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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911430/-clinical-presentations-of-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus-diagnosis-and-therapy
#1
G M Chernakova, E A Kleshcheva, T B Semenova
: Approximately a quarter of the world's population at some point in life is at risk of developing shingles (Herpes Zoster). In 10-20% of cases the first branch of the trigeminal nerve gets involved (Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus, HZO). Ophthalmic complications of HZO are able to cause a significant reduction in visual function. AIM: To study and summarize clinical features of HZO (including the rate of complications and their nature) and to determine the relationship between clinical and laboratory data from these patients...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911325/autonomic-nervous-system-dysfunctions-as-a-basis-for-a-predictive-model-of-risk-of%C3%A2-neurological-disorders-in-subjects-with%C3%A2-prior-history-of-traumatic-brain-injury-implications-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Lap Ho, Marc Legere, Tongbin Li, Samara Levine, Ke Hao, Breanna Valcarcel, Giulio M Pasinetti
Autonomic dysfunction is very common in patients with dementia, and its presence might also help in differential diagnosis among dementia subtypes. Various central nervous system structures affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are also implicated in the central autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation. For example, deficits in central cholinergic function in AD could likely lead to autonomic dysfunction. We recently developed a simple, readily applicable evaluation for monitoring ANS disturbances in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911238/managing-overlapping-surgery-an-analysis-of-1018-neurosurgical-and-spine-cases
#3
Jian Guan, Andrea A Brock, Michael Karsy, William T Couldwell, Meic H Schmidt, John R W Kestle, Randy L Jensen, Andrew T Dailey, Richard H Schmidt
OBJECTIVE Overlapping surgery-the performance of parts of 2 or more surgical procedures at the same time by a single lead surgeon-has recently come under intense scrutiny, although data on the effects of overlapping procedures on patient outcomes are lacking. The authors examined the impact of overlapping surgery on complication rates in neurosurgical patients. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective review of consecutive nonemergent neurosurgical procedures performed during the period from May 12, 2014, to May 12, 2015, by any of 5 senior neurosurgeons at a single institution who were authorized to schedule overlapping cases...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911235/robustness-of-the-neurological-prognostic-score-in-brain-metastasis-patients-treated-with-gamma-knife-radiosurgery
#4
Toru Serizawa, Yoshinori Higuchi, Osamu Nagano, Shinji Matsuda, Kyoko Aoyagi, Junichi Ono, Naokatsu Saeki, Yasuo Iwadate, Tatsuo Hirai, Shinya Takemoto, Yuta Shibamoto
OBJECTIVE The neurological prognostic score (NPS) was recently proposed as a means for predicting neurological outcomes, such as the preservation of neurological function and the prevention of neurological death, in brain metastasis patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). NPS consists of 2 groups: Group A patients were expected to have better neurological outcomes, and Group B patients were expected to have poorer outcomes. NPS robustness was tested in various situations. METHODS In total, 3040 patients with brain metastases that were treated with GKRS were analyzed...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910252/memory-performance-on-the-story-recall-test-and-prediction-of-cognitive-dysfunction-progression-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-dementia
#5
Jong-Hwan Park, Hyuntae Park, Sang Wuk Sohn, Sungjae Kim, Kyung Won Park
AIM: To determine the factors that influence diagnosis and differentiation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD) by comparing memory test results at baseline with those at 1-2-year follow up. METHODS: We consecutively recruited 23 healthy participants, 44 MCI patients and 27 patients with very mild AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorder Association criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease and Petersen's clinical diagnostic criteria...
December 1, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909399/a-subset-of-autism-associated-genes-regulate-the-structural-stability-of-neurons
#6
REVIEW
Yu-Chih Lin, Jeannine A Frei, Michaela B C Kilander, Wenjuan Shen, Gene J Blatt
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a range of neurological conditions that affect individuals' ability to communicate and interact with others. People with ASD often exhibit marked qualitative difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Alterations in neurite arborization and dendritic spine morphology, including size, shape, and number, are hallmarks of almost all neurological conditions, including ASD. As experimental evidence emerges in recent years, it becomes clear that although there is broad heterogeneity of identified autism risk genes, many of them converge into similar cellular pathways, including those regulating neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and spine stability, and synaptic plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908676/effect-of-selective-dorsal-rhizotomy-on-daily-care-and-comfort-in-non-walking-children-and-adolescents-with-severe-spasticity
#7
A I Buizer, P E M van Schie, E A M Bolster, W J van Ouwerkerk, R L Strijers, L A van de Pol, A Stadhouder, J G Becher, R J Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: In non-walking children with severe spasticity, daily care can be difficult and many patients suffer from pain. Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) reduces spasticity in the legs, and therefore has the potential to improve daily care and comfort. AIM: To examine effects of SDR on daily care and comfort in non-walking children with severe spasticity due to different underlying neurological conditions. METHODS: Medical history, changes in daily care and comfort and satisfaction with outcome were assessed retrospectively in non-walking children who underwent SDR in our center, with a mean follow-up of 1y 7m (range 11m-4y 3m)...
