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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228268/er-stress-protein-chop-mediates-insulin-resistance-by-modulating-adipose-tissue-macrophage-polarity
#1
Toru Suzuki, Junhong Gao, Yasushi Ishigaki, Keiichi Kondo, Shojiro Sawada, Tomohito Izumi, Kenji Uno, Keizo Kaneko, Sohei Tsukita, Kei Takahashi, Atsuko Asao, Naoto Ishii, Junta Imai, Tetsuya Yamada, Seiichi Oyadomari, Hideki Katagiri
Obesity represents chronic inflammatory states promoted by pro-inflammatory M1-macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue (WAT), thereby inducing insulin resistance. Herein, we demonstrate the importance of an ER stress protein, CHOP, in determining adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarity and systemic insulin sensitivity. A high-fat diet (HFD) enhances ER stress with CHOP upregulation in adipocytes. CHOP deficiency prevents HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance with ATM M2 predomination and Th2 cytokine upregulation in WAT...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224045/dj-1-maintains-energy-and-glucose-homeostasis-by-regulating-the-function-of-brown-adipose-tissue
#2
Rong Wu, Xiao-Meng Liu, Jian-Guang Sun, Hong Chen, Jun Ma, Meng Dong, Shengyi Peng, Ji-Qiu Wang, Jian-Qing Ding, Dong-Hao Li, John R Speakman, Guang Ning, Wanzhu Jin, Zengqiang Yuan
DJ-1 protein is involved in multiple physiological processes, including Parkinson's disease. However, the role of DJ-1 in the metabolism is largely unknown. Here we found that DJ-1 maintained energy balance and glucose homeostasisvia regulating brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. DJ-1-deficient mice reduced body mass, increased energy expenditure and improved insulin sensitivity. DJ-1 deletion also resisted high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obesity and insulin resistance. Accordingly, DJ-1 transgene triggered autonomous obesity and glucose intolerance...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220319/cfd-assessment-of-the-effect-of-convective-mass-transport-on-the-intracellular-clearance-of-intracellular-triglycerides-in-macrosteatotic-hepatocytes
#3
Gabriel Yarmush, Lucas Santos, Joshua Yarmush, Srivathsan Koundinyan, Mubasher Saleem, Nir I Nativ, Martin L Yarmush, Francois Berthiaume, Timothy J Maguire, Chris Guaghan
Donor livers available to transplant for patients with end-stage liver disease are in severe shortage. One possible avenue to expand the donor pool is to recondition livers that would be otherwise discarded due to excessive fat content. Severely steatotic livers (also known as fatty livers) are highly susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion injury and as a result, primary liver non-function post-transplantation. Prior studies in isolated perfused rat livers suggest that "defatting" may be possible in a timeframe of a few hours; thus, it is conceivable that fatty liver grafts could be recovered by machine perfusion to clear stored fat from the organ prior to transplantation...
February 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218263/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-emerging-driving-force-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Giovanni Targher, Christopher D Byrne
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by an accumulation of fat in the liver; the condition can progress over time to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing rapidly owing to the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and NAFLD has been predicted to become the most important indication for liver transplantation over the next decade. It is now increasingly clear that NAFLD not only affects the liver but can also increase the risk of developing extra-hepatic diseases, including T2DM, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD), which have a considerable impact on health-care resources...
February 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215519/repeatability-of-computerized-tomography-based-anthropomorphic-measurements-of-frailty-in-patients-with-pulmonary-fibrosis-undergoing-lung-transplantation
#5
Taylor McClellan, Brian C Allen, Matthew Kappus, Lubna Bhatti, Randa A Dafalla, Laurie D Snyder, Mustafa R Bashir
PURPOSE: To determine interreader and intrareader repeatability and correlations among measurements of computerized tomography-based anthropomorphic measurements in patients with pulmonary fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation. METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study of 23 randomly selected subjects (19 male and 4 female; median age = 69 years; range: 66-77 years) with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing pulmonary transplantation, who had also undergone preoperative thoracoabdominal computerized tomography...
December 29, 2016: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210976/regenerative-medicine-for-parkinson-s-disease-using-differentiated-nerve-cells-derived-from-human-buccal-fat-pad-stem-cells
#6
Haruka Takahashi, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Akira Tanaka
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of human adipose stem cells derived from the buccal fat pad (hBFP-ASCs) for nerve regeneration. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons. PD is a candidate disease for cell replacement therapy because it has no fundamental therapeutic methods. We examined the properties of neural-related cells induced from hBFP-ASCs as a cell source for PD treatment. hBFP-ASCs were cultured in neurogenic differentiation medium for about 2 weeks...
