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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113104/super-resolution-of-plant-disease-images-for-the-acceleration-of-image-based-phenotyping-and-vigor-diagnosis-in-agriculture
#1
Kyosuke Yamamoto, Takashi Togami, Norio Yamaguchi
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or drones) are a very promising branch of technology, and they have been utilized in agriculture-in cooperation with image processing technologies-for phenotyping and vigor diagnosis. One of the problems in the utilization of UAVs for agricultural purposes is the limitation in flight time. It is necessary to fly at a high altitude to capture the maximum number of plants in the limited time available, but this reduces the spatial resolution of the captured images. In this study, we applied a super-resolution method to the low-resolution images of tomato diseases to recover detailed appearances, such as lesions on plant organs...
November 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110379/a-comparison-of-honeybee-apis-mellifera-queen-worker-and-drone-larvae-by-rna-seq
#2
Xu-Jiang He, Wu-Jun Jiang, Mi Zhou, Andrew B Barron, Zhi-Jiang Zeng
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) have haplodiploid sex determination: males develop from unfertilized eggs and females develop from fertilized ones. The differences in larval food also determine the development of females. Here we compared the total somatic gene expression profiles of 2-day and 4-day-old drone, queen and worker larvae by RNA-Seq. The results from a co-expression network analysis on all expressed genes showed that 2-day-old drone and worker larvae were closer in gene expression profiles than 2-day-old queen larvae...
November 6, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101908/using-drone-mounted-cameras-for-on-site-body-documentation-3d-mapping-and-active-survey
#3
Petra Urbanová, Mikoláš Jurda, Tomáš Vojtíšek, Jan Krajsa
Recent advances in unmanned aerial technology have substantially lowered the cost associated with aerial imagery. As a result, forensic practitioners are today presented with easy low-cost access to aerial photographs at remote locations. The present paper aims to explore boundaries in which the low-end drone technology can operate as professional crime scene equipment, and to test the prospects of aerial 3D modeling in the forensic context. The study was based on recent forensic cases of falls from height admitted for postmortem examinations...
October 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099087/multipass-target-search-in-natural-environments
#4
Michael J Kuhlman, Michael W Otte, Donald Sofge, Satyandra K Gupta
Consider a disaster scenario where search and rescue workers must search difficult to access buildings during an earthquake or flood. Often, finding survivors a few hours sooner results in a dramatic increase in saved lives, suggesting the use of drones for expedient rescue operations. Entropy can be used to quantify the generation and resolution of uncertainty. When searching for targets, maximizing mutual information of future sensor observations will minimize expected target location uncertainty by minimizing the entropy of the future estimate...
November 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090579/polyhwg-3d-printed-substrate-integrated-hollow-waveguides-for-mid-infrared-gas-sensing
#5
Robert Stach, Julian Haas, Erhan Tütüncü, Sven Daboss, Christine Kranz, Boris Mizaikoff
Gas analysis via mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic techniques has gained significance due to its inherent molecular selectivity and sensitivity probing pronounced vibrational, rotational, and roto-vibrational modes. In addition, MIR gas sensors are suitable for real-time monitoring in a wide variety of sensing scenarios. Our research team has recently introduced so-called substrate-integrated hollow waveguides (iHWGs) fabricated by precision milling, which have been demonstrated to be useful in online process monitoring, environmental sensing, and exhaled breath analysis especially if low sample volumes (i...
November 13, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081605/robot-wars-us-empire-and-geopolitics-in-the-robotic-age
#6
Ian Gr Shaw
How will the robot age transform warfare? What geopolitical futures are being imagined by the US military? This article constructs a robotic futurology to examine these crucial questions. Its central concern is how robots - driven by leaps in artificial intelligence and swarming - are rewiring the spaces and logics of US empire, warfare, and geopolitics. The article begins by building a more-than-human geopolitics to de-center the role of humans in conflict and foreground a worldly understanding of robots. The article then analyzes the idea of US empire, before speculating upon how and why robots are materializing new forms of proxy war...
