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Simón Menendez-Bravo, Julia Roulet, Martín Sabatini, Santiago Comba, Robert Dunn, Hugo Gramajo, Ana Arabolaza
BACKGROUND: Microbial synthesis of oleochemicals derived from native fatty acid (FA) metabolism has presented significant advances in recent years. Even so, native FA biosynthetic pathways often provide a narrow variety of usually linear hydrocarbons, thus yielding end products with limited structural diversity. To overcome this limitation, we took advantage of a polyketide synthase-based system from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and developed an Escherichia coli platform with the capacity to synthesize multimethyl-branched long-chain esters (MBE) with novel chemical structures...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
María Belem Arce-Vázquez, Edith Ponce-Alquicira, Ezequiel Delgado-Fornué, Ruth Pedroza-Islas, Gerardo Díaz-Godínez, J Soriano-Santos
Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins (CDs) from starch and related carbohydrates, producing a mixture of α-, β-, and γ-CDs in different amounts. CGTase production, mainly by Bacillus sp., depends on fermentation conditions such as pH, temperature, concentration of nutrients, carbon and nitrogen sources, among others. Bacillus megaterium CGTase produces those three types of CDs, however, β-CD should prevail. Although, waxy corn starch (CS) is used industrially to obtain CGTase and CDs because of its high amylopectin content, alternative sources such as amaranth starch (AS) could be used to accomplish those purposes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chengquan Tan, Hongkui Wei, Xichen Zhao, Chuanhui Xu, Yuanfei Zhou, Jian Peng
To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control...
October 2, 2016: Nutrients
Lesego Maubane, Suprakas Sinha Ray, Kalala Jalama
In this study, butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starches were melt-processed with biodegradable poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) to improve the long-term stability of the starch-based materials. Butyl-etherification was believed to improve the compatibility of starch with PBSA matrix. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that highly branched amylopectin structures in butyl-etherified starch have better chemical interaction with the PBSA matrix compared to linear amylose structures...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Emily F Fleischman, Ryan J Kowalski, Craig F Morris, Thuy Nguyen, Chongjun Li, Girish Ganjyal, Carolyn F Ross
Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and although industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets fed to livestock. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran samples from hard red spring, soft white club cv. Bruehl, and purple wheat lines were added to cv. Waxy-Pen wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.) at replacement concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 37.5% (w/w; n = 10). Extrudates were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, color, and physical properties...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Ahmad Nofal, Hala Amer, Rania Alakad, Eman Nofal, Fatma El Desouky, Ayman Yosef, Waleed Albalat, Khaled Gharib, Inass Mostafa, Sahar Fathy, Monira Waked, Eman Ragheb, Hanan Gammaz
BACKGROUND: Lichen myxedematosus (LM) is a rare, chronic idiopathic disorder characterized clinically by waxy, closely set papules, and histopathologically by diffuse dermal mucin deposition and fibroblast proliferation. The most recent classification of LM was proposed in 2001; however, it seems to be complex, confusing, and imprecise. Herein, we present seven cases of LM to evaluate the validity of the current classification, to propose new diagnostic criteria and classification, and to suggest a clinically relevant severity grading system for this rare disorder...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
P Dickison, V Howard, B Wylie, S D Smith
Systemic AL amyloidosis is known to be associated with plasma cell dyscrasias, including multiple myeloma. The cutaneous manifestations of systemic AL amyloidosis are varied, but typically include waxy plaques or subcutaneous nodules. We report a woman who presented with bilateral eruptions of hyperpigmented plaques in her axillae, which were diagnosed as milia en plaque. She had a history of multiple myeloma, for which she was under the care of a haematologist. This is the first documented case, to our knowledge, of an eruption in the axillae being milia en plaque...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Céline Aubrun-Fillâtre, Francine Monchau, Philippe Hivart
Acrylic bone cements are a conventional solution to heal bone defects. Starch is often added to the cement to improve its degradability and resorbability. The most used botanical variety is corn starch; few studies or applications deal with other varieties. This study focuses on classical formulations based on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate but incorporating different starches: waxy maize, corn, amylo maize, wheat, pea or potato, with or without enzyme (α-amylase). A thermocouple is used to determine the curing parameters: setting time and maximal temperature...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Christie Beveridge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Australian Family Physician
Guan-Xing Chen, Jian-Wen Zhou, Yan-Lin Liu, Xiao-Bing Lu, Cai-Xia Han, Wen-Ying Zhang, Yan-Hao Xu, Yue-Ming Yan
Waxy starch has an important influence on the qualities of breads. Generally, grain weight and yield in waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are significantly lower than in bread wheat. In this study, we performed the first proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of starch granule-binding proteins by comparing the waxy wheat cultivar Shannong 119 and the bread wheat cultivar Nongda 5181. These results indicate that reduced amylose content does not affect amylopectin synthesis, but it causes significant reduction of total starch biosynthesis, grain size, weight and grain yield...
2016: Scientific Reports
María Dolores Campiñez, Isidoro Caraballo, Maxim Puchkov, Martin Kuentz
The aim of the present work was to better understand the drug-release mechanism from sustained release matrices prepared with two new polyurethanes, using a novel in silico formulation tool based on 3-dimensional cellular automata. For this purpose, two polymers and theophylline as model drug were used to prepare binary matrix tablets. Each formulation was simulated in silico, and its release behavior was compared to the experimental drug release profiles. Furthermore, the polymer distributions in the tablets were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the changes produced by the tortuosity were quantified and verified using experimental data...
