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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199682/waxy-and-non-waxy-barley-cultivars-exhibit-differences-in-the-targeting-and-catalytic-activity-of-gbss1a
#1
Kim H Hebelstrup, Morten Munch Nielsen, Massimiliano Carciofi, Olga Andrzejczak, Shahnoor Sultana Shaik, Andreas Blennow, Monica M Palcic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167953/biofortification-in-millets-a-sustainable-approach-for-nutritional-security
#2
REVIEW
A Vinoth, R Ravindhran
Nutritional insecurity is a major threat to the world's population that is highly dependent on cereals-based diet, deficient in micronutrients. Next to cereals, millets are the primary sources of energy in the semi-arid tropics and drought-prone regions of Asia and Africa. Millets are nutritionally superior as their grains contain high amount of proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Biofortification of staple crops is proved to be an economically feasible approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161858/wheat-drought-responsive-wxpl-transcription-factors-regulate-cuticle-biosynthesis-genes
#3
Huihui Bi, Sukanya Luang, Yuan Li, Natalia Bazanova, Nikolai Borisjuk, Maria Hrmova, Sergiy Lopato
The cuticle forms a hydrophobic waxy layer that covers plant organs and provides protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcription of genes responsible for cuticle formation is regulated by several types of transcription factors (TFs). Five orthologous to WAX PRODUCTION (WXP1 and WXP2) genes from Medicago truncatula were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from flag leaves and spikes of drought tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum, breeding line RAC875) and designated TaWXP-like (TaWXPL) genes. Tissue-specific and drought-responsive expression of TaWXPL1D and TaWXPL2B was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR in two Australian wheat genotypes, RAC875 and Kukri, with contrasting glaucousness and drought tolerance...
February 4, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143743/influence-of-diurnal-photosynthetic-activity-on-the-morphology-structure-and-thermal-properties-of-normal-and-waxy-barley-starch
#4
Avi Goldstein, George Annor, Varatharajan Vamadevan, Ian Tetlow, Jacob J K Kirkensgaard, Kell Mortensen, Andreas Blennow, Kim H Hebelstrup, Eric Bertoft
This study investigated the influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, molecular composition, crystallinity, and gelatinization properties of normal barley starch (NBS) and waxy barley starch (WBS) granules from plants cultivated in a greenhouse under normal diurnal (16h light) or constant light photosynthetic conditions. Growth rings were observed in all starch samples regardless of lighting conditions. The size distribution of whole and debranched WBS analyzed by gel-permeation chromatography did not appear to be influenced by the different lighting regimes, however, a greater relative crystallinity measured by wide-angle X-ray scattering and greater crystalline quality as judged by differential scanning calorimetry was observed under the diurnal lighting regime...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122205/pasting-and-thermal-properties-of-waxy-corn-starch-modified-by-1-4-%C3%AE-glucan-branching-enzyme
#5
Junyan Ren, Yang Li, Caiming Li, Zhengbiao Gu, Li Cheng, Yan Hong, Zhaofeng Li
Waxy corn starch was modified with the 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02. Incubating waxy corn starch with GBE increased the number of α-1,6 branch points and reduced the average chain length. Enzymatic modification also decreased the breakdown and setback values of Brabender viscosity curves, indicating that the modified starch had higher paste stability. Preheating the starch at 65°C for 30min before incubation with GBE could promote enzymatic modification of starch...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102016/mechanical-and-barrier-properties-of-maize-starch-gelatin-composite-film-effects-of-amylose-content
#6
Kun Wang, Wenhang Wang, Ran Ye, Jingdong Xiao, Yaowei Liu, Junsheng Ding, Shaojing Zhang, Anjun Liu
BACKGROUND: In order to obtain new reinforcing bio-fillers to improve the physicochemical properties of gelatin based film, three types of maize starches: waxy maize starch (Ap), normal starch (Ns), and high amylose starch (Al), were incorporated into the gelatin films, and their properties were investigated, focusing on the impact of amylose content. RESULTS: The thickness, opacity and roughness of gelatin films increased depending upon amylose content along with the concentration of starch...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078265/classification-of-31-korean-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-cultivars-based-on-the-chemical-compositions
#7
Induck Choi, Chon-Sik Kang, Choon-Kee Lee, Sun-Lim Kim
Whole grain wheat flour (WGWF) is the entire grain (bran, endosperm, and germ) milled to make flour. The WGWF of 31 Korean wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were analyzed for the chemical compositions, and classified into groups by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCL). The average composition values showed a substantial variation among wheat varieties due to different wheat varieties. Wheat cv. Shinmichal1 (waxy wheat) had the highest ash, lipid, and total dietary fiber contents of 1.76, 3.14, and 15.49 g/100 g, respectively...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028582/genetic-dissection-of-sorghum-grain-quality-traits-using-diverse-and-segregating-populations
#8
Richard E Boyles, Brian K Pfeiffer, Elizabeth A Cooper, Bradley L Rauh, Kelsey J Zielinski, Matthew T Myers, Zachary Brenton, William L Rooney, Stephen Kresovich
Coordinated association and linkage mapping identified 25 grain quality QTLs in multiple environments, and fine mapping of the Wx locus supports the use of high-density genetic markers in linkage mapping. There is a wide range of end-use products made from cereal grains, and these products often demand different grain characteristics. Fortunately, cereal crop species including sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] contain high phenotypic variation for traits influencing grain quality. Identifying genetic variants underlying this phenotypic variation allows plant breeders to develop genotypes with grain attributes optimized for their intended usage...