October 2017: Secur Dialogue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078072/development-of-a-lane-change-risk-index-using-vehicle-trajectory-data
#7
Hyunjin Park, Cheol Oh, Jaepil Moon, Seongho Kim
Surrogate safety measures (SSMs) have been widely used to evaluate crash potential, which is fundamental for the development of effective safety countermeasures. Unlike existing SSMs, which are mainly focused on the evaluation of longitudinal vehicle maneuvering leading to rear-end crashes, this study proposes a new method for estimating crash risk while a subject vehicle changes lanes, referred to as the lane change risk index (LCRI). A novel feature of the proposed methodology is its incorporation of the amount of exposure time to potential crash and the expected crash severity level by applying a fault tree analysis (FTA) to the evaluation framework...
October 24, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059234/neonicotinoid-pesticides-can-reduce-honeybee-colony-genetic-diversity
#8
Nadège Forfert, Aline Troxler, Gina Retschnig, Laurent Gauthier, Lars Straub, Robin F A Moritz, Peter Neumann, Geoffrey R Williams
Neonicotinoid insecticides can cause a variety of adverse sub-lethal effects in bees. In social species such as the honeybee, Apis mellifera, queens are essential for reproduction and colony functioning. Therefore, any negative effect of these agricultural chemicals on the mating success of queens may have serious consequences for the fitness of the entire colony. Queens were exposed to the common neonicotinoid pesticides thiamethoxam and clothianidin during their developmental stage. After mating, their spermathecae were dissected to count the number of stored spermatozoa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051969/-use-of-unmanned-drones-to-deliver-an-automated-external-defibrillator-for-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#9
K Fink, B Schmid, H-J Busch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051619/person-identification-from-aerial-footage-by-a-remote-controlled-drone
#10
Markus Bindemann, Matthew C Fysh, Sophie S K Sage, Kristina Douglas, Hannah M Tummon
Remote-controlled aerial drones (or unmanned aerial vehicles; UAVs) are employed for surveillance by the military and police, which suggests that drone-captured footage might provide sufficient information for person identification. This study demonstrates that person identification from drone-captured images is poor when targets are unfamiliar (Experiment 1), when targets are familiar and the number of possible identities is restricted by context (Experiment 2), and when moving footage is employed (Experiment 3)...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035869/varroa-destructor-induces-changes-in-the-expression-of-immunity-related-genes-during-the-development-of-apis-mellifera-worker-and-drone-broods
#11
Ewa A Zaobidna, Krystyna Żółtowska, Elżbieta Łopieńska-Biernat
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has emerged as the major pest of honeybees. Despite extensive research efforts, the pathogenesis of varroosis has not been fully explained. Earlier studies suggested that V. destructor infestation leads to the suppression of the host's immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the immune responses of 14 genes in the Toll signal transduction pathways, including effector genes of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), in developing Apis mellifera workers and drones infested with V...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034331/extensive-core-microbiome-in-drone-captured-whale-blow-supports-a-framework-for-health-monitoring
#12
Amy Apprill, Carolyn A Miller, Michael J Moore, John W Durban, Holly Fearnbach, Lance G Barrett-Lennard
The pulmonary system is a common site for bacterial infections in cetaceans, but very little is known about their respiratory microbiome. We used a small, unmanned hexacopter to collect exhaled breath condensate (blow) from two geographically distinct populations of apparently healthy humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), sampled in the Massachusetts coastal waters off Cape Cod (n = 17) and coastal waters around Vancouver Island (n = 9). Bacterial and archaeal small-subunit rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced from blow samples, including many of sparse volume, as well as seawater and other controls, to characterize the associated microbial community...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021803/uav-based-thermal-imaging-for-high-throughput-field-phenotyping-of-black-poplar-response-to-drought
#13
Riccardo Ludovisi, Flavia Tauro, Riccardo Salvati, Sacha Khoury, Giuseppe Mugnozza Scarascia, Antoine Harfouche
Poplars are fast-growing, high-yielding forest tree species, whose cultivation as second-generation biofuel crops is of increasing interest and can efficiently meet emission reduction goals. Yet, breeding elite poplar trees for drought resistance remains a major challenge. Worldwide breeding programs are largely focused on intra/interspecific hybridization, whereby Populus nigra L. is a fundamental parental pool. While high-throughput genotyping has resulted in unprecedented capabilities to rapidly decode complex genetic architecture of plant stress resistance, linking genomics to phenomics is hindered by technically challenging phenotyping...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016811/drone-transport-of-chemistry-and-hematology-samples-over-long-distances
#14
Timothy K Amukele, James Hernandez, Christine L H Snozek, Ryan G Wyatt, Matthew Douglas, Richard Amini, Jeff Street
Objectives: We addressed the stability of biological samples in prolonged drone flights by obtaining paired chemistry and hematology samples from 21 adult volunteers in a single phlebotomy event-84 samples total. Methods: Half of the samples were held stationary, while the other samples were flown for 3 hours (258 km) in a custom active cooling box mounted on the drone. After the flight, 19 chemistry and hematology tests were performed. Results: Seventeen analytes had small or no bias, but glucose and potassium in flown samples showed an 8% and 6...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983821/digital-humanitarians-how-big-data-is-changing-the-face-of-humanitarian-response-patrick-meier-2015-crc-press-boca-raton-fl-978-1-4822-4839-5-259-pp
#15
Anushree Dave
This is a review of Patrick Meier's 2015 book, Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. The book explores the role of technologies such as high-resolution satellite imagery, online social media, drones, and artificial intelligence in humanitarian responses during disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In this analysis, the book is examined using a humanitarian health ethics perspective.
