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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524364/biofunctional-microgel-based-fertilizers-for-controlled-foliar-delivery-of-nutrients-to-plants
#1
Richard A Meurer, Steffen Kemper, Sandra Knopp, Thomas Eichert, Felix Jakob, Heiner E Goldbach, Ulrich Schwaneberg, Andrij Pich
Foliar application of micronutrients (e.g. Fe(3+) ) onto plants over an extended time is challenging and often not possible due to insufficient rainfastness. Smart delivery systems which enable micronutrient release over several weeks would offer innovative and sustainable options to improve plant health and food production. Herein, we report a novel foliar fertilizer delivery system based on functional pH-responsive biohybrid microgels that have orthogonal functionality as carriers of micronutrients and employ peptides (termed anchor peptides) as foliar adhesion promoters...
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511273/biosurveillance-and-morphological-variations-of-larvae-and-pupae-of-common-malaria-vectors-anopheles-anopheles-hyrcanus-group-species-in-the-republic-of-korea
#2
Leopoldo M Rueda, Heung-Chul Kim, Sung-Tae Chong, Terry A Klein, Mustapha Debboun
A total of 4,576 Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group larvae belonging to 6 species (An. belenrae, An. kleini, An. sinensis, An. pullus, An. lesteri, and An. sineroides) were collected from 7 different habitat types in 3 provinces of the Republic of Korea. The occurrence and relative abundance of 6 Anopheles species were noted. The descriptions in the article of the waxy body ornamentations or patterns of An. (Ano.) Hyrcanus Group larvae and pupae may be useful for rapid field species identification when conducting larval mosquito surveillance...
January 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490111/effect-of-high-hydrostatic-pressure-and-retrogradation-treatments-on-structural-and-physicochemical-properties-of-waxy-wheat-starch
#3
Xiao-Pei Hu, Bao Zhang, Zheng-Yu Jin, Xue-Ming Xu, Han-Qing Chen
In this study, the effects of high hydrostatic pressure and retrogradation (HHPR) treatments on in vitro digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were investigated. The waxy wheat starch slurries (10%, w/v) were treated with high hydrostatic pressures of 300, 400, 500, 600MPa at 20°C for 30min, respectively, and then retrograded at 4°C for 4d. The results indicated that the content of slowly digestible starch (SDS) in HHPR-treated starch samples increased with increasing pressure level, and it reached the maximum (31...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475953/effects-of-dietary-starch-types-on-growth-performance-meat-quality-and-myofibre-type-of-finishing-pigs
#4
Y J Li, J L Li, L Zhang, F Gao, G H Zhou
To investigate the effects of dietary starch types on growth performance and meat quality of finishing pigs, ninety barrows (68.0±2.0kg) were randomly allotted to three experimental diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing pure waxy maize starch (WMS), nonwaxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (amylose/amylopectin were 0.07, 0.19 and 0.28 respectively). Compared with WMS diet, PS diet increased the average daily gain, loin eye area, pH45 value, NMR transverse relaxation (T2)2 peak area ratio and sarcoplasmic protein solubility, decreased the feed to gain ratio, back fat, drip loss, cooking loss and T23 peak area ratio (P<0...
May 2, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469548/effects-of-dietary-fibers-with-high-water-binding-capacity-and-swelling-capacity-on-gastrointestinal-functions-food-intake-and-body-weight-in-male-rats
#5
Chengquan Tan, Hongkui Wei, Xichen Zhao, Chuanhui Xu, Jian Peng
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation of dietary soluble fibers with high water-binding capacity (WBC) and swelling capacity (SC) on gastrointestinal tract mass, physicochemical properties of digesta, gastrointestinal mean retention time (MRT), body weight, and food intake in male rats. Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch plus guar gum (PWMS+GG), andPWMS plus xanthan gum (PWMS+XG) for three weeks...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457958/effect-of-diurnal-photosynthetic-activity-on-the-fine-structure-of-amylopectin-from-normal-and-waxy-barley-starch
#6
Avi Goldstein, George Annor, Andreas Blennow, Eric Bertoft
The impact of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the fine structure of the amylopectin fraction of starch synthesized by normal barley (NBS) and waxy barley (WBS), the latter completely devoid of amylose biosynthesis, was determined following the cultivation under normal diurnal or constant light growing conditions. The amylopectin fine structures were analysed by characterizing its unit chain length profiles after enzymatic debranching as well as its φ,β-limit dextrins and its clusters and building blocks after their partial and complete hydrolysis with α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, respectively...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433162/tocopheryl-acetate-release-from-microcapsules-of-waxy-maize-starch
#7
Naksit Panyoyai, Robert A Shanks, Stefan Kasapis