September 6, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Kun Wang, Wenhang Wang, Ran Ye, Anjun Liu, Jingdong Xiao, Yaowei Liu, Yana Zhao
This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Amol Batra, Dipen Desai, Abu T M Serajuddin
Traditionally, the melt granulation for pharmaceutical products was performed at low temperature (<90°C) with high-shear granulators using low-melting waxy binders, and tablets produced using such granules were not amenable to large-scale manufacturing. The situation has changed in recent years by the use of twin screw extruder where the processing temperature could be increased to as high as 180°C and polymers with high Tg could be used as binders. In this study, different polymeric binders were screened for their suitability in improving compactibility of 2 drugs, metformin hydrochloride and acetaminophen, by twin screw melt granulation...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Zhiqiang Zhou, Liya Song, Xiaoxing Zhang, Xinhai Li, Na Yan, Renpei Xia, Hui Zhu, Jianfeng Weng, Zhuanfang Hao, Degui Zhang, Hongjun Yong, Mingshun Li, Shihuang Zhang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158971.].
2016: PloS One
Gaoxiang Qi, Fen Peng, Lian Xiong, Xiaoqing Lin, Chao Huang, Hailong Li, Xuefang Chen, Xinde Chen
Extraction of high-value products from agricultural wastes is an important component for sustainable bio-economy development. In this study, wax extraction from sugarcane bagasse was carried out and the beneficial effect of dewaxing pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. 1.2% (w/w) of crude sugarcane wax was obtained from the sugarcane bagasse using the mixture of petroleum ether and ethanol (mass ratio of 1:1) as the extraction agent. Results of FT-IR characterization and GC-MS qualitative analysis showed that the crude sugarcane wax consisted of fatty fractions (fatty acids, fatty aldehydes, hydrocarbons and esters) and small amount of lignin derivatives...
August 18, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Waraporn Sorndech, Domenico Sagnelli, Sebastian Meier, Anita M Jansson, Byung-Hoo Lee, Bruce R Hamaker, Agnès Rolland-Sabaté, Kim H Hebelstrup, Sunanta Tongta, Andreas Blennow
Thermostable branching enzyme (BE, EC from Rhodothermus obamensis in combination with amylomaltase (AM, EC from Thermus thermophilus was used to modify starch structure exploring potentials to extensively increase the number of branch points in starch. Amylose is an important constituent in starch and the effect of amylose on enzyme catalysis was investigated using amylose-only barley starch (AO) and waxy maize starch (WX) in well-defined ratios. All products were analysed for amylopectin chain length distribution, α-1,6 glucosidic linkages content, molar mass distribution and digestibility by using rat intestinal α-glucosidases...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Wei Wang, Hongxian Zhou, Hong Yang, Siming Zhao, Youming Liu, Ru Liu
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch. Experimental results showed that the salting-out or structure-making ions, such as F(-) and SO4(2-), decreased the swelling power, solubility and transparency of both starches, but increased the gelatinization temperature, enthalpy, and syneresis, due to the tendency of these ions to protect the hydrogen bond links among starch molecules. On the other hand, the salting-in or structure-breaking ions, such as I(-) and SCN(-), exhibited the opposite effects...
January 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Radhiah Shukri, Yong-Cheng Shi
The objectives of this study were to determine the stability of cross-linked bonds of starch at different pH values and their effects on the pasting property of waxy maize starch cross-linked by 0.05% and 3% sodium trimetaphosphate/sodium tripolyphosphate. The cross-linked waxy maize starch (CLWMS) was slurried (40%, w/w) and subjected to alkali treatments of pH 9, 10, 11, and 12 at 40°C for 4h. The phosphorus in 3% CLWMS decreased with increasing pH and remained unchanged in 0.05% CLWMS for all pH treatments...
January 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Daniela Hegebarth, Christopher Buschhaus, May Wu, David Bird, Reinhard Jetter
To protect plants against biotic and abiotic stress, the waxy cuticle must coat all epidermis cells. Here, two independent approaches addressed whether cell-type-specific differences exist between wax compositions on trichomes and other epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, possibly with different protection roles. First, the total waxes from a mutant lacking trichomes (gl1) were compared to waxes from wild type and a trichome-rich mutant (cpc tcl1 etc1 etc3). In the stem wax, compounds with aliphatic chains longer than 31 carbons (derived from C32 precursors) increased in relative abundance in cpc tcl1 etc1 etc3 over gl1...
August 6, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Lucas Busta, Jessica M Budke, Reinhard Jetter
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Aerial surfaces of land plants are covered with a waxy cuticle to protect against water loss. The amount and composition of cuticular waxes on moss surfaces had rarely been investigated. Accordingly, the degree of similarity between moss and vascular plant waxes, and between maternal and offspring moss structure waxes is unknown. To resolve these issues, this study aimed at providing a comprehensive analysis of the waxes on the leafy gametophyte, gametophyte calyptra and sporophyte capsule of the moss Funaria hygrometrica METHODS: Waxes were extracted from the surfaces of leafy gametophytes, gametophyte calyptrae and sporophyte capsules, separated by gas chromatography, identified qualitatively with mass spectrometry, and quantified with flame ionization detection...
September 2016: Annals of Botany
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