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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775707/in-vitro-digestibility-of-normal-and-waxy-corn-starch-is-modified-by-the-addition-of-tween-80
#1
E J Vernon-Carter, J Alvarez-Ramirez, L A Bello-Perez, A Garcia-Hernandez, C Roldan-Cruz, S Garcia-Diaz
Aqueous dispersions of normal and waxy corn starch (3% w/w) were mixed with Tween 80 (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30 g/100 g of starch), and gelatinized (90 °C, 20 min). Optical microscopy of the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSDx ; x = Tween 80 concentration) revealed that the microstructure was characterized by a continuous phase of leached amylose and amylopectin entangled chains, and a dispersed phase of insoluble remnants, called ghosts, on whose surface small granules were observed, imputed to Tween 80...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748625/sea-lions-develop-human-like-vernix-caseosa-delivering-branched-fats-and-squalene-to-the-gi-tract
#2
Dong Hao Wang, Rinat Ran-Ressler, Judy St Leger, Erika Nilson, Lauren Palmer, Richard Collins, J Thomas Brenna
Vernix caseosa, the white waxy coating found on newborn human skin, is thought to be a uniquely human substance. Its signature characteristic is exceptional richness in saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) and squalene. Vernix particles sloughed from the skin suspended in amniotic fluid are swallowed by the human fetus, depositing BCFA/squalene throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thereby establishing a unique microbial niche that influences development of nascent microbiota. Here we show that late-term California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) fetuses have true vernix caseosa, delivering BCFA and squalene to the fetal GI tract thereby recapitulating the human fetal gut microbial niche...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742517/solvent-extracted-wool-wax-thermotropic-properties-and-skin-efficacy
#3
Clara Barba Albanell, Victor Carrer, Meritxell Marti, Jordi Iglesias, Joan Iglesias, Luisa Coderch
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Wool wax is a soft, yellow, waxy substance that is secreted by the sebaceous glands of sheep. The purpose of wool wax is to waterproof and protect the wool. Chemically, wool wax is a complex mixture of esters, fatty acids, and alcohols. Wool waxes with different prop-erties can be obtained by following different extraction methodologies. METHODS: Two differently extracted wool waxes are compared in this study. Their effectiveness in mimicking the properties of skin lipids is evaluated...
May 9, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721793/reactive-oxygen-species-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-and-gene-expression-patterns-in-a-pair-of-nearly-isogenic-lines-of-nicosulfuron-exposed-waxy-maize-zea-mays-l
#4
Jian Wang, Xuemei Zhong, Kangning Zhu, Jingbo Lv, Xiangling Lv, Fenghai Li, Zhensheng Shi
Nicosulfuron is a post-emergence herbicide used for weed control in maize fields (Zea mays L.). Here, the pair of nearly isogenic inbred lines SN509-R (nicosulfuron resistant) and SN509-S (nicosulfuron sensitive) was used to study the effect of nicosulfuron on growth, oxidative stress, and the activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in waxy maize seedlings. Nicosulfuron treatment was applied at the five-leaf stage and water treatment was used as control. After nicosulfuron treatment, the death of SN509-S might be associated with increased oxidative stress...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712971/author-correction-grain-yield-starch-content-and-activities-of-key-enzymes-of-waxy-and-non-waxy-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#5
Yan Zi, Jinfeng Ding, Jianmin Song, Gavin Humphreys, Yongxin Peng, Chunyan Li, Xinkai Zhu, Wenshan Guo
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691035/copper-mediated-homogeneous-living-radical-polymerization-of-acrylamide-with-waxy-potato-starch-based-macroinitiator
#6
Yifei Fan, Huatang Cao, Frank van Mastrigt, Yutao Pei, Francesco Picchioni
Cu0 -mediated living radical polymerization (Cu0 -mediated LRP) was employed in this research for the synthesis of starch-g-polyacrylamide (St-g-PAM). The use of a controlled radical grafting technique is necessary, as compared to the traditional free-radical polymerization methods, in order to obtain a well-defined structure of the final product. This is in turn essential for studying the relationship between such structure and the end-properties. Waxy potato starch-based water-soluble macroinitiator was first synthesized by esterification with 2-bromopropionyl bromide in the mixture of dimethylacetamide and lithium chloride...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680530/spreading-of-waxy-oils-on-calm-water
#7
Ute Brönner, Øistein Johansen, Frode Leirvik, Tor Nordam, Kristin R Sørheim
The objective of this paper is to provide a simple extension of the much-used gravity spreading model for oil on calm water to account for the spreading behavior of waxy crude oils in cold waters - including the observed retardation and eventual termination of spreading at certain oil film thicknesses. This peculiar behavior is not predicted by traditional spreading models for oil on calm water (i.e. viscous-gravity spreading models), but may occur due to non-Newtonian oil properties caused by precipitation of wax at low temperatures...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624793/electron-microscopic-observations-of-stomata-epicuticular-waxes-and-papillae-in-chamaecyparis-obtusa-reconsidering-the-traditional-concept-of-y-shaped-white-stomatal-bands
#8
Ki Woo Kim
The foliar morphological characters of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) were revisited using optical and scanning electron microscopy. In C. obtusa, typical Y-shaped white stomatal bands were evident on the abaxial leaf surfaces. Two facial leaves and two lateral leaves were observed at the same node. Waxy papillae and oval stomata were arranged in two or three rows with protuberant rims on the abaxial leaf surfaces. Higher magnifications revealed the deposition of epicuticular waxes (tubules) on the Y-shaped white stomatal bands...
