation. Therefore, we examined the effect of long-term consumption of waxy barley, which is high in dietary fiber, on the bowel movements of the late-stage elderly living at Roken nursing home (a geriatric health services facility), Japan...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199682/waxy-and-non-waxy-barley-cultivars-exhibit-differences-in-the-targeting-and-catalytic-activity-of-gbss1a
#15
Kim H Hebelstrup, Morten Munch Nielsen, Massimiliano Carciofi, Olga Andrzejczak, Shahnoor Sultana Shaik, Andreas Blennow, Monica M Palcic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167953/biofortification-in-millets-a-sustainable-approach-for-nutritional-security
#16
REVIEW
A Vinoth, R Ravindhran
Nutritional insecurity is a major threat to the world's population that is highly dependent on cereals-based diet, deficient in micronutrients. Next to cereals, millets are the primary sources of energy in the semi-arid tropics and drought-prone regions of Asia and Africa. Millets are nutritionally superior as their grains contain high amount of proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Biofortification of staple crops is proved to be an economically feasible approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161858/wheat-drought-responsive-wxpl-transcription-factors-regulate-cuticle-biosynthesis-genes
#17
Huihui Bi, Sukanya Luang, Yuan Li, Natalia Bazanova, Nikolai Borisjuk, Maria Hrmova, Sergiy Lopato
The cuticle forms a hydrophobic waxy layer that covers plant organs and provides protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcription of genes responsible for cuticle formation is regulated by several types of transcription factors (TFs). Five orthologous to WAX PRODUCTION (WXP1 and WXP2) genes from Medicago truncatula were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from flag leaves and spikes of drought tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum, breeding line RAC875) and designated TaWXP-like (TaWXPL) genes. Tissue-specific and drought-responsive expression of TaWXPL1D and TaWXPL2B was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR in two Australian wheat genotypes, RAC875 and Kukri, with contrasting glaucousness and drought tolerance...
February 4, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143743/influence-of-diurnal-photosynthetic-activity-on-the-morphology-structure-and-thermal-properties-of-normal-and-waxy-barley-starch
#18
Avi Goldstein, George Annor, Varatharajan Vamadevan, Ian Tetlow, Jacob J K Kirkensgaard, Kell Mortensen, Andreas Blennow, Kim H Hebelstrup, Eric Bertoft
This study investigated the influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, molecular composition, crystallinity, and gelatinization properties of normal barley starch (NBS) and waxy barley starch (WBS) granules from plants cultivated in a greenhouse under normal diurnal (16h light) or constant light photosynthetic conditions. Growth rings were observed in all starch samples regardless of lighting conditions. The size distribution of whole and debranched WBS analyzed by gel-permeation chromatography did not appear to be influenced by the different lighting regimes, however, a greater relative crystallinity measured by wide-angle X-ray scattering and greater crystalline quality as judged by differential scanning calorimetry was observed under the diurnal lighting regime...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122205/pasting-and-thermal-properties-of-waxy-corn-starch-modified-by-1-4-%C3%AE-glucan-branching-enzyme
#19
Junyan Ren, Yang Li, Caiming Li, Zhengbiao Gu, Li Cheng, Yan Hong, Zhaofeng Li
Waxy corn starch was modified with the 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02. Incubating waxy corn starch with GBE increased the number of α-1,6 branch points and reduced the average chain length. Enzymatic modification also decreased the breakdown and setback values of Brabender viscosity curves, indicating that the modified starch had higher paste stability. Preheating the starch at 65°C for 30min before incubation with GBE could promote enzymatic modification of starch...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102016/mechanical-and-barrier-properties-of-maize-starch-gelatin-composite-film-effects-of-amylose-content
#20
Kun Wang, Wenhang Wang, Ran Ye, Jingdong Xiao, Yaowei Liu, Junsheng Ding, Shaojing Zhang, Anjun Liu
BACKGROUND: In order to obtain new reinforcing bio-fillers to improve the physicochemical properties of gelatin based film, three types of maize starches: waxy maize starch (Ap), normal starch (Ns), and high amylose starch (Al), were incorporated into the gelatin films, and their properties were investigated, focusing on the impact of amylose content. RESULTS: The thickness, opacity and roughness of gelatin films increased depending upon amylose content along with the concentration of starch...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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