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Jie Yang, Ranran Chang, Shengju Ge, Mei Zhao, Caifeng Liang, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
The objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) prepared from waxy maize, potato, normal corn, and tapioca starches on the activity of tyrosinase. As a main polyphenol oxidase, tyrosinase not only induces fruit and vegetable browning but also causes skin diseases by overproducing melanin. Herein, for the first time, we evaluated the inhibitory kinetics of SNPs on tyrosinase. It turned out that SNPs inhibited tyrosinase activity reversibly. The IC50 values of hollow nanoparticles, amylopectin nanoparticles, corn starch nanoparticles, and tapioca starch nanoparticles were 0...
November 22, 2016: Food & Function
Hao Zhang, Xing Zhou, Jian He, Tao Wang, Xiaohu Luo, Li Wang, Ren Wang, Zhengxing Chen
Recombinant amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea was utilized to modify native and acid-thinned starches. The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of modified starches were investigated. Acid-thinned starch displayed much lower viscosity after gelatinization than did the native starch. However, the enzyme exhibited similar catalytic efficiency for both forms of starch. The modified starches had higher proportions of long (DP>33) and intermediate chains (DP 13-33), and X-ray diffraction showed a B-type crystalline structure for all modified starches...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Shaimaa Elsharif, Andrea Buettner
Despite being isomers having the same citrus-like, floral odor, geraniol 1 and nerol 3, show different odor thresholds. To date, no systematic studies are at hand elucidating the structural features required for their specific smell properties. Therefore, starting from these two base structures and their corresponding esters, namely geranyl acetate 2 and neryl acetate 4, a total of 12 oxygenated compounds was synthesized and characterized regarding retention indices (RI), mass spectrometric (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hongju Zhou, Lijun Wang, Guifu Liu, Xiangbing Meng, Yanhui Jing, Xiaoli Shu, Xiangli Kong, Jian Sun, Hong Yu, Steven M Smith, Dianxing Wu, Jiayang Li
Changes in human lifestyle and food consumption have resulted in a large increase in the incidence of type-2 diabetes, obesity, and colon disease, especially in Asia. These conditions are a growing threat to human health, but consumption of foods high in resistant starch (RS) can potentially reduce their incidence. Strategies to increase RS in rice are limited by a lack of knowledge of its molecular basis. Through map-based cloning of a RS locus in indica rice, we have identified a defective soluble starch synthase gene (SSIIIa) responsible for RS production and further showed that RS production is dependent on the high expression of the Waxy(a) (Wx(a)) allele, which is prevalent in indica varieties...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jason C Sluzevich, Paul M Hoesly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Li Guo, Juanjuan Zhang, Jian Hu, Xianfeng Du, Bo Cui
BACKGROUND: The hydrodynamic properties of four cereal starches in dilute and semi-dilute aqueous solutions were investigated using a Ubbelohde viscometer, a transmission electron microscope and steady shear rheological measurements. RESULTS: The results indicated that the starch solutions showed the non-linear shape of the ηsp /c versus c curves in dilute solutions, followed by a linear increase to different extents thereafter. The intrinsic viscosity might be positively correlated with the entanglement concentration (ce )...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Pakkawat Detchewa, Masubon Thongngam, Jay-Lin Jane, Onanong Naivikul
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soy protein isolate on functional properties and consumer acceptance of gluten-free rice spaghetti (GFRS) made from rice flour. Dry-milled high-amylose (Chai Nat 1) rice flour was premixed with dry-milled waxy (RD 6) rice flour at a ratio of 90:10 (w/w) with the soy protein isolate (SPI) concentration varying between 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 %, db. The GFRS formulation was processed using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder up to 95 °C with a screw speed of 220 rpm, 32 % moisture content, and then dried at 40 °C...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Prakash Krishnaiah, Chantara Thevy Ratnam, Sivakumar Manickam
In this investigation, sisal fibres were treated with the combination of alkali and high intensity ultrasound (HIU) and their effects on the morphology, thermal properties of fibres and mechanical properties of their reinforced PP composites were studied. FTIR and FE-SEM results confirmed the removal of amorphous materials such as hemicellulose, lignin and other waxy materials after the combined treatments of alkali and ultrasound. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed an increase in the crystallinity of sisal fibres with an increase in the concentration of alkali...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Simón Menendez-Bravo, Julia Roulet, Martín Sabatini, Santiago Comba, Robert Dunn, Hugo Gramajo, Ana Arabolaza
BACKGROUND: Microbial synthesis of oleochemicals derived from native fatty acid (FA) metabolism has presented significant advances in recent years. Even so, native FA biosynthetic pathways often provide a narrow variety of usually linear hydrocarbons, thus yielding end products with limited structural diversity. To overcome this limitation, we took advantage of a polyketide synthase-based system from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and developed an Escherichia coli platform with the capacity to synthesize multimethyl-branched long-chain esters (MBE) with novel chemical structures...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
María Belem Arce-Vázquez, Edith Ponce-Alquicira, Ezequiel Delgado-Fornué, Ruth Pedroza-Islas, Gerardo Díaz-Godínez, J Soriano-Santos
Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins (CDs) from starch and related carbohydrates, producing a mixture of α-, β-, and γ-CDs in different amounts. CGTase production, mainly by Bacillus sp., depends on fermentation conditions such as pH, temperature, concentration of nutrients, carbon and nitrogen sources, among others. Bacillus megaterium CGTase produces those three types of CDs, however, β-CD should prevail. Although, waxy corn starch (CS) is used industrially to obtain CGTase and CDs because of its high amylopectin content, alternative sources such as amaranth starch (AS) could be used to accomplish those purposes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chengquan Tan, Hongkui Wei, Xichen Zhao, Chuanhui Xu, Yuanfei Zhou, Jian Peng
To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control...