Diffusion coefficients are utilised to provide a realistic approach in the quantification of mass transport phenomena, which are important for the delivery of bioactivity from high-solid biopolymer systems. Following this mechanistic consideration, we employ spray drying to produce microcapsules of waxy maize starch that suspend homogeneously tocopheryl acetate. An array of physicochemical techniques including dynamic oscillation in-shear or compression mode, microDSC, WAXD, FTIR, scanning electron or optical microscopy, and UV-vis assays were utilised to relate structural properties of the macromolecular network to diffusivity of the bioactive compound...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421086/association-analysis-of-markers-derived-from-starch-biosynthesis-related-genes-with-starch-physicochemical-properties-in-the-usda-rice-mini-core-collection
#8
Kehu Li, Jinsong Bao, Harold Corke, Mei Sun
Rice eating and cooking quality is largely determined by starch physicochemical properties. The diverse accessions in the USDA rice mini-core collection (URMC) facilitate extensive association analysis of starch physicochemical properties with molecular markers specific to starch biosynthesis related genes. To identify significant trait-marker associations that can be utilized in rice breeding programs for improved starch quality, we conducted two association analyses between 26 molecular markers derived from starch biosynthesis related genes and 18 parameters measured of starch physicochemical properties in two sets of the mini-core accessions successfully grown in two environments in China...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412068/vitreous-amyloidosis-ocular-systemic-and-genetic-insights
#9
Pradeep Venkatesh, Harathy Selvan, Sundararajan Baskar Singh, Divya Gupta, Seema Kashyap, Shreyas Temkar, Varun Gogia, Koushik Tripathy, Rohan Chawla, Rajpal Vohra
PURPOSE: To report the unique clinical and surgical characteristics encountered in eyes with vitreous amyloidosis. Systemic evaluation and visual outcome after vitrectomy are discussed. A novel mutation in the transthyretin gene (TTR) in Indian patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is described. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Ten eyes of 5 patients from 2 pedigrees with a diagnosis of vitreous amyloidosis...
April 12, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407124/structure-and-biosynthesis-of-branched-wax-compounds-on-wild-type-and-wax-biosynthesis-mutants-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
Lucas Busta, Reinhard Jetter
The cuticle is a waxy composite that protects the aerial organs of land plans from non-stomatal water loss. The chemical makeup of the cuticular wax mixture plays a central role in defining the water barrier, but structure-function relationships have not been established so far, in part due to gaps in our understanding of wax structures and biosynthesis. While wax compounds with saturated, linear hydrocarbon tails have been investigated in detail, very little is known about compounds with modified aliphatic tails, which comprise substantial portions of some plant wax mixtures...
April 12, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401089/rheological-differences-of-waxy-barley-flour-dispersions-mixed-with-various-gums
#11
Chong-Yeon Kim, Byoungseung Yoo
Rheological properties of waxy barley flour (WBF) dispersions mixed with various gums (carboxyl methyl celluleose, guar gum, gum arabic, konjac gum, locust bean gum, tara gum, and xanthan gum) at different gum concentrations were examined in steady and dynamic shear. WBF-gum mixture samples showed a clear trend of shear-thinning behavior and had a non-Newtonian nature with yield stress. Rheological tests indicated that the flow and dynamic rheological parameter (apparent viscosity, consistency index, yield stress, storage modulus, and loss modulus) values of WBF dispersions mixed with gums, except for gum arabic, were significantly higher than those of WBF with no gum, and also increased with an increase in gum concentration...
March 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392385/multi-scale-structures-and-functional-properties-of-starches-from-indica-hybrid-japonica-and-waxy-rice
#12
Shujun Wang, Peiyan Li, Jinglin Yu, Peng Guo, Shuo Wang
The structural and functional properties of starches from three rice grains differing in amylose content (19.9, 13.4 and 0.8% for Japonica, Indica hybrid and waxy rice, respectively) were investigated using a range of characterization methods Indica hybrid starch (IHS) had the highest proportion of intermediate (DP 13-24) and long branch chains (DP≥37) and the lowest proportion of short branch chains (DP 6-12), whereas the opposite results were observed for Japonica starch (JS). The results for waxy rice starch (WS) were between those of IHS and JS...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383904/real-time-nir-mir-photorheology-a-versatile-tool-for-the-in-situ-characterization-of-photopolymerization-reactions
#13
Christian Gorsche, Reghunathan Harikrishna, Stefan Baudis, Patrick Knaack, Branislav Husar, Joerg Laeuger, Helmuth Hoffmann, Robert Liska
In photopolymerization reactions, mostly multifunctional monomers are employed, as they ensure fast reaction times and good final mechanical properties of the cured materials. Drawing conclusions about the influence of the components and curing conditions on the mechanical properties of the subsequently formed insoluble networks is challenging. Therefore, an in situ observation of chemical and mechanical characteristics during the photopolymerization reaction is desired. By coupling of an infrared spectrometer with a photorheometer, a broad spectrum of different photopolymerizable formulations can be analyzed during the curing reaction...