February 16, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209562/vinexin-%C3%AE-ablation-inhibits-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice-by-inactivating-the-akt-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inflammatory-axis
#7
Hongjing Guan, Wen-Lin Cheng, Junhong Guo, Meng-Lin Chao, Yan Zhang, Jun Gong, Xue-Yong Zhu, Zhi-Gang She, Zan Huang, Hongliang Li
BACKGROUND: Vinexin β is a novel adaptor protein that regulates cellular adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization, signal transduction, and transcription; however, the exact role that vinexin β plays in atherosclerosis remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunoblot analysis showed that vinexin β expression is upregulated in the atherosclerotic lesions of both patients with coronary heart disease and hyperlipemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and is primarily localized in macrophages indicated by immunofluorescence staining...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199845/host-genotype-and-gut-microbiome-modulate-insulin-secretion-and-diet-induced-metabolic-phenotypes
#8
Julia H Kreznar, Mark P Keller, Lindsay L Traeger, Mary E Rabaglia, Kathryn L Schueler, Donald S Stapleton, Wen Zhao, Eugenio I Vivas, Brian S Yandell, Aimee Teo Broman, Bruno Hagenbuch, Alan D Attie, Federico E Rey
Genetic variation drives phenotypic diversity and influences the predisposition to metabolic disease. Here, we characterize the metabolic phenotypes of eight genetically distinct inbred mouse strains in response to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. We found significant variation in diabetes-related phenotypes and gut microbiota composition among the different mouse strains in response to the dietary challenge and identified taxa associated with these traits. Follow-up microbiota transplant experiments showed that altering the composition of the gut microbiota modifies strain-specific susceptibility to diet-induced metabolic disease...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199473/response-to-comments-on-the-effects-of-fat-harvesting-and-preparation-air-exposure-obesity-and-stem-cell-enrichment-on-adipocyte-viability-prior-to-graft-transplantation
#9
Rodolfo Cucchiani, Luis Corrales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199469/comments-on-the-effects-of-fat-harvesting-and-preparation-air-exposure-obesity-and-stem-cell-enrichment-on-adipocyte-viability-prior-to-graft-transplantation
#10
Chenglong Wang, Jie Luan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175966/literature-review-to-optimize-the-autologous-fat-transplantation-procedure-and-recent-technologies-to-improve-graft-viability-and-overall-outcome-a-systematic-and-retrospective-analytic-approach
#11
REVIEW
Yoong Hoon Shim, Ru Hong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Investigation and evaluation of the current methods and steps of autologous fat transplantation to optimize the viability of fat grafts and procedure outcome in quest of a more standardized protocol. METHODS: A thorough literature search was performed across the CNKI, Wan Fang, PubMed, Ovid and EMBASE databases from the year 1970 to December 2014, collecting and classifying all of the autologous fat transplantation-related reports and articles, and after screening, a critical retrospective analysis was performed on the included data...
February 7, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169910/long-term-outcome-of-microautologous-fat-transplantation-to-correct-temporal-depression
#12
Su-Shin Lee, Yu-Hao Huang, Tsung-Yin Lin, Chih-Kang Chou, Hidenobu Takahashi, Chung-Sheng Lai, Sin-Daw Lin, Tsai-Ming Lin
OBJECTIVE: Sunken temporal fossa appears oftentimes in Asians and resembles bad fortune that people wish to change. Numerous techniques and materials have been applied clinically for augmenting the sunken temporal fossa with variable results. The microautologous fat transplantation (MAFT) technique proposed by Lin et al in 2006 has demonstrated favorable results in facial rejuvenation. In the present study, the authors applied the MAFT technique with an innovative instrument in sunken temporal fossa and reported its results...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160288/associations-of-high-dose-melphalan-pharmacokinetics-and-outcomes-in-the-setting-of-a-randomized-cryotherapy-trial
#13
Yu Kyoung Cho, Douglas W Sborov, Misty Lamprecht, Junan Li, Jiang Wang, Erinn M Hade, Yue Gao, Karen Tackett, Nita Williams, Don M Benson, Yvonne A Efebera, Ashley E Rosko, Steven M Devine, Ming Poi, Craig C Hofmeister, Mitch A Phelps
High dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell transplantation remains standard of care for eligible patients with multiple myeloma, but disease response and toxicity, including severe mucositis, varies among patients. Our randomized trial investigated duration of cryotherapy (2 and 6 hours) for reduction of mucositis prevalence and severity and explored factors associated with variability in pharmacokinetics and outcomes from melphalan therapy. The results demonstrate 2-hour is at least as effective as 6-hour cryotherapy in decreasing severe mucositis...
February 4, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129776/administration-of-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-restores-liver-regeneration-and-improves-liver-function-in-obese-mice-with-hepatic-steatosis-after-partial-hepatectomy
#14
Fernando Ezquer, Javiera Bahamonde, Ya-Lin Huang, Marcelo Ezquer
BACKGROUND: The liver has the remarkable capacity to regenerate in order to compensate for lost or damaged hepatic tissue. However, pre-existing pathological abnormalities, such as hepatic steatosis (HS), inhibits the endogenous regenerative process, becoming an obstacle for liver surgery and living donor transplantation. Recent evidence indicates that multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) administration can improve hepatic function and increase the potential for liver regeneration in patients with liver damage...
