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Elizabeth Bevan, Scott Whiting, Tony Tucker, Michael Guinea, Andrew Raith, Ryan Douglas
Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1...
2018: PloS One
Hanne Heszlein-Lossius, Yahya Al-Borno, Samar Shaqoura, Nashwa Skaik, Lasse Melvær Giil, Mads Gilbert
BACKGROUND: During four separate Israeli military attacks on Gaza (2006, 2009, 2012, and 2014), about 4000 Palestinians were killed and more than 17 000 injured (412 killed and 1264 injured in 2006; 1383 killed and more than 5300 injured in 2009; 130 killed and 1399 injured in 2012; and 2251 killed and 11 231 injured in 2014). An unknown number of people had traumatic amputations of one or more extremities. Use of unmanned Israeli drones for surveillance and armed attacks on Gaza was evident, but exact figures on numbers of drone strikes on Gaza are not available...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Nicole Spitzer, Jasleen K Singh
Drones are increasingly being used by children and adults recreationally and commercially. The propeller blades when spinning at high speeds may cause serious harm to the eye and orbital structures. We report 2 cases of injuries to the eye and orbital structures caused by drones.
March 13, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Okan Erat, Werner Alexander Isop, Denis Kalkofen, Dieter Schmalstieg
Drones allow exploring dangerous or impassable areas safely from a distant point of view. However, flight control from an egocentric view in narrow or constrained environments can be challenging. Arguably, an exocentric view would afford a better overview and, thus, more intuitive flight control of the drone. Unfortunately, such an exocentric view is unavailable when exploring indoor environments. This paper investigates the potential of drone-augmented human vision, i.e., of exploring the environment and controlling the drone indirectly from an exocentric viewpoint...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Ali Bin Nadeem, Ysa Chandna
The majority of the Pakistani public has known little of the unmanned aerial vehicles, also known for their onomatopoeically inspired name "drones," except the fact that it regularly rains Hellfire missiles in Pakistan, claiming the lives of many innocent Pakistanis settled in the western provinces. In actuality, in addition to their destructive capacities, these remotely piloted vehicles have been used since the turn of the century in a variety of live-saving and risk-reducing roles. This research article primarily addresses the third stage of Emergency management-response, with Pakistan being the primary region of research...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Fred Sigernes, Mikko Syrjäsuo, Rune Storvold, João Fortuna, Mariusz Eivind Grøtte, Tor Arne Johansen
This study describes rapid prototype construction of small and lightweight push broom Hyper Spectral Imagers (HSI). The dispersive element housings are printed by a thermoplastic 3D printer combined with S-mount optical components and commercial off-the-shelf camera heads. Four models with a mass less than 200 g are presented with a spectral range in the visible to the near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The bandpass is in the range from 1.4 - 5 nm. Three test experiments with motorized gimbals to stabilize attitude show that the instruments are capable of push broom spectral imaging from various platforms, including airborne drone to handheld operations...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Joshuah K Stolaroff, Constantine Samaras, Emma R O'Neill, Alia Lubers, Alexandra S Mitchell, Daniel Ceperley
In the original version of this Article, the first sentence of the sixth paragraph of the "Comparing emissions" section, the Results originally incorrectly read as 'In the base case, delivery of a small (0.5 kg) package with the small quadrotor drone has lower impacts than delivery by diesel truck, ranging from a 59% reduction in GHGs in California, to a 17% reduction in Missouri'. The correct version states '54%' instead of '59%' and '23%' instead of '17%'.The fourth sentence of the same paragraph originally incorrectly read as 'In the base case, delivery of a medium-sized (8 kg) package has 17% lower GHGs than delivery by truck in California, is about equivalent to delivery trucks for the U...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Kongmeng Liew, PerMagnus Lindborg, Ruth Rodrigues, Suzy J Styles
Noise has become integral to electroacoustic music aesthetics. In this paper, we define noise as sound that is high in auditory roughness, and examine its effect on cross-modal mapping between sound and visual shape in participants. In order to preserve the ecological validity of contemporary music aesthetics, we developed Rama , a novel interface, for presenting experimentally controlled blocks of electronically generated sounds that varied systematically in roughness, and actively collected data from audience interaction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kunj Bhatt, Ali Pourmand, Neal Sikka
INTRODUCTION: Advances in technology have revolutionized the medical field and changed the way healthcare is delivered. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are the next wave of technological advancements that have the potential to make a huge splash in clinical medicine. UAVs, originally developed for military use, are making their way into the public and private sector. Because they can be flown autonomously and can reach almost any geographical location, the significance of UAVs are becoming increasingly apparent in the medical field...
February 28, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
David B Resnik, Kevin C Elliott
Researchers have used drones to track wildlife populations, monitor forest fires, map glaciers, and measure air pollution but have only begun to consider how to use these unmanned aerial vehicles to study human beings. The potential use of drones to study public gatherings or other human activities raises novel issues of privacy, confidentiality, and consent, which this article explores in depth. It argues that drone research could fall into several different categories: non-human subjects research (HSR), exempt HSR, or non-exempt HSR...