April 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380290/unraveling-the-driving-forces-in-the-self-assembly-of-monodisperse-naphthalenediimide-oligodimethylsiloxane-block-molecules
#14
José Augusto Berrocal, R Helen Zha, Bas F M de Waal, Jody A M Lugger, Martin Lutz, E W Meijer
Block molecules belong to a rapidly growing research field in materials chemistry in which discrete macromolecular architectures bridge the gap between block copolymers (BCP) and liquid crystals (LCs). The merging of characteristics from both BCP and LCs is expected to result in exciting breakthroughs, such as the discovery of unexpected morphologies or significant shrinking of domain spacings in materials that possess the high definition of organic molecules and the processability of polymers. Here we report the bulk self-assembly of two families of monodisperse block molecules comprised of naphthalenediimides (NDIs) and oligodimethylsiloxanes (ODMS)...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369955/effect-of-extrusion-on-physicochemical-properties-digestibility-and-phenolic-profiles-of-grit-fractions-obtained-from-dry-milling-of-normal-and-waxy-corn
#15
Sheetal Thakur, Narpinder Singh, Amritpal Kaur, Baljit Singh
Extrusion behavior of grits obtained from 3 successive reductions of dry milling of 2 normal corn types and 1 waxy corn was studied at different extrusion temperatures (ET). The grit from each reduction stage (RS) showed the presence of base-hydrolyzed bound protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and quercetin, and the concentrations of these decreased after acid hydrolysis and that of gallic acid increased. African tall grit from all RSs showed the highest average specific mechanical energy (SME) and torque, while waxy corn grit had the lowest...
May 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369307/antimicrobial-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mechanistic-and-evolutionary-perspectives
#16
Sebastian M Gygli, Sonia Borrell, Andrej Trauner, Sebastien Gagneux
Antibiotic-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are threatening progress in containing the global tuberculosis epidemic. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics, limiting the number of compounds available for treatment. This intrinsic resistance is due to a number of mechanisms including a thick, waxy, hydrophobic cell envelope and the presence of drug degrading and modifying enzymes. Resistance to the drugs which are active against M. tuberculosis is, in the absence of horizontally transferred resistance determinants, conferred by chromosomal mutations...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367985/oil-adsorption-ability-of-three-dimensional-epicuticular-wax-coverages-in-plants
#17
Elena V Gorb, Philipp Hofmann, Alexander E Filippov, Stanislav N Gorb
Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344498/investigation-of-the-in-vitro-performance-difference-of-drug-soluplus%C3%A2-and-drug-peg-6000-dispersions-when-prepared-using-spray-drying-or-lyophilization
#18
Mohammad A Altamimi, Steven H Neau
PURPOSE: To evaluate the physicochemical and in vitro characteristics of solid dispersions using BCS II model drugs with Soluplus® and one of its component homopolymers, PEG 6000. METHODS: Nifedipine (NIF) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) of 99.3% and 99.5% purity, respectively, were selected as BCS II model drugs, such that an improved dissolution rate and concentration in the gastrointestinal tract should increase oral bioavailability. Soluplus® is an amorphous, tri-block, graft co-polymer with polyvinyl caprolactam, polyvinyl acetate, and polyethylene glycol (PCL:PVAc:PEG6000) in the ratio 57:30:13...
March 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325324/influence-of-fatty-chain-length-and-starch-composition-on-structure-and-properties-of-fully-substituted-fatty-acid-starch-esters
#19
Audrey Vanmarcke, Lise Leroy, Gregory Stoclet, Lucie Duchatel-Crépy, Jean-Marc Lefebvre, Nicolas Joly, Valérie Gaucher
A series of almost fully substituted Fatty Acid Starch Esters (FASEs) has been obtained in a homogeneous LiCl/DMAc medium by grafting octanoyl (C8), lauroyl (C12) and palmitoyl (C16) chlorides onto 3 starch species: Amylo-Maize, Potato and Waxy Maize. Structure-property relationships of FASEs are investigated as a function of both fatty acid chain length and amylose/amylopectin ratio of the starch. The structural study has revealed a layered type organization in which starch chain planes are separated by fatty chains...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323890/establishment-of-transient-gene-expression-systems-in-protoplasts-from-liriodendron-hybrid-mesophyll-cells
#20
Ailing Huo, Zhenyu Chen, Pengkai Wang, Liming Yang, Guangping Wang, Dandan Wang, Suchan Liao, Tielong Cheng, Jinhui Chen, Jisen Shi
Liriodendron is a genus of the magnolia family comprised of two flowering tree species that produce hardwoods of great ecological and economic value. However, only a limited amount of genetic research has been performed on the Liriodendron genus partly because transient or stable transgenic trees have been difficult to produce. In general, transient expression systems are indispensable for rapid, high-throughput screening and systematic characterization of gene functions at a low cost; therefore, development of such a system for Liriodendron would provide a necessary step forward for research on Magnoliaceae and other woody trees...
2017: PloS One
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