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Thomas V Vezeteu, Otilia Bobiş, Robin F A Moritz, Anja Buttstedt
Honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera) serve as attractive hosts for a variety of pathogens providing optimal temperatures, humidity, and an abundance of food. Thus, honeybees have to deal with pathogens throughout their lives and, even as larvae they are affected by severe brood diseases like the European Foulbrood caused by Melissococcus plutonius. Accordingly, it is highly adaptive that larval food jelly contains antibiotic compounds. However, although food jelly is primarily consumed by bee larvae, studies investigating the antibiotic effects of this jelly have largely concentrated on bacterial human diseases...
October 14, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
A Claesson, D Fredman, L Svensson, M Ringh, J Hollenberg, P Nordberg, M Rosenqvist, T Djarv, S Österberg, J Lennartsson, Y Ban
BACKGROUND: The use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) prior to EMS arrival can increase 30-day survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) significantly. Drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can fly with high velocity and potentially transport devices such as AEDs to the site of OHCAs. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate the feasibility of a drone system in decreasing response time and delivering an AED. METHODS: Data of Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates from historical OHCA in Stockholm County was used in a model using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to find suitable placements and visualize response times for the use of an AED equipped drone...
October 12, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Alice Tonazzini, Stefano Mintchev, Bryan Schubert, Barbara Mazzolai, Jun Shintake, Dario Floreano
A variable stiffness fiber made of silicone and low melting point alloys quickly becomes >700 times softer and >400 times more deformable when heated above 62 °C. It shows remarkable self-healing properties and can be clamped, knitted, and bonded, as shown in a foldable multi-purpose drone, a wearable cast for bone injuries, and a soft multi-directional actuator.
September 30, 2016: Advanced Materials
Mitchell B Cruzan, Ben G Weinstein, Monica R Grasty, Brendan F Kohrn, Elizabeth C Hendrickson, Tina M Arredondo, Pamela G Thompson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Low-elevation surveys with small aerial drones (micro-unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) may be used for a wide variety of applications in plant ecology, including mapping vegetation over small- to medium-sized regions. We provide an overview of methods and procedures for conducting surveys and illustrate some of these applications. METHODS: Aerial images were obtained by flying a small drone along transects over the area of interest. Images were used to create a composite image (orthomosaic) and a digital surface model (DSM)...
September 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
David S Marco Antonio, Klaus Hartfelder
Eye development in insects is best understood in Drosophila melanogaster, but little is known for other holometabolous insects. Combining a morphological with a gene expression analysis, we investigated eye development in the honeybee, putting emphasis on the sex-specific differences in eye size. Optic lobe development starts from an optic lobe anlage in the larval brain, which sequentially gives rise to the lobula, medulla, and lamina. The lamina differentiates in the last larval instar, when it receives optic nerve projections from the developing retina...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Amy Hocraffer, Chang S Nam
A meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the current state of research on human-system interfaces for users controlling semi-autonomous swarms composed of groups of drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV swarms pose several human factors challenges, such as high cognitive demands, non-intuitive behavior, and serious consequences for errors. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 27 UAV swarm management papers focused on the human-system interface and human factors concerns, providing an overview of the advantages, challenges, and limitations of current UAV management interfaces, as well as information on how these interfaces are currently evaluated...
January 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Esmaeil Amiri, Marina D Meixner, Per Kryger
Deformed wing virus is an important contributor to honey bee colony losses. Frequently queen failure is reported as a cause for colony loss. Here we examine whether sexual transmission during multiple matings of queens is a possible way of virus infection in queens. In an environment with high prevalence of deformed wing virus, queens (n = 30) were trapped upon their return from natural mating flights. The last drone's endophallus (n = 29), if present, was removed from the mated queens for deformed wing virus quantification, leading to the detection of high-level infection in 3 endophalli...
2016: Scientific Reports
Margaret McCaul, Jack Barland, John Cleary, Conor Cahalane, Tim McCarthy, Dermot Diamond
The ability to track the dynamics of processes in natural water bodies on a global scale, and at a resolution that enables highly localised behaviour to be visualized, is an ideal scenario for understanding how local events can influence the global environment. While advances in in-situ chem/bio-sensing continue to be reported, costs and reliability issues still inhibit the implementation of large-scale deployments. In contrast, physical parameters like surface temperature can be tracked on a global scale using satellite remote sensing, and locally at high resolution via flyovers and drones using multi-spectral imaging...
2016: Sensors
Guillaume Kairo, Bertille Provost, Sylvie Tchamitchian, Faten Ben Abdelkader, Marc Bonnet, Marianne Cousin, Jacques Sénéchal, Pauline Benet, André Kretzschmar, Luc P Belzunces, Jean-Luc Brunet
A species that requires sexual reproduction but cannot reproduce is doomed to extinction. The important increasing loss of species emphasizes the ecological significance of elucidating the effects of environmental stressors, such as pesticides, on reproduction. Despite its special reproductive behavior, the honey bee was selected as a relevant and integrative environmental model because of its constant and diverse exposure to many stressors due to foraging activity. The widely used insecticide Fipronil, the use of which is controversial because of its adverse effects on honey bees, was chosen to expose captive drones in hives via syrup contaminated at 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
Robert S Allison, Joshua M Johnston, Gregory Craig, Sion Jennings
For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing...