December 27, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006903/structure-odor-relationships-of-z-3-alken-1-ols-z-3-alkenals-and-z-3-alkenoic-acids
#9
Katja Lorber, Gina Zeh, Johanna Regler, Andrea Buettner
(Z)-3-Unsaturated volatile acids, alcohols, and aldehydes are commonly found in foods and other natural sources, playing a vital role in the attractiveness of foods but also as compounds with chemo-communicative function in entomology. However, a systematic investigation of their smell properties, especially regarding humans, has not been carried out until today. To close this gap, the odor thresholds in air and odor qualities of homologous series of (Z)-3-alken-1-ols, (Z)-3-alkenals, and (Z)-3-alkenoic acids were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992591/relationship-of-rice-grain-amylose-gelatinization-temperature-and-pasting-properties-for-breeding-better-eating-and-cooking-quality-of-rice-varieties
#10
Yunlong Pang, Jauhar Ali, Xiaoqian Wang, Neil Johann Franje, Jastin Edrian Revilleza, Jianlong Xu, Zhikang Li
A total of 787 non-waxy rice lines- 116 hybrids and 671 inbreds-were used to study the apparent amylose content (AAC), gelatinization temperature (GT), and rapid visco analyzer (RVA) pasting viscosity properties of rice starch to understand their importance in breeding better rice varieties. The investigated traits showed a wide range of diversity for both hybrid (HG) and inbred (IG) groups. The combinations of the different categories of AAC and GT were random in HG but were non-random in IG. For inbred lines, the high level of AAC tended to combine with the low level of GT, the intermediate level of AAC tended to have high or intermediate GT, and the low level of AAC tended to have high or low GT...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987962/production-of-starch-nanoparticles-by-dissolution-and-non-solvent-precipitation-for-use-in-food-grade-pickering-emulsions
#11
Hisfazilah Saari, Catalina Fuentes, Malin Sjöö, Marilyn Rayner, Marie Wahlgren
The aim of this study was to investigate non-solvent precipitation of starch to produce nanoparticles that could be used in Pickering emulsions. The material used was waxy maize, modified with octenyl succinic anhydride. Different methods of non-solvent precipitation were investigated, and a method based on direct mixing of an 8% starch solution and ethanol (ratio 1:1) was found to produce the smallest particles. The particle size was measured using AFM and AF4, and was found to be in the range 100-200nm. However, both larger particles and aggregates of nanoparticles were observed...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987919/number-of-branch-points-in-%C3%AE-limit-dextrins-impact-glucose-generation-rates-by-mammalian-mucosal-%C3%AE-glucosidases
#12
Byung-Hoo Lee, Bruce R Hamaker
α-Amylase first hydrolyzes starch structures to linear maltooligosaccharides and branched α-limit dextrins, then complete hydrolysis to glucose takes place through the mucosal α-glucosidases. In this study, we hydrolyzed waxy corn starch (WCS) by human pancreatic α-amylase to determine the digestion and structural properties of different size fractions of the branched α-limit dextrins. The α-amylolyzed WCS was separated by size exclusion chromatography, and the analyzed chromatograms showed four main hydrolyzate fractions...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987895/thermomechanical-characterization-of-an-amylose-free-starch-extracted-from-cassava-manihot-esculenta-crantz
#13
Adriana Pulido Díaz, Denis Lourdin, Guy Della Valle, Alejandro Fernández Quintero, Hernán Ceballos, Thierry Tran, Dominique Dufour
The aim of this study was to determine and compare the melting (Tm), glass transition (Tg) and mechanical relaxation (Tα) temperatures of a new waxy cassava starch. Thermal transitions measurements were obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamical Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). The experimental data showed a high correlation between water volume fraction and melting temperature (Tm) indicating that the Flory-Huggins theory can be used to describe the thermal behavior of this starch...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987830/preparation-and-characterization-of-zein-thermo-modified-starch-films
#14
Pingping Gao, Feng Wang, Fengying Gu, Jiying Ning, Jun Liang, Ningbo Li, Richard D Ludescher
A new method of preparing films from zein thermo-modified starch was presented. According to data of micro-visco-amylography and rheometer, dry heating with zein significantly decreased the pasting properties of waxy corn starch and distarch phosphate, the values of G' and G″ of starches dry heated with zein decreased, while the loss tangent increased as a function of heating time. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the surfaces of starch granules became rough after dry heating with zein, suggesting interactions between zein and the granule surface...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984057/optimizing-of-a-protein-extraction-method-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteome-analysis-using-mass-spectrometry