April 6, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624058/slowing-the-starch-digestion-by-structural-modification-through-preparing-zein-pectin-particle-stabilized-water-in-water-emulsion
#9
Jia-Feng Chen, Jian Guo, Tao Zhang, Zhi-Li Wan, Juan Yang, Xiao-Quan Yang
Slowing the digestion of starch is one of the dominant concerns in food industry. A colloidal structural modification strategy for solving this problem was proposed in this work. Due to thermodynamic incompatibility between two biopolymers, water/water emulsion of waxy corn starch (WCS) droplets dispersed in a continuous aqueous guar gum (GG) was prepared. And zein particles (ZPs), obtained by anti-solvent precipitation and pectin modification, were used as stabilizer. As the ratio of zein to pectin in the particles was 1:1, their wetting properties in the two polysaccharides were similar, which made them accumulate at the interface and cover the WCS-rich droplets...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622210/comparison-of-physicochemical-properties-and-cooking-edibility-of-waxy-and-non-waxy-proso-millet-panicum-miliaceum-l
#10
Qinghua Yang, Panpan Zhang, Yang Qu, Xiaoli Gao, Jibao Liang, Pu Yang, Baili Feng
The quality characteristics of waxy and non-waxy proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) are different because of their varying amylose content. Physical appearance, pasting properties, cooking and edibility were investigated in five waxy and five non-waxy proso millet varieties. The results showed that the amylose content of proso millet flour was positively correlated with peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity, peak time, and pasting temperature. The porridge made with non-waxy proso millet was thicker as compared with that of made with waxy proso millet...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622203/parboiling-reduced-the-crystallinity-and-in-vitro-digestibility-of-non-waxy-short-grain-rice
#11
Jinhu Tian, Yidi Cai, Wei Qin, Yoshitaka Matsushita, Xingqian Ye, Yukiharu Ogawa
The impact of parboiling on starch digestibility of cooked rice was examined through an in vitro digestion model. Results indicated that the equilibrium starch hydrolysis of polished rice was the highest (86.55%), followed by that of parboiled-polished (83.94%), brown (80.59%) and parboiled rice (76.95%). X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that A-type crystals were predominant in brown rice and polished rice, while A-, B- and V-type crystalline structures coexisted in parboiled rice and parboiled-polished rice...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606475/preparation-and-stability-of-resistant-starch-nanoparticles-using-acid-hydrolysis-and-cross-linking-of-waxy-rice-starch
#12
Onbit Jeong, Malshick Shin
To develop resistant starch (RS) nanoparticles, waxy rice starch was hydrolyzed with acid for 10 days, and acid-hydrolyzed waxy rice starch (AHW) was cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate. The RS nanoparticles were collected by freeze-drying (FD), freeze-drying after sonication (SFD), and ethanol dehydration after sonication (SE). The particle size distribution, RS level by modified AOAC, zeta potential, and stability of dispersion were assessed. The hydrolysis rate ranged from 44.62% to 49.43%, and AHW particle size decreased as hydrolysis time increased...
August 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593854/expansive-reed-populations-alien-invasion-or-disturbed-wetlands
#13
Kim Canavan, Iain D Paterson, Carla Lambertini, Martin P Hill
The tall-statured grasses in the genus Phragmites are dominant vegetation in wetlands worldwide and thus play a vital role in ecosystem functioning. As a result, Phragmites spp. are some of the most widely studied plants; particularly in areas where changes to their abundances have occurred, most notably in Europe and North America. In southern Africa a pattern of reed expansion has occurred in recent decades that has shown a similar trend to cryptic invasions reported in North America. This study used molecular techniques to explore the phylogeography of P...
March 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573581/automatic-segmentation-of-pigment-deposits-in-retinal-fundus-images-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#14
Nadia Brancati, Maria Frucci, Diego Gragnaniello, Daniel Riccio, Valentina Di Iorio, Luigi Di Perna
Retinitis Pigmentosa is an eye disease that presents with a slow loss of vision and then evolves until blindness results. The automatic detection of the early signs of retinitis pigmentosa acts as a great support to ophthalmologists in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease in order to slow down the degenerative process. A large body of literature is devoted to the analysis of Retinitis Pigmentosa. However, all the existing approaches work on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) data, while hardly any attempts have been made working on fundus images...