October 22, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907967/modern-approach-to-brain-death
#8
Panayiotis N Varelas, Ariane Lewis
People die either when their heart and respiration stop or when their brain irreversibly stops functioning. This latter mode of death by neurologic criteria (also called brain death) emerged after the development of ventilators and intensive care units in the late 1950s and 1960s. Brain death is universally accepted as a modern entity, but the complex process for declaring a patient brain dead is not uniformly followed across country and state lines or even hospital policies, creating unacceptable variability and risks for falsely pronouncing a patient dead...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907964/critical-care-neurology-perspective-on-delirium
#9
Matthew B Maas, Andrew M Naidech
The evidence linking delirium to poor outcomes after critical illness is compelling, including higher mortality, prolonged mechanical ventilation, longer length of intensive care unit stay, and long-term cognitive impairments. The attitude toward delirium in the neurologic community is shifting away from viewing it as an unmodifiable, inevitable consequence of severe illness to treating it is as a neurologic emergency, akin to seizures or encephalitis. Delirium, like other manifestations of critical illness encephalopathy, is an organ dysfunction syndrome...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906765/hemodynamic-disturbances-in-the-early-phase-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-studied-by-bedside-xenon-enhanced-ct
#10
Henrik Engquist, Anders Lewén, Tim Howells, Ulf Johnson, Elisabeth Ronne-Engström, Pelle Nilsson, Per Enblad, Elham Rostami
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms leading to neurological deterioration and the devastating course of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are still not well understood. Bedside xenon-enhanced computerized tomography (XeCT) enables measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during neurosurgical intensive care. In the present study, CBF characteristics in the early phase after severe SAH were explored and related to clinical characteristics and early clinical course outcome...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906739/posterior-vertebral-column-resection-with-intraoperative-manual-retraction-for-the-treatment-of-posttubercular-kyphosis-in-upper-thoracic-spine-or-cervicothoracic-junction
#11
Yuqiao Chen, Guohua Lü, Bing Wang, Lei Li, Lei Kuang
STUDY DESIGN: This is a case-series. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes of posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) for treatment of posttubercular kyphosis in upper thoracic spine and cervicothoracic junction (CTJ). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical management of severe posttubercular kyphosis in upper thoracic spine or CTJ is challenging. A new technique that combines PVCR and intraoperative manual traction in a single procedure, was developed to maximize the correction rate and minimize the risk of dural buckling and spinal cord injury...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906438/cholinesterase-inhibitors-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-as-alzheimer-s-disease-therapies-an-updated-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#12
C-H Wang, L-S Wang, N Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a major neurological disorder marked by an amyloid-beta plaque and neurofibrillary tau-tangle depositions in the brain. Cognitive dysfunction is the key manifestation of AD. In this study, we conducted an umbrella review of meta-analyses on the risk factors and therapeutics targeting cognitive impairment and AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed from January 2000-August, 2016, and screened systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that examined the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors in AD patients...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905967/alzheimer-s-and-other-dementias-in-canada-2011-to-2031-a-microsimulation-population-health-modeling-pohem-study-of-projected-prevalence-health-burden-health-services-and-caregiving-use
#13
Douglas G Manuel, Rochelle Garner, Philippe Finès, Christina Bancej, William Flanagan, Karen Tu, Kim Reimer, Larry W Chambers, Julie Bernier
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there is concern that increases in the prevalence of dementia will result in large demands for caregivers and supportive services that will be challenging to address. Previous dementia projections have either been simple extrapolations of prevalence or macrosimulations based on dementia incidence. METHODS: A population-based microsimulation model of Alzheimer's and related dementias (POHEM:Neurological) was created using Canadian demographic data, estimates of dementia incidence, health status (health-related quality of life and mortality risk), health care costs and informal caregiving use...