January 28, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128224/pyrintegrin-induces-soft-tissue-formation-by-transplanted-or-endogenous-cells
#15
Bhranti S Shah, Mo Chen, Takahiro Suzuki, Mildred Embree, Kimi Kong, Chang H Lee, Ling He, Lusai Xiang, Jeffrey A Ahn, Sheng Ding, Jeremy J Mao
Focal adipose deficiency, such as lipoatrophy, lumpectomy or facial trauma, is a formidable challenge in reconstructive medicine, and yet scarcely investigated in experimental studies. Here, we report that Pyrintegrin (Ptn), a 2,4-disubstituted pyrimidine known to promote embryonic stem cells survival, is robustly adipogenic and induces postnatal adipose tissue formation in vivo of transplanted adipose stem/progenitor cells (ASCs) and recruited endogenous cells. In vitro, Ptn stimulated human adipose tissue derived ASCs to differentiate into lipid-laden adipocytes by upregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα), with differentiated cells increasingly secreting adiponectin, leptin, glycerol and total triglycerides...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121866/daily-suction-provided-by-external-volume-expansion-inducing-regeneration-of-grafted-fat-in-a-murine-model
#16
Yuan Ye, Yunjun Liao, Feng Lu, Jianhua Gao
BACKGROUND: Fat grafting has variable and sometimes poor outcomes, and therefore new methods are needed. Multiple studies have demonstrated the excellent performance of external volume expansion and focused only on preexpansion with emphasis on the recipient. METHODS: Two mouse models (a suction model and a fat-exchange transplantation model) were established to investigate changes in the origins and biological behaviors of regeneration-related cells in grafted fat under daily suction provided by external volume expansion...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112572/rna-expression-profiling-reveal-differentially-regulated-growth-factor-and-receptor-expression-in-redirected-cancer-cells
#17
Hannah S Schmucker, Jang Pyo Park, Marie-May Coissieux, Mohamed Bentires-Alj, F Alex Feltus, Brian Booth
Tumorigenic cells can be redirected to adopt a normal phenotype when transplanted into cleared mammary fat pads of juvenile female mice in specific ratios with normal epithelial cells. The redirected tumorigenic cells enter stem cell niches and provide progeny that differentiate into all mammary epithelial subtypes. We have developed an in vitro model that mimics the in vivo phenomenon. The shift in phenotype to redirection should be accomplished through a return to a normal gene expression state. To measure this shift we interrogated the transcriptome of various in vitro model states in search for casual genes...
January 23, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109835/gut-microbiota-a-player-in-aging-and-a-target-for-anti-aging-intervention
#18
REVIEW
Alexander M Vaiserman, Alexander K Koliada, Francesco Marotta
Aging-associated alterations in composition, diversity and functional features of intestinal microbiota are well-described in the modern literature. They are suggested to be caused by an age-related decline in immune system functioning (immunosenescence) and a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which accompany many aging-associated pathologies. The microbiota-targeted dietary and probiotic interventions have been shown to favorably affect the host health and aging by an enhancement of antioxidant activity, improving immune homeostasis, suppression of chronic inflammation, regulation of fat deposition and metabolism and prevention of insulin resistance...
January 18, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108956/post-implantation-fate-of-adipogenic-induced-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-type-i-collagen-scaffold-in-a-rat-model
#19
Balu Venugopal, Francis B Fernandez, V S Harikrishnan, Annie John
Regenerative medicine via its application in soft tissue reconstruction through novel methods in adipose tissue engineering (ATE) has gained remarkable attention and investment despite simultaneous reports on clinical incidence of graft resorption and impaired vascularization. The underlying malaise here once identified may play a critical role in optimizing implant function. Our work attempts to determine the fate of donor cells and the implant in recipient micro environment using adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) on a type I collagen sponge, an established scaffold for ATE...
February 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108216/the-phenomenon-of-atherosclerosis-reversal-and-regression-lessons-from-animal-models
#20
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Veronika A Myasoedova, Victor V Revin, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
Studies in non-rodent and murine models showed that atherosclerosis can be reversed. Atherosclerosis progression induced by high-fat or cholesterol-rich diet can be reduced and reversed to plaque regression after switching to a normal diet or through administration of lipid-lowering agents. The similar process should exist in humans after implementation of lipid-lowering therapy and as a result of targeting of small rupture-prone plaques that are major contributors for acute atherosclerotic complications. Lowering of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the activation of reverse cholesterol transport lead to a decline in foam cell content, to the depletion of plaque lipid reservoirs, a decrease in lesional macrophage numbers through the activation of macrophage emigration and, probably, apoptosis, dampening plaque inflammation, and the induction of anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in clearance of the necrotic core and plaque healing...
January 17, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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