February 27, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
P Trocha, M Karpov, D Ganin, M H P Pfeiffer, A Kordts, S Wolf, J Krockenberger, P Marin-Palomo, C Weimann, S Randel, W Freude, T J Kippenberg, C Koos
Light detection and ranging is widely used in science and industry. Over the past decade, optical frequency combs were shown to offer advantages in optical ranging, enabling fast distance acquisition with high accuracy. Driven by emerging high-volume applications such as industrial sensing, drone navigation, or autonomous driving, there is now a growing demand for compact ranging systems. Here, we show that soliton Kerr comb generation in integrated silicon nitride microresonators provides a route to high-performance chip-scale ranging systems...
February 23, 2018: Science
Alexander Hart, Peter R Chai, Matthew K Griswold, Jeffrey T Lai, Edward W Boyer, John Broach
OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand the acceptability and perceived utility of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology to Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) scene management. DESIGN: Qualitative questionnaires regarding the ease of operation, perceived usefulness, and training time to operate UAVs were administered to Emergency Medical Technicians (n = 15). SETTING: A Single Urban New England Academic Tertiary Care Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Front-line emergency medical service (EMS) providers and senior EMS personnel in Incident Commander roles...
October 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Yi Zhang, Richou Han
Varroa destructor mites express strong avoidance of the Apis cerana worker brood in the field. The molecular mechanism for this phenomenon remains unknown. We identified a Varroa toxic protein (VTP), which exhibited toxic activity toward A. cerana worker larvae, in the saliva of these mites, and expressed VTP in an Escherichia coli system. We further demonstrated that recombinant VTP killed A. cerana worker larvae and pupae in the absence of deformed-wing virus (DWV) but was not toxic to A. cerana worker adults and drones...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mungyu Bae, Seungho Yoo, Jongtack Jung, Seongjoon Park, Kangho Kim, Joon Yeop Lee Kim, Hwangnam Kim
Vast applications and services have been enabled as the number of mobile or sensing devices with communication capabilities has grown. However, managing the devices, integrating networks or combining services across different networks has become a new problem since each network is not directly connected via back-end core networks or servers. The issue is and has been discussed especially in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN). In such systems, sensors and actuators are tightly coupled, so when an independent WSAN needs to collaborate with other networks, it is difficult to adequately combine them into an integrated infrastructure...
February 19, 2018: Sensors
Juan Sandino, Felipe Gonzalez, Kerrie Mengersen, Kevin J Gaston
The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and spinifex (Triodia sp...
February 16, 2018: Sensors
José Manuel Fernández-Guisuraga, Enoc Sanz-Ablanedo, Susana Suárez-Seoane, Leonor Calvo
This study evaluated the opportunities and challenges of using drones to obtain multispectral orthomosaics at ultra-high resolution that could be useful for monitoring large and heterogeneous burned areas. We conducted a survey using an octocopter equipped with a Parrot SEQUOIA multispectral camera in a 3000 ha framework located within the perimeter of a megafire in Spain. We assessed the quality of both the camera raw imagery and the multispectral orthomosaic obtained, as well as the required processing capability...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
Joshuah K Stolaroff, Constantine Samaras, Emma R O'Neill, Alia Lubers, Alexandra S Mitchell, Daniel Ceperley
The use of automated, unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to deliver commercial packages is poised to become a new industry, significantly shifting energy use in the freight sector. Here we find the current practical range of multi-copters to be about 4 km with current battery technology, requiring a new network of urban warehouses or waystations as support. We show that, although drones consume less energy per package-km than delivery trucks, the additional warehouse energy required and the longer distances traveled by drones per package greatly increase the life-cycle impacts...
February 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Marco Beyer, Jürgen Junk, Michael Eickermann, Antoine Clermont, François Kraus, Carlo Georges, Andreas Reichart, Lucien Hoffmann
Sets of treatments that were applied against varroa mites in the Luxembourgish beekeeper community were surveyed annually with a questionnaire between the winters 2010/11 and 2014/15. The average temperature and the precipitation sum of the month, when the respective varroa control method was applied were considered as co-variables when evaluating the efficacy of varroa control regimes. Success or failure of control regimes was evaluated based on the percentage of colonies lost per apiary in the winter following the treatment(s)...
February 1, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Beibei Li, Li Hou, Dan Zhu, Xilian Xu, Shiheng An, Xianhui Wang
DNA methylation has been proposed to play critical roles in caste fate and behavioral plasticity in bumblebees, however, there is little information on its regulatory mechanisms. Here, we identified six important genes mediating the modification of DNA methylation and determined their expression patterns in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. There is a complete functional DNA methylation system, including four DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1a, DNMT1b, DNMT2, and DNMT3), a DNA demethylase (Ten-eleven translocation), and a methyl-CpG-binding domain protein in B...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Akira A Wong Sato, Makoto Kato
Explosive pollen release is a mechanism by some angiosperms that serves to attach pollen to a pollinator's body. It is usually adopted by species with zygomorphic tubular flowers and pollinated by birds and bees. The tree genus Meliosma (Sabiaceae, Proteales) has unique disc-like flowers that are externally actinomorphic, but internally zygomorphic, and release pollen explosively. To elucidate the adaptive significance of explosive pollen release, we observed flowering behavior, the breeding system, and pollinator visits to flowers of the Japanese species Meliosma tenuis in a temperate forest...
February 2, 2018: Plant Biology
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