October 5, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977020/age-specific-olfactory-attraction-between-western-honey-bee-drones-apis-mellifera-and-its-chemical-basis
#16
Florian Bastin, Fabrice Savarit, Grégory Lafon, Jean-Christophe Sandoz
During the mating season, drones (males) of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) form congregations numbering thousands high in the air. Virgin queens arrive at these congregations after they have formed and mate on the fly with 15-20 drones. To explain the formation of drone congregations, a drone-produced aggregation pheromone has been proposed many years ago but due to the low accessibility of natural mating sites in bees, its study has progressed slowly. Recently, we used a walking simulator in controlled laboratory conditions to show that drones are indeed attracted by groups of other drones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971063/nanoparticle-drones-to-target-lung-cancer-with-radiosensitizers-and-cannabinoids
#17
Wilfred Ngwa, Rajiv Kumar, Michele Moreau, Raymond Dabney, Allen Herman
Nanotechnology has opened up a new, previously unimaginable world in cancer diagnosis and therapy, leading to the emergence of cancer nanomedicine and nanoparticle-aided radiotherapy. Smart nanomaterials (nanoparticle drones) can now be constructed with capability to precisely target cancer cells and be remotely activated with radiation to emit micrometer-range missile-like electrons to destroy the tumor cells. These nanoparticle drones can also be programmed to deliver therapeutic payloads to tumor sites to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961204/3d-power-line-extraction-from-multiple-aerial-images
#18
Jaehong Oh, Changno Lee
Power lines are cables that carry electrical power from a power plant to an electrical substation. They must be connected between the tower structures in such a way that ensures minimum tension and sufficient clearance from the ground. Power lines can stretch and sag with the changing weather, eventually exceeding the planned tolerances. The excessive sags can then cause serious accidents, while hindering the durability of the power lines. We used photogrammetric techniques with a low-cost drone to achieve efficient 3D mapping of power lines that are often difficult to approach...
September 29, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928001/the-potential-use-of-unmanned-aircraft-systems-drones-in-mountain-search-and-rescue-operations
#19
Yunus Karaca, Mustafa Cicek, Ozgur Tatli, Aynur Sahin, Sinan Pasli, Muhammed Fatih Beser, Suleyman Turedi
OBJECTIVE: This study explores the potential use of drones in searching for and locating victims and of motorized transportation of search and rescue providers in a mountain environment using a simulation model. METHODS: This prospective randomized simulation study was performed in order to compare two different search and rescue techniques in searching for an unconscious victim on snow-covered ground. In the control arm, the Classical Line Search Technique (CLT) was used, in which the search is performed on foot and the victim is reached on foot...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916146/chinese-sacbrood-virus-infection-in-asian-honey-bees-apis-cerana-cerana-and-host-immune-responses-to-the-virus-infection
#20
Liu Shan, Wang Liuhao, Guo Jun, Tang Yujie, Chen Yanping, Wu Jie, Li Jilian
Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a positive-stranded RNAvirus that infects both the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the Asian honey bee (A. cerana). However, CSBV has much more devastating effects on Asian honey bees than on European honey bees, posing a serious threat to the agricultural and natural ecosystems that rely on A. cerana for pollination service. Using quantitative RT-PCR method, we conducted studies to examine the CSBV infection in Asian honey bee colonies and immune responses of individual bees in response to CSBV infection...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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