November 3, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905840/combining-cell-and-gene-therapy-in-an-effort-to-eradicate-hiv
#14
Thor A Wagner
More than 30 million people are infected with HIV, and HIV remains the fifth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically decreases mortality rate, but there are side effects, long-term toxicities, expenses, stigmas, and inconveniences associated with chronic treatment, and HIV-infected individuals on ART have an increased risk of malignancies, cardiovascular disease, neurologic disease, and shortened life expectancy. Therefore, a cure for HIV remains an important goal...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904983/vdbp-cyp27b1-and-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-gene-polymorphism-analyses-in-a-group-of-sicilian-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#15
L Agnello, C Scazzone, B Lo Sasso, C Bellia, G Bivona, S Realmuto, F Brighina, R Schillaci, P Ragonese, G Salemi, Marcello Ciaccio
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of central nervous system regarded as one of the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults. The exact etiology of MS is not yet known, although epidemiological data indicate that both genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure are involved. A poor vitamin D status has been proposed as the most attractive environmental factor. Several evidence have highlighted the importance of mutations in vitamin D-regulating genes for vitamin D status...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904568/meta-analysis-of-studies-comparing-adjuvant-dexamethasone-to-glycerol-to-improve-clinical-outcome-of-bacterial-meningitis
#16
REVIEW
Siavash Vaziri, Fiezollah Mansouri, Babak Sayad, Keyghobad Ghadiri, Elham Torkashvand, Mansour Rezaei, Farid Najafi, Mohsen Azizi
BACKGROUND: Neurological complications are a problematic factor in acute bacterial meningitis; hence, its prevention is the key to ensure the success of meningitis treatment. Glycerol and dexamethasone are both applied in this regard. Oral glycerol is an appropriate alternative instead of intravenous dexamethasone because it does not have problems related to intravenous injection, the high cost, and drug complications. The main objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adjuvant dexamethasone versus glycerol in order to improve the clinical outcome of bacterial meningitis...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903722/adenosine-kinase-deficiency-in-the-brain-results-in-maladaptive-synaptic-plasticity
#17
Ursula S Sandau, Mariana Colino-Oliveira, Abbie Jones, Bounmy Saleumvong, Shayla Q Coffman, Long Liu, Catarina Miranda-Lourenço, Cátia Palminha, Vânia L Batalha, Yiming Xu, Yuqing Huo, Maria J Diógenes, Ana M Sebastião, Detlev Boison
: Adenosine kinase (ADK) deficiency in human patients (OMIM:614300) disrupts the methionine cycle and triggers hypermethioninemia, hepatic encephalopathy, cognitive impairment, and seizures. To identify whether this neurological phenotype is intrinsically based on ADK deficiency in the brain or if it is secondary to liver dysfunction, we generated a mouse model with a brain-wide deletion of ADK by introducing a Nestin-Cre transgene into a line of conditional ADK deficient Adk(fl/fl) mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903187/stereotactic-diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-for-gamma-knife-radiosurgery
#18
Cormac G Gavin, H Ian Sabin
OBJECTIVE The integration of modern neuroimaging into treatment planning has increased the therapeutic potential and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery. The authors report their method of integrating stereotactic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography into conventional treatment planning for Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique and to address some of the technical limitations of previously reported techniques. METHODS Twenty patients who underwent GKRS composed the study cohort...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903180/results-of-volume-staged-fractionated-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-large-complex-arteriovenous-malformations-obliteration-rates-and-clinical-outcomes-of-an-evolving-treatment-paradigm
#19
Alberto Franzin, Pietro Panni, Giorgio Spatola, Antonella Del Vecchio, Alberto L Gallotti, Carmen R Gigliotti, Andrea Cavalli, Carmine A Donofrio, Pietro Mortini
OBJECTIVE There are few reported series regarding volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of large, complex, cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The object of this study was to report the results of using volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery for patients affected by large and complex AVMs. METHODS Data from 20 patients with large AVMs were prospectively included in the authors' AVM database between 2004 and 2012. A staging strategy was used when treating lesion volumes larger than 10 cm(3)...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903179/gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-from-pulmonary-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-a-japanese-multi-institutional-cooperative-study-jlgk1401
#20
Takuya Kawabe, Masaaki Yamamoto, Yasunori Sato, Shoji Yomo, Takeshi Kondoh, Osamu Nagano, Toru Serizawa, Takahiko Tsugawa, Hisayo Okamoto, Atsuya Akabane, Kazuyasu Aita, Manabu Sato, Hidefumi Jokura, Jun Kawagishi, Takashi Shuto, Hideya Kawai, Akihito Moriki, Hiroyuki Kenai, Yoshiyasu Iwai, Masazumi Gondo, Toshinori Hasegawa, Soichiro Yasuda, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Yasushi Nagatomo, Shinya Watanabe, Naoya Hashimoto
OBJECTIVE In 1999, the World Health Organization categorized large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung as a variant of large cell carcinoma, and LCNEC now accounts for 3% of all lung cancers. Although LCNEC is categorized among the non-small cell lung cancers, its biological behavior has recently been suggested to be very similar to that of a small cell pulmonary malignancy. The clinical outcome for patients with LCNEC is generally poor, and the optimal treatment for this malignancy has not yet been established...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
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