2016: Sensors
Timothy K Amukele, Jeff Street, Karen Carroll, Heather Miller, Sean X Zhang
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied.
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Hao Liu, Sridhar Ravi, Dmitry Kolomenskiy, Hiroto Tanaka
Insect- and bird-size drones-micro air vehicles (MAV) that can perform autonomous flight in natural and man-made environments are now an active and well-integrated research area. MAVs normally operate at a low speed in a Reynolds number regime of 10(4)-10(5) or lower, in which most flying animals of insects, birds and bats fly, and encounter unconventional challenges in generating sufficient aerodynamic forces to stay airborne and in controlling flight autonomy to achieve complex manoeuvres. Flying insects that power and control flight by flapping wings are capable of sophisticated aerodynamic force production and precise, agile manoeuvring, through an integrated system consisting of wings to generate aerodynamic force, muscles to move the wings and a control system to modulate power output from the muscles...
September 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Xue Guang Meng, Mao Sun
Here, we present a detailed analysis of the wing and body kinematics in drone-flies in free flight over a range of speeds from hovering to about 8.5 m s(-1). The kinematics was measured by high-speed video techniques. As the speed increased, the body angle decreased and the stroke plane angle increased; the wingbeat frequency changed little; the stroke amplitude first decreased and then increased; the ratio of the downstroke duration to the upstroke duration increased; the mean positional angle increased at lower speeds but changed little at speeds above 3 m s(-1)...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Ashley N Mortensen, James D Ellis
African honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) dramatically changed the South American beekeeping industry as they rapidly spread through the Americas following their introduction into Brazil. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the management of European-derived honey bees (A. mellifera sspp.) could reduce the relative abundance of African-matriline drones at regional mating sites known as drone congregation areas (DCAs). We collected 2,400 drones at six DCAs either 0.25 km or >2.8 km from managed European-derived honey bee apiaries...
2016: PloS One
Christina Vleurinck, Stephan Raub, David Sturgill, Brian Oliver, Martin Beye
Honeybees live in complex societies whose capabilities far exceed those of the sum of their single members. This social synergism is achieved mainly by the worker bees, which form a female caste. The worker bees display diverse collaborative behaviors and engage in different behavioral tasks, which are controlled by the central nervous system (CNS). The development of the worker brain is determined by the female sex and the worker caste determination signal. Here, we report on genes that are controlled by sex or by caste during differentiation of the worker's pupal brain...
2016: PloS One
Lars Straub, Laura Villamar-Bouza, Selina Bruckner, Panuwan Chantawannakul, Laurent Gauthier, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Gina Retschnig, Aline Troxler, Beatriz Vidondo, Peter Neumann, Geoffrey R Williams
There is clear evidence for sublethal effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on non-target ecosystem service-providing insects. However, their possible impact on male insect reproduction is currently unknown, despite the key role of sex. Here, we show that two neonicotinoids (4.5 ppb thiamethoxam and 1.5 ppb clothianidin) significantly reduce the reproductive capacity of male honeybees (drones), Apis mellifera Drones were obtained from colonies exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticides or controls, and subsequently maintained in laboratory cages until they reached sexual maturity...
July 27, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Marta Hryniewicka, Agnieszka Karpinska, Marta Kijewska, Monika Joanna Turkowicz, Joanna Karpinska
This study shows the results of application LC/MS/MS for assay of the content of α-tocopherol and coenzyme Q10 in bee products of animal origin, i.e. royal jelly, beebread and drone homogenate. The biological matrix was removed using extraction with n-hexane. It was found that drone homogenate is a rich source of coenzyme Q10 . It contains only 8 ± 1 µg/g of α-tocopherol and 20 ± 2 µg/g of coenzyme Q10 . The contents of assayed compounds in royal jelly were: 16 ± 3 µg /g and 8 ± 0...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Nadège Forfert, Myrsini E Natsopoulou, Robert J Paxton, Robin F A Moritz
Transmission among colonies is a central feature for the epidemiology of honey bee pathogens. High colony abundance may promote transmission among colonies independently of apiary layout, making colony abundance a potentially important parameter determining pathogen prevalence in populations of honey bees. To test this idea, we sampled male honey bees (drones) from seven distinct drone congregation areas (DCA), and used their genotypes to estimate colony abundance at each site. A multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA) was used to assess the prevalence of ten viruses, using five common viral targets, in individual drones...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Hongmei Li-Byarlay, Ming Hua Huang, Michael Simone-Finstrom, Micheline K Strand, David R Tarpy, Olav Rueppell
Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked; considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and typically covaries with life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether stress-resistant, long-lived individuals avoid, repair, or tolerate molecular damage to survive longer than others. The honey bee (Apis mellifera L...
October 2016: Experimental Gerontology
A W Baggaley
We investigate the stability of self-propelled particle flocks in the Taylor-Green vortex, a steady vortical flow. We consider a model in which particles align themselves to a combination of the orientation and the acceleration of particles within a critical radius. We identify two distinct regimes: If alignment with orientation is dominant, the particles tend to be expelled from regions of high vorticity. In contrast, if anticipation is dominant, the particles accumulate in areas of large vorticity. In both regimes, the relative order of the flock is reduced...
June 2016: Physical Review. E
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