March 17, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540822/grain-yield-starch-content-and-activities-of-key-enzymes-of-waxy-and-non-waxy-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#15
Yan Zi, Jinfeng Ding, Jianmin Song, Gavin Humphreys, Yongxin Peng, Chunyan Li, Xinkai Zhu, Wenshan Guo
Waxy wheat has unique end-use properties; however, its production is limited due mainly to its low grain yield compared with non-waxy wheat. In order to increase its grain yield, it is critical to understand the eco-physiological differences in grain filling between the waxy and non-waxy wheat. In this study, two waxy wheat and two non-waxy wheat cultivars were used to investigate the differences in starch-associated enzymes processes, sucrose and starch dynamics, yield components, and the final grain yield...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525954/optimized-whole-mount-in-situ-immunolocalization-for-arabidopsis-thaliana-root-meristems-and-lateral-root-primordia
#16
Michael Karampelias, Ricardo Tejos, Jiří Friml, Steffen Vanneste
Immunolocalization is a valuable tool for cell biology research that allows to rapidly determine the localization and expression levels of endogenous proteins. In plants, whole-mount in situ immunolocalization remains a challenging method, especially in tissues protected by waxy layers and complex cell wall carbohydrates. Here, we present a robust method for whole-mount in situ immunolocalization in primary root meristems and lateral root primordia in Arabidopsis thaliana. For good epitope preservation, fixation is done in an alkaline paraformaldehyde/glutaraldehyde mixture...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517430/clinicopathologic-features-of-infection-with-novel-brucella-organisms-in-captive-waxy-tree-frogs-phyllomedusa-sauvagii-and-colorado-river-toads-incilius-alvarius
#17
Kelly E Helmick, Michael M Garner, Jack Rhyan, Daniel Bradway
Two novel and distinct Brucella strains were recovered from 5 of 10 adult, sex undetermined, captive waxy tree frogs ( Phyllomedusa sauvagii) and two of five adult, sex undetermined, captive Colorado river toads ( Incilius alvarius) held in a zoologic collection with clinical and pathologic findings of bacterial disease. These amphibians originated from three separate private breeding facilities over several years and exhibited disease 9-49 mo following release from quarantine. Common presenting signs were vague but included focal abscessation, weight loss, change in coloration, anorexia, and decreased perching...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512768/anthocyanin-complex-exerts-anti-cholangiocarcinoma-activities-and-improves-the-efficacy-of-drug-treatment-in-a-gemcitabine-resistant-cell-line
#18
Kitti Intuyod, Aroonsri Priprem, Chawalit Pairojkul, Chariya Hahnvajanawong, Kulthida Vaeteewoottacharn, Porntip Pinlaor, Somchai Pinlaor
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a deleterious bile duct tumor with poor prognosis and is relatively resistant to chemotherapy. Therefore, alternative or supplementary agents with anticancer and chemosensitizing activities may be useful for the treatment of CCA. A novel anthocyanin complex (AC) nanoparticle, developed from extracts of cobs of purple waxy corn and petals of blue butterfly pea, has exhibited chemopreventive potential in vivo. In the present study, the anti-CCA activities of AC and their underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated further in vitro using a CCA cell line (KKU213)...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508864/synergistic-interactions-between-lecithin-and-fruit-wax-in-oleogel-formation
#19
Paula K Okuro, Iris Tavernier, Mohd D Bin Sintang, Andre G Skirtach, António A Vicente, Koen Dewettinck, Rosiane L Cunha
In this study, the effect of lecithin (LEC) on the crystallization and gelation of fruit wax (FW) with sunflower oil was researched. A synergistic effect on the gel strength was observed at FW : LEC ratios of 75 : 25 and 50 : 50, compared to the corresponding single component formulations (100 : 0 and 0 : 100). Even below the critical gelling concentration (Cg ) of FW, the addition of lecithin enabled gel formation. Lecithin affected the thermal behavior of the structure by delaying both crystallization and gel formation...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492027/inter-and-intra-population-variability-of-the-protein-content-of-femoral-gland-secretions-from-a-lacertid-lizard
#20
Marco Mangiacotti, Marco Fumagalli, Stefano Scali, Marco A L Zuffi, Maddalena Cagnone, Roberta Salvini, Roberto Sacchi
Femoral glands of male lizards produce waxy secretions that are involved in inter- and intraspecific chemical communication. The main components of these secretions are proteins and lipids, the latter having been extensively studied and already associated to male quality. On the opposite, the composition and role of proteins are nearly unknown, the only available information coming from few studies on iguanids. These studies got the conclusion that proteins might have a communicative function, notably they could signal individual identity...
December 2017: Current Zoology
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