#15
Marie Sylvianne Rabodoarivelo, Maarten Aerts, Peter Vandamme, Juan Carlos Palomino, Voahangy Rasolofo, Anandi Martin
A critical step in proteomic analyses comprises the implementation of a reliable cell lysis method with high yields of qualitative proteins. In Mycobacteria, the protein extraction step is often hampered by the thick waxy cell wall which is rich in mycolic acids. Harsh disruption techniques to release proteins from the cells are thus required. Here, we demonstrate an optimized protein extraction procedure for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mbt) that results in protein extracts that are useful for all currently used proteomics platforms, including gel and LC-MS based strategies...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975986/metabolite-and-transcriptome-profiling-of-russeted-and-waxy-apple-skins-highlighted-genes-involved-in-triterpene-hydroxycinnamate-biosynthesis
#16
C M Andre, S Legay, S Charton, J Renaut, J F Hausman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936165/enzymatically-modified-starch-favorably-modulated-intestinal-transit-time-and-hindgut-fermentation-in-growing-pigs
#17
M A Newman, Q Zebeli, K Velde, D Grüll, T Molnar, W Kandler, B U Metzler-Zebeli
Aside from being used as stabilizing agents in many processed foods, chemically modified starches may act as functional dietary ingredients. Therefore, development of chemically modified starches that are less digestible in the upper intestinal segments and promote fermentation in the hindgut receives considerable attention. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on nutrient flow, passage rate, and bacterial activity at ileal and post-ileal level. Eight ileal-cannulated growing pigs were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy cornstarch as control) in a cross-over design for 10 d, followed by a 4-d collection of feces and 2-d collection of ileal digesta...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927266/enzymatically-modified-starch-up-regulates-expression-of-incretins-and-sodium-coupled-monocarboxylate-transporter-in-jejunum-of-growing-pigs
#18
B U Metzler-Zebeli, R Ertl, D Grüll, T Molnar, Q Zebeli
Dietary effects on the host are mediated via modulation of the intestinal mucosal responses. The present study investigated the effect of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) product on the mucosal expression of genes related to starch digestion, sugar and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption and incretins in the jejunum and cecum in growing pigs. Moreover, the impact of the EMS on hepatic expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, and postprandial serum metabolites were assessed. Barrows (n=12/diet; initial BW 29 kg) were individually fed three times daily with free access to a diet containing either EMS or waxy corn starch as control (CON) for 10 days...
December 8, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872930/the-inhibition-effect-of-starch-nanoparticles-on-tyrosinase-activity-and-its-mechanism
#19
Jie Yang, Ranran Chang, Shengju Ge, Mei Zhao, Caifeng Liang, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
The objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) prepared from waxy maize, potato, normal corn, and tapioca starches on the activity of tyrosinase. As a main polyphenol oxidase, tyrosinase not only induces fruit and vegetable browning but also causes skin diseases by overproducing melanin. Herein, for the first time, we evaluated the inhibitory kinetics of SNPs on tyrosinase. It turned out that SNPs inhibited tyrosinase activity reversibly. The IC50 values of hollow nanoparticles, amylopectin nanoparticles, corn starch nanoparticles, and tapioca starch nanoparticles were 0...
December 7, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855919/impact-of-amylosucrase-modification-on-the-structural-and-physicochemical-properties-of-native-and-acid-thinned-waxy-corn-starch
#20
Hao Zhang, Xing Zhou, Jian He, Tao Wang, Xiaohu Luo, Li Wang, Ren Wang, Zhengxing Chen
Recombinant amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea was utilized to modify native and acid-thinned starches. The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of modified starches were investigated. Acid-thinned starch displayed much lower viscosity after gelatinization than did the native starch. However, the enzyme exhibited similar catalytic efficiency for both forms of starch. The modified starches had higher proportions of long (DP>33) and intermediate chains (DP 13-33), and X-ray diffraction showed a B-type crystalline structure for all modified starches...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
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