October 2, 2016: Nutrients
Lesego Maubane, Suprakas Sinha Ray, Kalala Jalama
In this study, butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starches were melt-processed with biodegradable poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) to improve the long-term stability of the starch-based materials. Butyl-etherification was believed to improve the compatibility of starch with PBSA matrix. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that highly branched amylopectin structures in butyl-etherified starch have better chemical interaction with the PBSA matrix compared to linear amylose structures...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Emily F Fleischman, Ryan J Kowalski, Craig F Morris, Thuy Nguyen, Chongjun Li, Girish Ganjyal, Carolyn F Ross
Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and although industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets fed to livestock. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran samples from hard red spring, soft white club cv. Bruehl, and purple wheat lines were added to cv. Waxy-Pen wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.) at replacement concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 37.5% (w/w; n = 10). Extrudates were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, color, and physical properties...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Ahmad Nofal, Hala Amer, Rania Alakad, Eman Nofal, Fatma El Desouky, Ayman Yosef, Waleed Albalat, Khaled Gharib, Inass Mostafa, Sahar Fathy, Monira Waked, Eman Ragheb, Hanan Gammaz
BACKGROUND: Lichen myxedematosus (LM) is a rare, chronic idiopathic disorder characterized clinically by waxy, closely set papules, and histopathologically by diffuse dermal mucin deposition and fibroblast proliferation. The most recent classification of LM was proposed in 2001; however, it seems to be complex, confusing, and imprecise. Herein, we present seven cases of LM to evaluate the validity of the current classification, to propose new diagnostic criteria and classification, and to suggest a clinically relevant severity grading system for this rare disorder...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
P Dickison, V Howard, B Wylie, S D Smith
Systemic AL amyloidosis is known to be associated with plasma cell dyscrasias, including multiple myeloma. The cutaneous manifestations of systemic AL amyloidosis are varied, but typically include waxy plaques or subcutaneous nodules. We report a woman who presented with bilateral eruptions of hyperpigmented plaques in her axillae, which were diagnosed as milia en plaque. She had a history of multiple myeloma, for which she was under the care of a haematologist. This is the first documented case, to our knowledge, of an eruption in the axillae being milia en plaque...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Céline Aubrun-Fillâtre, Francine Monchau, Philippe Hivart
Acrylic bone cements are a conventional solution to heal bone defects. Starch is often added to the cement to improve its degradability and resorbability. The most used botanical variety is corn starch; few studies or applications deal with other varieties. This study focuses on classical formulations based on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate but incorporating different starches: waxy maize, corn, amylo maize, wheat, pea or potato, with or without enzyme (α-amylase). A thermocouple is used to determine the curing parameters: setting time and maximal temperature...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Christie Beveridge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Australian Family Physician
Guan-Xing Chen, Jian-Wen Zhou, Yan-Lin Liu, Xiao-Bing Lu, Cai-Xia Han, Wen-Ying Zhang, Yan-Hao Xu, Yue-Ming Yan
Waxy starch has an important influence on the qualities of breads. Generally, grain weight and yield in waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are significantly lower than in bread wheat. In this study, we performed the first proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of starch granule-binding proteins by comparing the waxy wheat cultivar Shannong 119 and the bread wheat cultivar Nongda 5181. These results indicate that reduced amylose content does not affect amylopectin synthesis, but it causes significant reduction of total starch biosynthesis, grain size, weight and grain yield...
2016: Scientific Reports
María Dolores Campiñez, Isidoro Caraballo, Maxim Puchkov, Martin Kuentz
The aim of the present work was to better understand the drug-release mechanism from sustained release matrices prepared with two new polyurethanes, using a novel in silico formulation tool based on 3-dimensional cellular automata. For this purpose, two polymers and theophylline as model drug were used to prepare binary matrix tablets. Each formulation was simulated in silico, and its release behavior was compared to the experimental drug release profiles. Furthermore, the polymer distributions in the tablets were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the changes produced by the tortuosity were quantified and verified using experimental data...
September 6, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Kun Wang, Wenhang Wang, Ran Ye, Anjun Liu, Jingdong Xiao, Yaowei Liu, Yana Zhao
This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
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